Cauvery Water Policy Plan for Sustainable Agricultural and Domestic Usage

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Cauvery Water Policy Plan for Sustainable Agricultural and Domestic Usage

Aishwarya B School of Civil Engineering

SASTRA Deemed University Thanjavur, India

Geethapriya S School of Civil Engineering SASTRA Deemed University

Thanjavur, India

Dr.C R Suribabu School of Civil Engineering SASTRA Deemed University

Thanjavur, India

Abstract – Cauvery River is the basic as well as major resource for water supply in central Tamil Nadu. The sharing of waters of Cauvery River has been the source of a serious conflict between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. 30- year hydrological, agricultural and irrigational data of the Cauvery basin have been used in this study. This dissertation explores on the technical and practical reasons behind unsatisfactory water sharing among the stakeholders in disagreement. Relevant data is collected from various central and state government surveys and projects. Net irrigation requirement and the percentage of net area irrigated to net area sown are the parameters for agricultural demand and supply correlation. Population growth has been forecasted for the year 2017 for all three districts and thereby demand is calculated. Domestic supply is found out from the norms given separately for each state according to their demography. Difference between supply and demand for each district, consuming water from Cauvery River on the aspect of agricultural and domestic usage is determined and corresponding graphs plotted. Culturable Command Area and Potential created are

the attributes for efficiency of irrigation project. Efficiency of major irrigation projects in Cauvery basin are compared state-wise in order to check for improvement. Groundwater exploitation is analyzed for Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to derive an efficacious supply arrangement. Particular focus is supplemented for groundwater usage of Tamil Nadu with district-wise comparison on the basis of exploitation level. The flood discharge at Coleroon due to Kerala floods on August 2018 is studied to suggest a flood simulation model and ideas for storing excess flow. The suggestions provided will be a useful asset for the resolution of dispute and stakeholders and may engrain better understanding of the water resources scenario in the basin. This report will be a utilitarian for management of water sector in the basin.

Keywords – Net Irrigation Requirement, Population Forecast, Performance Efficiency, Groundwater Exploitation, Trapezoidal method, Flow Simulation Model

  1. INTRODUCTION

    1. General

      Cauvery, also referred as Ponni, is an Indian river flowing through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

      It is the third largest river, after Godavari and Krishna in South India and the largest in Tamil Nadu which on its course, bisects the state into North and South. Originating in the foothills of Western Ghats at Talacauvery, Kodagu in Karnataka, it flows generally South and East through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and across the southern Deccan plateau through the southeastern lowlands, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths in Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu. Amongst the river valleys, the Cauvery delta forms one of the most fertile regions in the country.

      The Cauvery basin is estimated to be 81,155 square kilometers with many tributaries including Harangi, Hemavati, Kabini, Bhavani, Arkavat hy, Lakshmanatirtha, Noyyal and Arkavati. The river's basin covers three states and a Union Territory as follows: Tamil Nadu, 43,856 square kilometres; Karnataka, 34,273 square kilometres; Kerala, 2,866 square kilometres and Puducherry, 160 square kilometres. Rising in southwestern Karnataka, it flows southeast some 800 kilometres to enter the Bay of Bengal. In Mandya district it forms the island of Shivanasamudra, on either side of which are the scenic Shivanasamudra Falls that descend about 100 meters (330 ft). The river is the source for an extensive irrigation system and for hydroelectric power. The river has supported irrigated agriculture for centuries and served as the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India. Access to the river's waters has pitted Indian states against each other for decades.

    2. Timeline of the Dispute

      The Cauvery water dispute is 123 years old. Here is a timeline of events leading to the recent verdict:

      1892: Cauvery river water dispute starts between Madras Presidency (under the British rule) and the Princely state of Mysore. Madras disagrees to Mysore administrations proposal to build irrigation systems, arguing that it would impede water flow into Tamil Nadu.

      1913-1916: Mysore government writes to Madras Presidency, seeking permission to build a reservoir,

      Published by : http://www.ijert.org

      leading to a dispute that ends with the arbitrator giving Mysore permission to construct a dam up to 11 tmc ft. The verdict is challenged.

      1924: The dispute comes close to being resolved when Mysore and Madras reach an agreement under which Mysore is allowed to build a dam at Kannambadi village. The agreement is to be valid for 50 years and reviewed thereafter. Based on this agreement, Karnataka builds the Krishnaraja Sagar dam.

      1929: An agreement is reached, meant to clarify the 1924 agreement allowing the construction of the Krishnaraja Sagar dam in Mysore and to specify exactly how much water would be released to Madras. Krishnaraja dam becomes functional in 1931 and the Mettur dam in 1934.

      1974: The 1924 water sharing agreement between then Madras Presidency and Princely State of Mysore (now Tamil Nadu and Karnataka) lapses after expiration of its term of 50 years.

      1986: Tamil Nadu approaches the center for setting up a tribunal for disputes arising out of Cauvery water sharing.

      2 June 1990: A CWDT, headed by Justice Chittatosh Mookerjee, set up under the center after the Supreme Courts direction.

      25 June 1991: CWDT passes an interim award asking Karnataka to release 205 tmc ft of water to Tamil Nadu every year. It also directed Karnataka not to increase its irrigated land area from the existing 1,120,000 acres (around 4,500 km).

      As a result, there was widespread dissatisfaction and violence in the two states.

      11 December 1991: CWDTs interim award notified by the center after the Supreme Court struck down an ordinance issued by Karnataka and upheld the award.

      August 1998: The CRA constituted by the center for the implementation of the interim award of the CWDT. September 2002: The CRA directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs per day of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu. The body was presided over by then prime minister Atal

      Bihari Vajpayee

      5 February 2007: CWDT passes the final award and allotted 30 tmc to Kerala, 270 tmc to Karnataka, 419 tmc to Tamil Nadu and 7 tmc to Puducherry. Additionally, 14 tmc was reserved for environmental inevitable escapades into the sea.

      19 February 2013: The center notifies the final award of the CWDT, on the direction of the Supreme Court.

      19 March 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court, seeking directions to the water ministry for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.

      28 May 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court, seeking Rs2,480 crores in damages from Karnataka for not following the orders of the CWDT.

      26 June 2013: Tamil Nadu moves SC for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.

      22 August 2016: Tamil Nadu files petition in the Supreme Court, seeking direction to the state of Karnataka to release water to Tamil Nadu.

      6 September 2016: SC directs Kanataka to release 15,000 cusecs a day till 15 September. Karnataka released 10,000 cusecs of water from the Krishna Raja

      International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

      ISSN: 2278-0181

      Vol. 10 Issue 04, April-2021

      Sagar dam to Tamil Nadu. State witnesses widespread unrest.

      12 September 2016: Supreme Court modifies direction, asks Karnataka to release 12,000 cusecs a day till 20 September instead of the earlier 15,000 cusecs per day till 16 September.

      20 September 2017: Bench comprising CJI Dipak Misra and justices A.M. Khanwilkar and Amitava Roy reserve verdict in the Cauvery water dispute between the two neighboring states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

      February 16, 2018: Supreme Court reduces the allocation of Cauvery water from Karnataka to Tamil Nadu. The apex court directed the Karnataka government to release

      177.25 tmc ft of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu from its inter-state Biligundlu dam. The judgment clarified that Karnataka will now have an enhanced share of 14.75 tmc ft water per year while Tamil Nadu will get 404.25 tmc ft, which will be 14.75 tmc ft less than what was allotted by the tribunal in 2007.

