 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 1036
 Authors : Jaina George, S.Bhavani, Dr.J.Jaya
 Paper ID : IJERTV2IS2067
 Volume & Issue : Volume 02, Issue 02 (February 2013)
 Published (First Online): 28022013
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Certain Explorations On Removal Of Rain Streaks Using Morphological Component Analysis
Jaina George1, S.Bhavani2, Dr.J.Jaya3

PG Scholar, Sri.Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

Head of the Department/ECE, Sri.Shakthi Institute of Engg and Tech, Coimbatore

Principal, Akshaya College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore.
Abstract
Rain is a complex dynamic noise that hampers feature detection and extraction from images. The visual effects of rain are complex and degrades the performance of outdoor vision system. In this work, we propose a singleimage based rain removal framework by formulating rain removal as image decomposition problem using morphological component analysis. Instead of applying a conventional image decomposition technique, the proposed method will initially smoothen the image using bilateral filter and then splits the image into Low Frequency and High Frequency components. The high frequency portions then undergo Morphological Component Analysis. High frequency portions are decomposed into rain component and nonrain component based on patch extraction, dictionary learning and dictionary partitioning. As a result, the rain component can be successfully removed from the image while preserving most of the original image details.
Keywords Morphological Component Analysis, High frequency, Image Decomposition Technique , Dictionary learning, Dictionary partitioning.

Introduction
The visual effects of rain are complex. Now a day, outdoor visionbased detection systems are used for various applications. Most of the times these systems are designed to work in clear weather condition which is obviously not always the case.
Fig 1:Block diagram of the proposed rain streak removal method.
Different weather conditions such as rain, snow or fog will cause complex visual effects of spatial or temporal domains in images. Such effects may significantly degrade the performances of outdoor vision systems. In a scene, rain produces a complex set of visual effects. Due to high speed of rain falling, it is usually impossible to distinguish each raindrop by a camera. Except when using very high speed camera, raindrops appear as streaks (or ripples).
Dynamic weather effects such as rain cause rapid, distracting motion in a video in a video sequence. If these streaks are removed, then the tracker can work with greater accuracy.

FILTERING
Filteringis perhaps the most fundamental operation of image processing and computer vision. In the broadest sense of the term filtering, the value of the filtered image at a given location is a function of the values of the input image in a small neighbourhood of the same location. In a wide variety of image processing applications, it is necessary to smooth an image while preserving its edges. The gray levels often overlap that makes any postprocessing task such as segmentation, feature extraction and labelling more difficult. Filtering is perhaps the most fundamental operation in many biomedical image processing applications, where it reduces the noise level and improves the quality of the image. In general, the problem of how to select a suitable denoising algorithm is dependent on the specific targeted application.

BILATERAL FILTERING
A bilateral filter is an edgepreserving and noise reducing smoothing filter. Bilateral filtering is a nonlinear filtering technique.It extends the concept of Gaussian smoothing by weighting the filter coefficients with their corresponding relative pixel intensities. This weight is based on Gaussian distribution. Pixels that are very different in intensity from the central pixel are weighted less even though they may be in close proximity to the central pixel. This is effectively a convolution with a nonlinear Gaussian filter, with weights based on pixel intensities. This is applied as two Gaussian filters at a localized pixel neighbourhood, one in the spatial domain, named the domain filter, and one in the intensity domain, named range filter. Bilateral filters assume an explicit notion of distance in the domain and range of the image function; they can be applied to any function for which these two distances can be defined. It replaces the pixel value with an average of similar and nearby pixel values.This preserves sharp edges by systematically looping through each pixel and according weights to the adjacent pixels accordingly.

Range Filter
Range filters are nonlinear because their weights depend on image intensity. Range filter measures the photometric similarity between the pixels at the neighbourhood center. Range filters are contrast dependent. Coefficients will be assigned for each pixel.
The original brightness functions of an image which maps the coordinates of a pixel (x, y) to a value in light intensity. Then for any given pixel a at (x, y) within a neighborhood of size n, which has a0 as its centre, its coefficient assigned by the range filter r (a) is determined by the following function:
[f a 1 f a 0 ]i p
i p
r a = e 2 2

Domain Filter
Domain filters works in spatial domain. It is size dependent. Domain measures the geometric closeness between the neighbourhood centers in the image. Domain filtering based upon possible image locations.
Similarly, coefficient assigned by the domain filter g (a) is determined by the closeness function.
x 2+y 2
g x, y; t = e 2t
Where t is the scale parameter.



DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM (DWT)
Wavelet transform has received considerable attention in the field of image processing due to its flexibility in representing nonstationary image signals and its ability in adapting to human visual characteristics. Wavelet transform are most powerful and the most widely used tool in the field of image processing. Their inherent capacity for multi resolution representation to the operation of human visual system motivated a quick adoption and widespread use of wavelets in image processing applications.
Discrete wavelet transform is any wavelet transform for which the wavelets are discretely sampled. As with other wavelet transforms, a key advantage it has over Fourier transform is temporal resolution: it captures both frequency and time information.
DWT is obtained by filtering the signal through a series of digital filters at different scales. The scaling operation is done by changing the resolution of the signal by the process of sub sampling. Input image is decomposed into low pass and high pass subbands. Each consisting of half the number of samples in the original image.
In our method, the filtered rain image is first roughly decomposed into the lowfrequency (LF) part and the highfrequency (HF) part using the
discrete wavelet transform, where the most basic information will be retained in the LF part while the rain streaks and the other edge/texture information will be included in the HF part of the image.


MORPHOLOGICAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS
The key idea of MCA is to utilize the morphological diversity of different features contained in the data to be decomposed and to associate each morphological component to a dictionary of atoms. Here the conventional MCA based image decomposition approaches, sparse coding, dictionary learning and dictionary partitioning techniques are briefly introduced. A method called Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) has been proposed to separate the textue from the natural part in images. MCA relies on an iterative thresholding algorithm, using a threshold which decreases linearly towards zero along the iterations.
Sparse representations of signals have drawn considerable interest in recent years. The assumption that natural signals, such images admit a sparse decomposition over a redundant dictionary leads to efficient algorithms for handling such sources of data. Sparse coding is a technique of finding a sparse representation for a signal with a small number of nonzero or significant coefficients corresponding to the atoms in a dictionary.

Dictionary Learning
In this step, we extract from IHF a set of overlapping patches as the training exemplars yk for learning dictionary DHF. We formulate the dictionary learning problem as,

Dictionary Partitioning
The atoms constituting DHFcan be roughly divided into two clusters (subdictionaries) for representing the geometric and rain components of IHF. Intuitively, the most significant feature of a rain atom can be extracted via image gradient. In the proposed method, the HOG descriptor is used to describe each atom in DHF.

Histogram of Gradient
The basic idea of HOG is that local object appearance and shape can be usually well characterized by the distribution of local intensity gradients or edge directions, without precisely knowing the corresponding gradient or edge positions to extract the HOG feature from an image. The image can be divided into several small spatial regions or cells. For each cell, a local 1D histogram of gradient directions or edge orientations over the pixels of the cell can be accumulated. The combined histogram entries of all cells from the HOG representation of the image.In our implementation, the size of a local image patch/dictionary atom is chosen to be 16×16, which leads to reasonable computational cost in dictionary partition (involving HOG feature extraction).

KMeans Clustering
After extracting the HOG feature for each atom in DHF , we then apply the Kmeans algorithm to classify all of the atoms in DHF into two clusters D1 and D2 based on their HOG feature descriptors. The procedure is to identify which cluster consists of rain atoms and which cluster consists of geometric or nonrain atoms. First, we calculate the variance of
min
P
1 (1
yk DHF k 2
gradient direction for each atom in clusters. Then we
calculate the mean for each cluster. Based on the fact
DHF
RnÃ—m , kRm P
2
k=1
2
+ k 1)
that the edge directions of rain streaks in an atom are usually consistent, i.e., the variance of gradient direction for a rain atom should be small, we identify
Where k denotes the sparse coefficients of yk with respect to DHF, and is a regularization parameter.
We find that the atoms constituting DHFcan be roughly divided into two clusters (sub dictionaries) for representing the geometric and rain components of IHF. Intuitively, the most significant feature of a rain atom can be extracted via image gradient. In the proposed method, we uses the HOG descriptor to describe each atom in DHF.
the cluster with the smaller as rain subdictionary and the other one as geometric(nonrain sub dictionary).

Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP)


Matching pursuit is a type of numerical technique which involves finding the best matching projections of multidimensional data onto an over complete dictionary. Given a fixed dictionary, matching pursuit will first find the one atom that has the biggest inner product with the signal, and then subtract the contribution due to that atom, and repeat
the process until the signal is satisfactorily decomposed. The main difference from MP is that after every step, all the coefficients extracted so far are updated, by computing the orthogonal projection of the signal onto the set of atoms selected so far.
5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The step by step results of proposed rain streaks removal process based up on dictionary learning and dictionary portioning based upon morphological component analysis are shown below.
(a)
(b) (c)

(e)
(f)
Fig 2: Stepbystep results of the proposed rain streak removal process: (a) original image; (b) lower part of the image; (c) HF part of the image; (d) rain pixels;

dictionary trained on patches from images; (f) noiseless image
PSNR VALUE (BEFORE PROCESSING) 
PSNR VALUE (AFTER PROCESSING) 
6.5669 dB 
20.4826 dB 
Table 7.1 PSNR value
MSE (BEFORE PROCESSING) 
MSE (AFTER PROCSSING) 
2761.62 
585.7467 
Table 7.1 MSE value
6 CONCLUSION
Inthis paper, a single image based rain streak removal framework by formulating rain removal as an MCAbased image decomposition problem solved by performing dictionary learning, dictionary partitioning and sparse coding algorithms.The
dictionary learning of the proposed method is automatic and selfcontained, where no extra training samples is required in the dictionary learning stage. Our experimental results show that the proposed scheme can effectively remove rain streaks without significantly blurring the original image. Peak signal to noise ratio of the rain streaks removed image is much better compared with the original image.
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