    3. Drawbacks of Present Scheme

      The present scheme is not a basin organization integrated with land management, drought or flood management activities in the Cauvery basin. Rather, it focuses only on the dispute resolution over water sharing. The scheme consists of two levels of authorities. The Cauvery Water Management Authority (CWMA) at the highest level comprising temporary and permanent members of all the basin states and the Union government. It is headed by an eminent engineer or a member of the Indian Administrative Service. As its technical arm, another authority below CWMA, namely the CWRC, has been constituted to verify the factual positionsof reservoir storage, cropping patterns in the basin, inflows and outflows of reservoirsso as to aid and advise CWMA to take appropriate decision on distress sharing formula and water sharing every year.

      The scheme has no authority in the Cauvery basin like control over the dams, the reservoir inflows, outflows and their storage position in the Cauvery basin. It is dependent on states for data/information and has to act in accordance with the information provided by the basin states on inflows and outflows of 11 reservoirs. It has no mechanism to verify the data/information for its authenticity due to which the dispute can resurrect any time.

      The scheme has no scope for environmentalists, ecologists and social scientists. The scheme does not have groundwater specialists and it has no authority to restrict programs that divert the water through the recharge of groundwater. So, another opportunity has been lost to create multi-disciplinary basin organization. In fact, the engineering fraternity should have told the legal fraternity to create an institution in line with what has been declared in the national water policies.

      During a normal or above normal rainfall year, there would be no need for this scheme. But the real test of the scheme would lie in a rainfall deficient yearwhen a distress sharing formula would require much more than just techno-bureaucrats. Therefore, the scheme is poised for failure, leading to a repeat of the cycles of dispute witnessed in the past 150 years. If the scheme isnt

      revamped, it may threaten the very federal fabric of the nation.

    4. Need for Water Policy Plan

      Many cities in developed countries like London, Melbourne etc. resort to implementing judicious water use policy for the public that is implemented strictly by the state and the general public. This reduces wastage of water in tough times and ensures ample amount of water is available for everyone.

      In the context of the Cauvery water dispute, research by Indiaspend.org reveals that Karnatakas state capital Bangalore uses nearly half the amount of water from Cauvery designated for domestic use in the state. The research also shows that almost half of that water is wasted in distribution losses and wastage by individuals leading to a shortage. At least 8.5 million people live in the third-most populated city in India with 8.65 lakh water connections but they only receive 65 liters of water per day on average. In comparison, Bengaluru comes second to Kolkata which tops the water-wasting cities list.

      Cauvery water dispute has led to an extended tussle between states in India reaching legal blockades. Water sharing, a much-disputed issue in the country warrants a relook. As a fresh outlook, India can take a cue from successful management of water sharing from across the borders. As such, till the Center remains the sole advisor, interstate disputes are not likely to be resolved easily. A longer-term solution lies in a holistic economic-Eco systemic-institutional approach.

    5. Objectives

      The main objectives of the study are:

      1. To analyze the Hydrological data of Cauvery basin.

      2. To study the agricultural activities relaying on Cauvery river.

      3. To estimate the domestic water consumption for areas depending on Cauvery water supply.

      4. To evaluate the performance of Irrigation projects in Cauvery basin.

      5. To develop suggestions for equitable and fair distribution of Cauvery waters for sustainable agricultural and domestic purposes among Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala.

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW

    This chapter presents the background to the methodology adopted and source for data and maps used for analysis. The available published literature on agriculture, irrigation projects, groundwater and domestic usage is also briefly reviewed.

    Dynamic Groundwater Resources of India, 2011-15: Level of usage of groundwater and the regulated usage for sustenance was given. The intensity of exploitation of groundwater by Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka were compared year-wise. Ways of managing ground water resources were discussed. On the basis of assessment,

    benchmarking was done for ranking embezzlement of ground water resources and categorized into safe, semi- critical, critical and over-exploited.

    Cauvery Basin, Ministry of Water Resources, 2014: This report provides valuable information related to the topography, demography, climate, surface water resources, hydro-meteorology, tributaries, watersheds, irrigation projects, dams and canals and land use characteristics. The inference analyzed the proposal of inter-linking of rivers- Somasila-Grand Anicut Link and Cauvery(kattalai) and Vaigai-Gundar Link.

    Integrated Hydrological Data Book, 2017: This journal reviews on storage capacity of Cauvery basin and its salient features. Flow of water by season and site was recorded and probed on. Maximum and minimum observation water levels were surveyed. Land utilization pattern was derived and net area irrigated by sources from Cauvery basin was dissected district-wise.

    Agricultural Change and Irrigation Problem in the Cauvery Delta, 2006: Field level irrigation management changes for the past decade was studied and concluded with censures in existing irrigation pattern. Water requirement for different types of rice cultivation was assessed which was beneficial in calculating net irrigation requirement of major crops grown in Cauvery basin.

  3. STUDY AREA

    The basin covers major part of peninsular India, spreads over states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Union Territory of Puducherry which is nearly 2.7% of the total geographical area of the country. It extends over an area of 85,626.23 Sq. km with a maximum length and width of 560 km and 245 km, respectively and lies between 75°27E to 79°54E and 10°9N to 13°30N. It is

    bounded by the Western Ghats on the west, by the Eastern Ghats on the east & the south and by the ridges separating it from Krishna basin and Pennar basin on the north. The basin constitutes of 3 sub-basins namely Cauvery Upper, Cauvery Middle and Cauvery Lwer sub-basin. There are 132 watersheds, each of which represents a different tributary system for size ranging from 362 Sq. km to 991 Sq. km with maximum number of watersheds falling in Cauvery Middle Sub-basin. On the basis of the 2011 Census, the total population in this basin is about 3,18,89,280. Cauvery River which is the main river in this basin rises at Talakaveri on the Brahmagiri range in the Western Ghats in Karnataka at an elevation of about 1341 m and flows for about 800 km before its outfall into the Bay of Bengal. The important tributaries joining the Cauvery are Harangi, Hemavathi, Kabini, Suvarnavathi and Bhavani. In the Cauvery basin, four distinct seasons occur. They are winter, summer, south-west monsoon, and north-east monsoon season in this basin. The basin is mainly influenced by South-West monsoon in the Karnataka & Kerala and North-East monsoon in Tamil Nadu. Rainfall in the delta area is of the order of 1000 mm annually.

    The basin has a tropical and sub-tropical climate. In the upper reaches which include Kerala and Karnataka, the variation in temperature is minimal. The mean monthly temperature over the basin varies from 22.98° C to

    28.43° C. Around 21 land use classes exist in the basin. Agricultural land is dominant in this basin having an area of 53736.30 sq. km. (66.21%) followed by 16636.66 sq. km. of forest area (20.50%). The entire basin falls in three agro-climatic zones which include west coast plains and ghat region, east coast plain and hill region and southern plateau and hills region. Out of these, large portion of the basin consists of southern plateau and hills region.

    There are around 42642 surface water bodies available in the basin. Number of reservoirs falling in the basin are 101; a large number of lakes comprising of 10692 are also present in the basin area whereas 30739 tanks are also present. There are about 29 major and medium

    irrigation projects in Karnataka and 25 major and medium irrigation projects in Tamil Nadu. There are 15 major hydroelectric projects with 24 power houses available in the basin. Number of dams falling in this basin are 96 whereas 10 barrage and 16 anicuts or weirs have been constructed in the basin. The utilizable surface water resource for the basin is 19 BCM. The Average Annual Runoff and Average Annual Water Potential in the basin are same as 21.36 BCM.

    Fig. 1 Map of Cauvery Basin

    1. General

  4. METHODOLOGY

    • Exploration of agricultural activities of each district in Cauvery basin utilizing the surface water in a significant amount.

    • Comparison of supply and demand of irrigation

      The step-by-step procedure followed for the analysis is as follows:

      • Data collection from central and state water resource development websites and chronicles.

        for the major crops.

    • Calculation of domestic water usage demand of

      each district where the supply also includes that from Cauvery River.

      • Comparison of supply and demand in the domestic water usage.

      • Estimation of performance efficiency of major irrigation projects in the Cauvery basin.

      • Assessment of groundwater exploitation by each district coming under Cauvery basin.

      • Analysis of Coleroon discharge during Kerala Floods in August, 2018.

      • Reconnoitering the results and coming up with potential suggestions for improvement in the present condition of water sharing by Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

    1. Procedure for Agricultural Usage Analysis

      1. Calculation of effective rainfall as per definition given by Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation in 1986.

        TABLE I. FORMULA FOR CALCULATION OF EFFECTIVE RAINFALL IN MM

        EF is the Effective Rainfall of the selected month in mm.

        1. Calculation of irrigation demand for the whole district by multiplying total net irrigation requirement for a specific crop throughout its growth period, by area sown in hectares.

        2. Calculation of irrigation supply to the district by multiplying total net irrigation requirement with the percentage of area irrigated suitably.

        3. Graph is plotted by comparing irrigation supply and demand for each district of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

    2. Procedure for Domestic Usage Analysis

      1. Forecasting of Population of 2017 from Census data of 1991, 2001 and 2011 using Geometrical Mean method is done for each district utilizing water supply from Cauvery River.

        = (12 + 22 ) (4)

        Monthly Rainfall in mm (x)

        Effective Rainfall in mm (y)

        If x<10

        y = 0

        If 10<x<51

        y = 0.0082×2 + 0.0121x 0.5

        If x>51

        y = 0.7944x-23.938

        Monthly Rainfall in mm (x)

        Effective Rainfall in mm (y)

        If x<10

        y = 0

        If 10<x<51

        y = 0.0082×2 + 0.0121x 0.5

        If x>51

        y = 0.7944x-23.938

        P=Po*(1+r) (5)

        Where,

      2. Calculation of potential Evapotranspiration of the reference crop grown at the selected district using collected data particularly latitude and atmospheric conditions by Blaney-Criddle Equation.

        ETo = p *(0.457 Tmean + 8.128) (1)

        Where,

        ETo is the reference evapotranspiration [mm/day] (monthly)

        Tmean is the mean daily temperature [°C] p is the mean daily percentage of annual

        daytime hours.

      3. Calculation of Consumptive use of the reference crop using their specific crop factor.

        Cu=ETo*Kc (2)

        Where,

        Cu is the monthly consumptive use in mm/day

        Kc is the crop factor.

      4. Calculation of monthly net irrigation requirement of the crop without considering leaching requisite and after multiplying both the parameters by days of the picked month.

        NIR=CuEF (3)

        Where,

        NIR is the Net Irrigation Requirement in

        mm

        Cu is the Consumptive Use in mm for the full month in mm

        P is the Population Forecast for 2017 Po is the Population of 2011

        n is the number of decades ((2017-2011)/10 = 0.6)

        r1 and r2 are the decadal growth rates between 1991-2001 and 2001-2011 respectively

        r is the root mean square value of overall growth rate within 1991-2011.

        1. Calculation of daily domestic usage demand for a district by multiplying projected population by 135 litres per capita per day standard. Domestic usage demand is estimated in litres for a day district-wise for Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

        2. Calculation of daily domestic water supply for a district by multiplying projected population with the allocated value by the state government which differs with each constituency according to its demography and urbanization state. Domestic supply is estimated in litres for a day district-wise for Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

        3. Comparison of domestic supply and usage demand by plotting a graph representing all the districts for Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

    3. Procedure for Irrigation Project Efficiency Analysis

      1. Comparison of Culturable Command Area and Potential Area created for each irrigation project of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka coming under Cauvery basin.

      2. Graph is plotted for major irrigation projects by comparing both the parameters for each state

        DISTRICT

        JUL

        AUG

        SEPT

        OCT

        NOV

        DEC

        Thanjavur

        19.75

        59.47

        76.16

        107.14

        121

        67.42

        Nagpattinam

        26.19

        39.38

        52.72

        174.03

        309

        202.7

        Tiruchirapalli

        3.88

        49.38

        29.37

        90.61

        84.6

        29.92

        Cuddalore

        27.69

        55.42

        63.6

        213.51

        265

        80.53

        Erode

        20.6

        39.61

        37.23

        111.9

        46

        15.18

        Salem

        61.86

        87.75

        116.3

        123.42

        63.6

        9.97

        Namakkal

        22.93

        53.12

        54.71

        122.23

        46.8

        13.1

        Dharmapuri

        31.67

        57.88

        92.84

        126.99

        57.9

        11.17

        Tiruppur

        30.54

        56.47

        91.46

        127.18

        53.44

        14.96

        Dindigul

        8.83

        26.9

        43.58

        119.05

        71.4

        29.29

        Coimbatore

        4.35

        12.05

        12.77

        84.82

        49.3

        3.51

        Theni

        19.75

        17.41

        41.2

        137.32

        93.6

        26.11

        Pudukottai

        17.41

        21.45

        14.47

        1.28

        0.83

        4.12

        Villupuram

        39.61

        94.43

        83.31

        152.42

        148

        63.45

        The Nilgris

        269.2

        185.8

        114.3

        176.25

        105

        30.7

        DISTRICT

        JUL

        AUG

        SEPT

        OCT

        NOV

        DEC

        Thanjavur

        19.75

        59.47

        76.16

        107.14

        121

        67.42

        Nagapattinam

        26.19

        39.38

        52.72

        174.03

        309

        202.7

        Tiruchirapalli

        3.88

        49.38

        29.37

        90.61

        84.6

        29.92

        Cuddalore

        27.69

        55.42

        63.6

        213.51

        265

        80.53

        Erode

        20.6

        39.61

        37.23

        111.9

        46

        15.18

        Salem

        61.86

        87.75

        116.3

        123.42

        63.6

        9.97

        Namakkal

        22.93

        53.12

        54.71

        122.23

        46.8

        13.1

        Dharmapuri

        31.67

        57.88

        92.84

        126.99

        57.9

        11.17

        Tiruppur

        30.54

        56.47

        91.46

        127.18

        53.44

        14.96

        Dindigul

        8.83

        26.9

        43.58

        119.05

        71.4

        29.29

        Coimbatore

        4.35

        12.05

        12.77

        84.82

        49.3

        3.51

        Theni

        19.75

        17.41

        41.2

        137.32

        93.6

        26.11

        Pudukottai

        17.41

        21.45

        14.47

        1.28

        0.83

        4.12

        Villupuram

        39.61

        94.43

        83.31

        152.42

        148

        63.45

        The Nilgris

        269.2

        185.8

        114.3

        176.25

        105

        30.7

    4. Procedure for Ground Water Usage Analysis for Tamil NaNduet Usable Availability and Current Usage

      TABLE III. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY EFFECTIVE RAINFALL IN MM OF TAMIL NADU (JUL-DEC)

      values are obtained from Annual Dynamic

      1. Ground Water Resources Chronicle released by

        Graph is plotted comprising districts of Tamil Ministry of Water Resources.

      2. Each district is evaluated and categorized into 4

        Nadu coming under Cauvery Basin. – 3. –

        categories based on the level of exploitation

        Safe, Semi-critical, Critical and Over Exploited.

    5. ProceduCroellfeocrtiCoonleorfoodniscDhiasrcghearrgeeadAinngaslyfsrios m Upper

      1. Anicut at periodic time instances from daily

        n

        n

        etermination of time intervals according to ewspaper, The Hindu.

      2. D

        Estimation of average discharge for each the availability of data.

      3. Calculation of volume of water released into interval using Trapezoidal Method.

      4. the Coleroon by multiplying average discharge

    In the same fashion, discharge analysis of by respective time interval.

    5.

    Mettur dam is also carried out.

    DISTRICT

    JAN

    FEB

    MAR

    APR

    MAY

    JUN

    Mysore

    0

    0

    0

    18.18

    76.95

    11.8

    Chamrajanagar

    0

    0

    0

    19.75

    93.63

    8.28

    Mandya

    0

    0

    0

    16.65

    80.13

    20.61

    Bengaluru

    0

    0

    0

    10.56

    52.32

    30.08

    Tumkur

    0

    0

    0

    8.28

    32.46

    17.37

    Hassan

    0

    0

    0

    22.14

    53.12

    42.79

    Chikmagalur

    0

    0

    1.64

    24.52

    65.03

    76.95

    Kodagu

    0

    0

    1.79

    59.47

    121.4

    326.4

    DISTRICT

    JAN

    FEB

    MAR

    APR

    MAY

    JUN

    Mysore

    0

    0

    0

    18.18

    76.95

    11.8

    Chamrajanagar

    0

    0

    0

    19.75

    93.63

    8.28

    Mandya

    0

    0

    0

    16.65

    80.13

    20.61

    Bengaluru

    0

    0

    0

    10.56

    52.32

    30.08

    Tumur

    0

    0

    0

    8.28

    32.46

    17.37

    Hassan

    0

    0

    0

    22.14

    53.12

    42.79

    Chikmagalur

    0

    0

    1.64

    24.52

    65.03

    76.95

    Kodagu

    0

    0

    1.79

    59.47

    121.4

    326.4

    TABLE IV. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY EFFECTIVE RAINFALL IN MM OF KARNATAKA (JAN-JUN)

  5. CALCULATIONS AND OBSERVATIONS

  1. Annual Agricultural Water Need Analysis

    The

    monthly effective rainfall was calculated for each district

    1. Calculation of Effective Rainfall district-wise –

      by using its mean monthly rainfall.

      DISTRICT

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Thanjavur

      8.83

      1.04

      1.53

      8.28

      19.75

      15.18

      Nagapattinam

      7.19

      1.9

      3.06

      4.16

      14.4

      20.03

      Tiruchirapalli

      0

      0

      2.92

      8.5

      30.48

      8.88

      Cuddalore

      4.31

      0

      2.79

      0.99

      10.56

      14.61

      Erode

      0

      1.04

      0.83

      18.18

      41.2

      6.27

      Salem

      0

      0

      2.16

      20.15

      63.26

      33.58

      Namakkal

      0

      0

      0

      15.91

      45.97

      11.7

      Dharmapuri

      0.63

      0

      0

      10.56

      58.68

      22.93

      Tiruppur

      0.71

      0

      0

      10.56

      56.54

      21.83

      Dindigul

      2.37

      0.83

      0.63

      20.6

      20.6

      5.8

      Coimbatore

      0

      0

      1.04

      7.24

      25.47

      6.08

      Theni

      1.79

      3.74

      16.65

      44.38

      30.87

      9.39

      Pudukottai

      53.91

      79.33

      112.69

      69.01

      73.77

      41.2

      Villupuram

      3.02

      0

      0

      1.79

      13.1

      16.65

      The Nilgris

      4.51

      3.02

      11.17

      62.65

      1.79

      139.71

      DISTRICT

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Thanjavur

      8.83

      1.04

      1.53

      8.28

      19.75

      15.18

      Nagapattinam

      7.19

      1.9

      3.06

      4.16

      14.4

      20.03

      Tiruchirapalli

      0

      0

      2.92

      8.5

      30.48

      8.88

      Cuddalore

      4.31

      0

      2.79

      0.99

      10.56

      14.61

      Erode

      0

      1.04

      0.83

      18.18

      41.2

      6.27

      Salem

      0

      0

      2.16

      20.15

      63.26

      33.58

      Namakkal

      0

      0

      0

      15.91

      45.97

      11.7

      Dharmapuri

      0.63

      0

      0

      10.56

      58.68

      22.93

      Tiruppur

      0.71

      0

      0

      10.56

      56.54

      21.83

      Dindigul

      2.37

      0.83

      0.63

      20.6

      20.6

      5.8

      Coimbatore

      0

      0

      1.04

      7.24

      25.47

      6.08

      Theni

      1.79

      3.74

      16.65

      44.38

      30.87

      9.39

      Pudukottai

      53.91

      79.33

      112.69

      69.01

      73.77

      41.2

      Villupuram

      3.02

      0

      0

      1.79

      13.1

      16.65

      The Nilgris

      4.51

      3.02

      11.17

      62.65

      1.79

      139.71

      TABLE II. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY EFFECTIVE RAINFALL IN MM OF TAMIL NADU (JAN-JUN)

      TABLE V. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY EFFECTIVE RAINFALL IN MM OF KARNATAKA (JUL-DEC)

      DISTRICT

      JUL

      AUG

      SEPT

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Mysore

      20.55

      11.8

      38.03

      95.22

      15.9

      0.63

      Chamrajanagar

      13.1

      16.65

      37.23

      112.69

      27.7

      2.08

      Mandya

      15.18

      22.93

      79.33

      115.88

      20.6

      1.79

      Bengaluru

      53.91

      68.21

      120.6

      95.22

      20.6

      1.79

      Tumkur

      34.05

      46.76

      78.54

      87.28

      7.76

      0

      Hassan

      108.7

      50.74

      43.59

      96.81

      21.4

      0

      Chikmagalur

      155.6

      80.92

      58.68

      98.39

      22.9

      0.83

      Kodagu

      741.9

      403.5

      147.7

      152.42

      34.9

      1.28

      TABLE VI. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY EFFECTIVE RAINFALL

      IN MM OF KERALA (JAN-DEC)

      IN MM OF KERALA (JAN-DEC)

      IN MM OF KERALA (JAN-DEC)

      IN MM OF KERALA (JAN-DEC)

      DISTRICT

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Wayanadu

      20.55

      11.8

      38.03

      95.22

      15.9

      0.63

      JUL

      AUG

      SEPT

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      20.55

      11.8

      38.03

      95.22

      15.9

      0.63

      CROP

      JUL

      AUG

      SEP

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Thanjavur

      Paddy

      85.41

      79.12

      76.27

      72.39

      60.12

      93.78

      Sugarcane

      174.71

      161.83

      156

      148.06

      105.83

      122.66

      Nagapattinam

      Paddy

      90.24

      83.78

      78.52

      96.44

      64.3

      64.29

      Pudukottai

      Paddy

      90.08

      81.29

      78.52

      72.54

      62.35

      62.27

      Trichy

      Banana

      159.99

      148.53

      143.19

      132.29

      113.97

      113.95

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      87.81

      81.43

      78.52

      74.64

      64.31

      64.29

      Sugarcane

      179.62

      166.57

      160.61

      152.67

      131.53

      131.51

      Erode

      Ragi

      91.81

      90.15

      84.11

      82.02

      70.47

      70.37

      Sugarcane

      165.25

      162.27

      151.39

      147.63

      126.84

      126.67

      Banana

      143.22

      140.63

      131.21

      127.95

      109.93

      109.78

      Salem

      Ragi

      94.7

      87.63

      84.11

      79.34

      70.34

      70.24

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      89.38

      85.16

      81.55

      76.63

      67.8

      65.19

      Sugarcane

      160.88

      153.28

      146.79

      137.93

      122.05

      117.34

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      87.44

      82.53

      79.16

      80.32

      68.96

      67.25

      Pepper

      36.26

      34.22

      32.82

      33.3

      28.59

      27.88

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      170.11

      162.17

      151.39

      143.16

      126.93

      109.07

      Groundnut

      49.14

      46.85

      43.74

      41.36

      36.67

      36.62

      Dindigul

      Jower

      56.48

      53.83

      50.46

      47.93

      42.51

      42.46

      Kovai

      Jower

      53.35

      50.82

      48.93

      47.77

      42.36

      42.3

      Coconut

      92.95

      88.56

      84.81

      79.69

      70.52

      67.8

      CROP

      JUL

      AUG

      SEP

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Thanjavur

      Paddy

      85.41

      79.12

      76.27

      72.39

      60.12

      93.78

      Sugarcane

      174.71

      161.83

      156

      148.06

      105.83

      122.66

      Nagapattinam

      Paddy

      90.24

      83.78

      78.52

      96.44

      64.3

      64.29

      Pudukottai

      Paddy

      90.08

      81.29

      78.52

      72.54

      62.35

      62.27

      Trichy

      Banana

      159.99

      148.53

      143.19

      132.29

      113.97

      113.95

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      87.81

      81.43

      78.52

      74.64

      64.31

      64.29

      Sugarcane

      179.62

      166.57

      160.61

      152.67

      131.53

      131.51

      Erode

      Ragi

      91.81

      90.15

      84.11

      82.02

      70.47

      70.37

      Sugarcane

      165.25

      162.27

      151.39

      147.63

      126.84

      126.67

      Banana

      143.22

      140.63

      131.21

      127.95

      109.93

      109.78

      Salem

      Ragi

      94.7

      87.63

      84.11

      79.34

      70.34

      70.24

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      89.38

      85.16

      81.55

      76.63

      67.8

      65.19

      Sugarcane

      160.88

      153.28

      146.79

      137.93

      122.05

      117.34

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      87.44

      82.53

      79.16

      80.32

      68.96

      67.25

      Pepper

      36.26

      34.22

      32.82

      33.3

      28.59

      27.88

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      170.11

      162.17

      151.39

      143.16

      126.93

      109.07

      Groundnut

      49.14

      46.85

      43.74

      41.36

      36.67

      36.62

      Dindigul

      Jower

      56.48

      53.83

      50.46

      47.93

      42.51

      42.46

      Kovai

      Jower

      53.35

      50.82

      48.93

      47.77

      42.36

      42.3

      Coconut

      92.95

      88.56

      84.81

      79.69

      70.52

      67.8

    2. Calculation of Potential Evapotranspiration crop-wise

      TABLE VII. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN MM OF TAMIL NADU (JAN-JUN)

      TABLE VIII. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN MM OF TAMIL NADU (JUL-DEC)

      CROP

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Thanjavur

      Paddy

      59.97

      81.83

      72.69

      80.77

      88.45

      87.34

      Sugarcane

      122.66

      125.46

      148.67

      165.22

      180.93

      178.64

      Nagapattinam

      Paddy

      62.13

      61.35

      72.69

      78.52

      86.11

      87.33

      Pudukottai

      Paddy

      62.27

      63.5

      74.93

      83.62

      85.95

      84.84

      Trichy

      Banana

      113.95

      112.32

      136.81

      147.18

      156.81

      154.83

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      64.29

      61.35

      72.69

      78.52

      86.1

      87.32

      Sugarcane

      131.51

      125.49

      148.67

      157.86

      169.83

      178.61

      Erode

      Ragi

      72.82

      74.08

      87.7

      91.79

      98.12

      94.17

      Sugarcane

      131.02

      133.35

      157.86

      165.22

      176.62

      169.51

      Banana

      113.59

      115.57

      136.81

      143.19

      153.07

      146.91

      Salem

      Ragi

      72.68

      73.95

      87.7

      91.79

      95.61

      94.31

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      67.63

      66.92

      82.6

      89.23

      93.15

      89.16

      Sugarcane

      121.73

      120.46

      148.67

      160.61

      167.67

      160.49

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      63.24

      68.79

      81.08

      87.56

      95.62

      88.99

      Pepper

      26.22

      28.52

      31.88

      36.3

      39.65

      36.9

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      126.76

      129.3

      153.27

      165.22

      171.73

      169.41

      Groundnut

      36.62

      37.35

      44.28

      47.73

      49.61

      48.94

      Dindigul

      Jower

      42.46

      41.92

      49.56

      53.54

      55.42

      56.25

      Kovai

      Jower

      42.3

      43.15

      51.09

      53.54

      54

      53.23

      Coconut

      70.33

      69.6

      35.9

      92.8

      96.88

      92.73

      TABLE IX. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN MM OF KERALA AND KARNATAKA (JAN-JUN)

      TABLE X. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN MM OF KERALA AND KARNATAKA (JUL-DEC)

      CROP

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Wayanadu

      Coffee

      103

      102.5

      122.9

      125.3

      130.6

      124.07

      Pepper

      42.8

      42.5

      50.96

      51.97

      54.17

      51.44

      Hassan

      Ragi

      60

      62.04

      74.94

      78.99

      82.86

      76.15

      Jower

      36

      37.22

      44.97

      47.39

      49.72

      45.69

      Coffee

      98.4

      101.8

      122.9

      129.5

      135.9

      124.88

      Coconut

      62.4

      64.53

      80.6

      64.81

      88.94

      81.96

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      98.2

      97.84

      118.7

      125.3

      127.3

      120.67

      Groundnut

      31.1

      31.02

      37.64

      39.74

      40.37

      38.26

      Pepper

      32.5

      40.57

      49.23

      51.97

      52.79

      50.03

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      94.8

      94.64

      114.5

      117

      117.9

      111.32

      Pepper

      39.3

      39.24

      47.49

      48.49

      48.9

      46.16

      Mysore

      Banana

      97.8

      104.3

      124.9

      131.2

      133

      122.54

      Cotton

      57.7

      61.51

      73.64

      77.38

      78.42

      72.27

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      55.2

      57.09

      71.3

      75.02

      78.68

      72.51

      Mandya

      Paddy

      57.2

      58.76

      70.44

      74.02

      77.44

      71.56

      Jower

      39

      40.06

      48.03

      50.46

      52.8

      48.79

      Ragi

      65

      66.77

      30.05

      84.11

      88

      81.31

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      62.8

      64.66

      80.05

      84.11

      85.13

      81.13

      Sugarcane

      113

      155.6

      144.1

      151.4

      153.2

      146.03

      Groundnut

      32.6

      33.62

      41.62

      43.74

      44.27

      42.19

      Banana

      97.9

      100.9

      124.9

      131.2

      132.8

      126.56

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      62.3

      64.2

      80.05

      84.11

      88.35

      81.63

      Jower

      37.4

      38.52

      48.03

      50.46

      53.01

      48.98

      Groundnut

      32.4

      33.38

      41.62

      43.74

      45.94

      42.45

      Coconut

      64.8

      66.77

      83.25

      87.47

      91.89

      84.9

      CROP

      JUL

      AUG

      SEPT

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Wayanadu

      Coffee

      123.7

      117.5

      117

      113.5

      99.9

      103

      Pepper

      51.29

      48.74

      48.5

      41.4

      42.8

      42.8

      Hassan

      Ragi

      75.92

      72.17

      68.8

      68.69

      60.4

      60

      Jower

      45.55

      43.3

      41.3

      41.21

      36.2

      36

      Coffee

      124.5

      118.4

      113

      112.7

      99.1

      98.4

      Coconut

      81.82

      71.82

      74.2

      71.45

      62.8

      62.4

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      115.6

      114.2

      109

      108.3

      95

      94.2

      Groundnut

      36.65

      36.2

      34.4

      34.35

      30.3

      29.9

      Pepper

      47.93

      47.33

      45

      44.91

      39.4

      39.1

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      106.9

      104.8

      104

      104.8

      91.7

      90.8

      Pepper

      45.82

      43.46

      43.3

      43.44

      38

      37.7

      Mysore

      Banana

      122.3

      120.5

      115

      11.52

      98.3

      97.8

      Cotton

      72.14

      71.06

      68

      65.77

      58

      57.7

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      72.38

      68.84

      65.6

      63.21

      55.6

      55.2

      Mandya

      Paddy

      71.51

      68.04

      67.3

      65.06

      55.4

      55.1

      Jower

      48.76

      46.39

      44.3

      44.36

      37.8

      37.6

      Ragi

      81.26

      77.32

      76.4

      73.93

      62.8

      62.6

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      81.08

      77.14

      73.9

      71.59

      63.1

      62.8

      Sugarcane

      145.9

      138.9

      133

      128.9

      114

      113

      Groundnut

      42.16

      40.11

      38.4

      37.22

      32.8

      32.6

      Banana

      126.5

      120.3

      115

      111.7

      98.5

      97.9

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      81.58

      77.65

      73.9

      71.08

      62.6

      59.9

      Jower

      48.95

      46.59

      44.3

      42.65

      37.6

      35.9

      Groundnut

      42.42

      40.38

      38.4

      36.96

      32.6

      31.1

      Coconut

      84.85

      80.75

      76.8

      73.92

      65.1

      62.3

      CROP

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Wayanadu

      Coffee

      103

      102.5

      122.9

      125.3

      130.6

      124.07

      Pepper

      42.8

      42.5

      50.96

      51.97

      54.17

      51.44

      Hassan

      Ragi

      60

      62.04

      74.94

      78.99

      82.86

      76.15

      Jower

      36

      37.22

      44.97

      47.39

      49.72

      45.69

      Coffee

      98.4

      101.8

      122.9

      129.5

      135.9

      124.88

      Coconut

      62.4

      64.53

      80.6

      64.81

      88.94

      81.96

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      98.2

      97.84

      118.7

      125.3

      127.3

      120.67

      Groundnut

      31.1

      31.02

      37.64

      39.74

      40.37

      38.26

      Pepper

      32.5

      40.57

      49.23

      51.97

      52.79

      50.03

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      94.8

      94.64

      114.5

      117

      117.9

      111.32

      Pepper

      39.3

      39.24

      47.49

      48.49

      48.9

      46.16

      Mysore

      Banana

      97.8

      104.3

      124.9

      131.2

      133

      122.54

      Cotton

      57.7

      61.51

      73.64

      77.38

      78.42

      72.27

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      55.2

      57.09

      71.3

      75.02

      78.68

      72.51

      Mandya

      Paddy

      57.2

      58.76

      70.44

      74.02

      77.44

      71.56

      Jower

      39

      40.06

      48.03

      50.46

      52.8

      48.79

      Ragi

      65

      66.77

      30.05

      84.11

      88

      81.31

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      62.8

      64.66

      80.05

      84.11

      85.13

      81.13

      Sugarcane

      113

      155.6

      144.1

      151.4

      153.2

      146.03

      Groundnut

      32.6

      33.62

      41.62

      43.74

      44.27

      42.19

      Banana

      97.9

      100.9

      124.9

      131.2

      132.8

      126.56

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      62.3

      64.2

      80.05

      84.11

      88.35

      81.63

      Jower

      37.4

      38.52

      48.03

      50.46

      53.01

      48.98

      Groundnut

      32.4

      33.38

      41.62

      43.74

      45.94

      42.45

      Coconut

      64.8

      66.77

      83.25

      87.47

      91.89

      84.9

      CROP

      JUL

      AUG

      SEPT

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Wayanadu

      Coffee

      123.7

      117.5

      117

      113.5

      99.9

      103

      Pepper

      51.29

      48.74

      48.5

      41.4

      42.8

      42.8

      Hassan

      Ragi

      75.92

      72.17

      68.8

      68.69

      60.4

      60

      Jower

      45.55

      43.3

      41.3

      41.21

      36.2

      36

      Coffee

      124.5

      118.4

      113

      112.7

      99.1

      98.4

      Coconut

      81.82

      71.82

      74.2

      71.45

      62.8

      62.4

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      115.6

      114.2

      109

      108.3

      95

      94.2

      Groundnut

      36.65

      36.2

      34.4

      34.35

      30.3

      29.9

      Pepper

      47.93

      47.33

      45

      44.91

      39.4

      39.1

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      106.9

      104.8

      104

      104.8

      91.7

      90.8

      Pepper

      45.82

      43.46

      43.3

      43.44

      38

      37.7

      Mysore

      Banana

      122.3

      120.5

      115

      11.52

      98.3

      97.8

      Cotton

      72.14

      71.06

      68

      65.77

      58

      57.7

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      72.38

      68.84

      65.6

      63.21

      55.6

      55.2

      Mandya

      Paddy

      71.51

      68.04

      67.3

      65.06

      55.4

      55.1

      Jower

      48.76

      46.39

      44.3

      44.36

      37.8

      37.6

      Ragi

      81.26

      77.32

      76.4

      73.93

      62.8

      62.6

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      81.08

      77.14

      73.9

      71.59

      63.1

      62.8

      Sugarcane

      145.9

      138.9

      133

      128.9

      114

      113

      Groundnut

      42.16

      40.11

      38.4

      37.22

      32.8

      32.6

      Banana

      126.5

      120.3

      115

      111.7

      98.5

      97.9

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      81.58

      77.65

      73.9

      71.08

      62.6

      59.9

      Jower

      48.95

      46.59

      44.3

      42.65

      37.6

      35.9

      Groundnut

      42.42

      40.38

      38.4

      36.96

      32.6

      31.1

      Coconut

      84.85

      80.75

      76.8

      73.92

      65.1

      62.3

    3. Calculation of Consumptive Use of each crop

      CROP

      JUL

      AUG

      SEPT

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Thanjavur

      Paddy

      85.41

      79.12

      76.27

      72.39

      60.12

      93.78

      Sugarcane

      174.71

      161.83

      156

      148.06

      105.8

      122.7

      Nagapattinam

      Paddy

      90.24

      83.78

      78.52

      96.44

      64.3

      64.29

      Pudukottai

      Paddy

      90.08

      81.29

      78.52

      72.54

      62.35

      62.27

      Trichy

      Banana

      159.99

      148.53

      143.2

      132.29

      114

      114

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      87.81

      81.43

      78.52

      74.64

      64.31

      64.29

      Sugarcane

      179.62

      166.57

      160.6

      152.67

      131.5

      131.5

      Erode

      Ragi

      91.81

      90.15

      84.11

      82.02

      70.47

      70.37

      Sugarcane

      165.25

      162.27

      151.4

      147.63

      126.8

      126.7

      Banana

      143.22

      140.63

      131.2

      127.95

      109.9

      109.8

      Salem

      Ragi

      94.7

      87.63

      84.11

      79.34

      70.34

      70.24

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      89.38

      85.16

      81.55

      76.63

      67.8

      65.19

      Sugarcane

      160.88

      153.28

      146.8

      137.93

      122.1

      117.3

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      87.44

      82.53

      79.16

      80.32

      68.96

      67.25

      Pepper

      36.26

      34.22

      32.82

      33.3

      28.59

      27.88

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      170.11

      162.17

      151.4

      143.16

      126.9

      109.1

      Groundnut

      49.14

      46.85

      43.74

      41.36

      36.67

      36.62

      Dindigul

      Jower

      53.83

      50.46

      47.93

      42.51

      42.46

      53.83

      Kovai

      Jower

      53.35

      50.82

      48.93

      47.77

      42.36

      42.3

      Coconut

      92.95

      88.56

      84.81

      79.69

      70.52

      67.8

      CROP

      JUL

      AUG

      SEPT

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Thanjavur

      Paddy

      85.41

      79.12

      76.27

      72.39

      60.12

      93.78

      Sugarcane

      174.71

      161.83

      156

      148.06

      105.8

      122.7

      Nagapattinam

      Paddy

      90.24

      83.78

      78.52

      96.44

      64.3

      64.29

      Pudukottai

      Paddy

      90.08

      81.29

      78.52

      72.54

      62.35

      62.27

      Trichy

      Banana

      159.99

      148.53

      143.2

      132.29

      114

      114

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      87.81

      81.43

      78.52

      74.64

      64.31

      64.29

      Sugarcane

      179.62

      166.57

      160.6

      152.67

      131.5

      131.5

      Erode

      Ragi

      91.81

      90.15

      84.11

      82.02

      70.47

      70.37

      Sugarcane

      165.25

      162.27

      151.4

      147.63

      126.8

      126.7

      Banana

      143.22

      140.63

      131.2

      127.95

      109.9

      109.8

      Salem

      Ragi

      94.7

      87.63

      84.11

      79.34

      70.34

      70.24

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      89.38

      85.16

      81.55

      76.63

      67.8

      65.19

      Sugarcane

      160.88

      153.28

      146.8

      137.93

      122.1

      117.3

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      87.44

      82.53

      79.16

      80.32

      68.96

      67.25

      Pepper

      36.26

      34.22

      32.82

      33.3

      28.59

      27.88

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      170.11

      162.17

      151.4

      143.16

      126.9

      109.1

      Groundnut

      49.14

      46.85

      43.74

      41.36

      36.67

      36.62

      Dindigul

      Jower

      53.83

      50.46

      47.93

      42.51

      42.46

      53.83

      Kovai

      Jower

      53.35

      50.82

      48.93

      47.77

      42.36

      42.3

      Coconut

      92.95

      88.56

      84.81

      79.69

      70.52

      67.8

      TABLE XI. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY CONSUMPTIVE USE IN MM OF TAMIL NADU (JAN-JUN)

      TABLE XII. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY CONSUMPTIVE USE IN MM OF TAMIL NADU (JUL-DEC)

      CROP

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Thanjavur

      Paddy

      59.97

      81.83

      72.69

      80.77

      88.45

      87.34

      Sugarcane

      122.7

      125.46

      148.67

      165.22

      180.93

      178.64

      Nagapattinam

      Paddy

      62.13

      61.35

      72.69

      78.52

      86.11

      87.33

      Pudukottai

      Paddy

      62.27

      63.5

      74.93

      83.62

      85.95

      84.84

      Trichy

      Banana

      114

      112.32

      136.81

      147.18

      156.81

      154.83

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      64.29

      61.35

      72.69

      78.52

      86.1

      87.32

      Sugarcane

      131.5

      125.49

      148.67

      157.86

      169.83

      178.61

      Erode

      Ragi

      72.82

      74.08

      87.7

      91.79

      98.12

      94.17

      Sugarcane

      131

      133.35

      157.86

      165.22

      176.62

      169.51

      Banana

      113.6

      115.57

      136.81

      143.19

      153.07

      146.91

      Salem

      Ragi

      72.68

      73.95

      87.7

      91.79

      95.61

      94.31

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      67.63

      66.92

      82.6

      89.23

      93.15

      89.16

      Sugarcane

      121.7

      120.46

      148.67

      160.61

      167.67

      160.49

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      63.24

      68.79

      81.08

      87.56

      95.62

      88.99

      Pepper

      26.22

      28.52

      31.88

      36.3

      39.65

      36.9

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      126.8

      129.3

      153.27

      165.22

      171.73

      169.41

      Groundnut

      36.62

      37.35

      44.28

      47.73

      49.61

      48.94

      Dindigul

      Jower

      42.46

      41.92

      49.56

      53.54

      55.42

      56.25

      Kovai

      Jower

      42.3

      43.15

      51.09

      53.54

      54

      53.23

      Coconut

      70.33

      69.6

      35.9

      92.8

      96.88

      92.73

      TABLE XIII. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY CONSUMPTIVE USE IN MM OF KERALA AND KARNATAKA (JAN-JUN)

      TABLE XIV. DISTRICT-WISE MONTHLY CONSUMPTIVE USE IN MM OF KERALA AND KARNATAKA (JUL-DEC)

      CROP

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Wayanadu

      Coffee

      103.2

      102.5

      122.91

      125.34

      130.64

      124.07

      Pepper

      42.78

      42.5

      50.96

      51.97

      54.17

      51.44

      Hassan

      Ragi

      59.99

      62.04

      74.94

      78.99

      82.86

      76.15

      Jower

      35.99

      37.22

      44.97

      47.39

      49.72

      45.69

      Coffee

      98.38

      101.75

      122.91

      129.54

      135.89

      124.88

      Coconut

      62.4

      64.53

      80.6

      64.81

      88.94

      81.96

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      98.2

      97.84

      118.73

      125.34

      127.32

      120.67

      Groundnut

      31.14

      31.02

      37.64

      39.74

      40.37

      38.26

      Pepper

      32.52

      40.57

      49.23

      51.97

      52.79

      50.03

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      94.79

      94.64

      114.54

      116.95

      117.94

      111.32

      Pepper

      39.3

      39.24

      47.49

      48.49

      48.9

      46.16

      Mysore

      Banana

      97.79

      104.3

      124.87

      131.21

      132.97

      122.54

      Cotton

      57.67

      61.51

      73.64

      77.38

      78.42

      72.27

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      55.2

      57.09

      71.3

      75.02

      78.68

      72.51

      Mandya

      Paddy

      57.23

      58.76

      70.44

      74.02

      77.44

      71.56

      Jower

      39.02

      40.06

      48.03

      50.46

      52.8

      48.79

      Ragi

      65.03

      66.77

      30.05

      84.11

      88

      81.31

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      62.78

      64.66

      80.05

      84.11

      85.13

      81.13

      Sugarcane

      113

      155.56

      144.08

      151.39

      153.24

      146.03

      Groundnut

      32.64

      33.62

      41.62

      43.74

      44.27

      42.19

      Banana

      97.93

      100.87

      124.87

      131.21

      132.81

      126.56

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      62.29

      64.2

      80.05

      84.11

      88.35

      81.63

      Jower

      37.38

      38.52

      48.03

      50.46

      53.01

      48.98

      Groundnut

      32.39

      33.38

      41.62

      43.74

      45.94

      42.45

      Coconut

      64.78

      66.77

      83.25

      87.47

      91.889

      84.9

      CROP

      JUL

      AUG

      SEPT

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Wayanadu

      Coffee

      123.69

      117.54

      117

      113.48

      99.85

      103.2

      Pepper

      51.29

      48.74

      48.49

      41.4

      42.78

      42.82

      Hassan

      Ragi

      75.92

      72.17

      68.75

      68.69

      60.4

      59.99

      Jower

      45.55

      43.3

      41.25

      41.21

      36.24

      35.99

      Coffee

      124.5

      118.35

      112.8

      112.65

      99.06

      98.38

      Coconut

      81.82

      71.82

      74.16

      71.45

      62.83

      62.4

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      115.6

      114.15

      108.6

      108.32

      95.03

      94.22

      Groundnut

      36.65

      36.2

      34.42

      34.35

      30.31

      29.87

      Pepper

      47.93

      47.33

      45.01

      44.91

      39.4

      39.07

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      106.94

      104.82

      104.4

      104.78

      91.73

      90.8

      Pepper

      45.82

      43.46

      43.27

      43.44

      38.04

      37.65

      Mysore

      Banana

      122.32

      120.49

      115.2

      11.52

      98.31

      97.79

      Cotton

      72.14

      71.06

      67.96

      65.77

      57.98

      57.67

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      72.38

      68.84

      65.6

      63.21

      55.58

      55.2

      Mandya

      Paddy

      71.51

      68.04

      67.26

      65.06

      55.38

      55.09

      Jower

      48.76

      46.39

      44.32

      44.36

      37.76

      37.56

      Ragi

      81.26

      77.32

      76.43

      73.93

      62.83

      62.6

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      81.08

      77.14

      73.87

      71.59

      63.11

      62.78

      Sugarcane

      145.94

      138.85

      133

      128.85

      113.6

      113

      Groundnut

      42.16

      40.11

      38.41

      37.22

      32.82

      32.64

      Banana

      126.48

      120.34

      115.2

      111.67

      98.45

      97.93

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      81.58

      77.65

      73.87

      71.08

      62.63

      59.87

      Jower

      48.95

      46.59

      44.32

      42.65

      37.58

      35.92

      Groundnut

      42.42

      40.38

      38.41

      36.96

      32.57

      31.13

      Coconut

      84.85

      80.75

      76.82

      73.92

      65.13

      62.26

      CROP

      JAN

      FEB

      MAR

      APR

      MAY

      JUN

      Wayanadu

      Coffee

      103.2

      102.5

      122.91

      125.34

      130.64

      124.07

      Pepper

      42.78

      42.5

      50.96

      51.97

      54.17

      51.44

      Hassan

      Ragi

      59.99

      62.04

      74.94

      78.99

      82.86

      76.15

      Jower

      35.99

      37.22

      44.97

      47.39

      49.72

      45.69

      Coffee

      98.38

      101.75

      122.91

      129.54

      135.89

      124.88

      Coconut

      62.4

      64.53

      80.6

      64.81

      88.94

      81.96

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      98.2

      97.84

      118.73

      125.34

      127.32

      120.67

      Groundnut

      31.14

      31.02

      37.64

      39.74

      40.37

      38.26

      Pepper

      32.52

      40.57

      49.23

      51.97

      52.79

      50.03

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      94.79

      94.64

      114.54

      116.95

      117.94

      111.32

      Pepper

      39.3

      39.24

      47.49

      48.49

      48.9

      46.16

      Mysore

      Banana

      97.79

      104.3

      124.87

      131.21

      132.97

      122.54

      Cotton

      57.67

      61.51

      73.64

      77.38

      78.42

      72.27

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      55.2

      57.09

      71.3

      75.02

      78.68

      72.51

      Mandya

      Paddy

      57.23

      58.76

      70.44

      74.02

      77.44

      71.56

      Jower

      39.02

      40.06

      48.03

      50.46

      52.8

      48.79

      Ragi

      65.03

      66.77

      30.05

      84.11

      88

      81.31

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      62.78

      64.66

      80.05

      84.11

      85.13

      81.13

      Sugarcane

      113

      155.56

      144.08

      151.39

      153.24

      146.03

      Groundnut

      32.64

      33.62

      41.62

      43.74

      44.27

      42.19

      Banana

      97.93

      100.87

      124.87

      131.21

      132.81

      126.56

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      62.29

      64.2

      80.05

      84.11

      88.35

      81.63

      Jower

      37.38

      38.52

      48.03

      50.46

      53.01

      48.98

      Groundnut

      32.39

      33.38

      41.62

      43.74

      45.94

      42.45

      Coconut

      64.78

      66.77

      83.25

      87.47

      91.889

      84.9

      CROP

      JUL

      AUG

      SEPT

      OCT

      NOV

      DEC

      Wayanadu

      Coffee

      123.69

      117.54

      117

      113.48

      99.85

      103.2

      Pepper

      51.29

      48.74

      48.49

      41.4

      42.78

      42.82

      Hassan

      Ragi

      75.92

      72.17

      68.75

      68.69

      60.4

      59.99

      Jower

      45.55

      43.3

      41.25

      41.21

      36.24

      35.99

      Coffee

      124.5

      118.35

      112.8

      112.65

      99.06

      98.38

      Coconut

      81.82

      71.82

      74.16

      71.45

      62.83

      62.4

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      115.6

      114.15

      108.6

      108.32

      95.03

      94.22

      Groundnut

      36.65

      36.2

      34.42

      34.35

      30.31

      29.87

      Pepper

      47.93

      47.33

      45.01

      44.91

      39.4

      39.07

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      106.94

      104.82

      104.4

      104.78

      91.73

      90.8

      Pepper

      45.82

      43.46

      43.27

      43.44

      38.04

      37.65

      Mysore

      Banana

      122.32

      120.49

      115.2

      11.52

      98.31

      97.79

      Cotton

      72.14

      71.06

      67.96

      65.77

      57.98

      57.67

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      72.38

      68.84

      65.6

      63.21

      55.58

      55.2

      Mandya

      Paddy

      71.51

      68.04

      67.26

      65.06

      55.38

      55.09

      Jower

      48.76

      46.39

      44.32

      44.36

      37.76

      37.56

      Ragi

      81.26

      77.32

      76.43

      73.93

      62.83

      62.6

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      81.08

      77.14

      73.87

      71.59

      63.11

      62.78

      Sugarcane

      145.94

      138.85

      133

      128.85

      113.6

      113

      Groundnut

      42.16

      40.11

      38.41

      37.22

      32.82

      32.64

      Banana

      126.48

      120.34

      115.2

      111.67

      98.45

      97.93

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      81.58

      77.65

      73.87

      71.08

      62.63

      59.87

      Jower

      48.95

      46.59

      44.32

      42.65

      37.58

      35.92

      Groundnut

      42.42

      40.38

      38.41

      36.96

      32.57

      31.13

      Coconut

      84.85

      80.75

      76.82

      73.92

      65.13

      62.26

      TABLE XV. CROP-WISE KC VALUES AND GROWTH PERIOD

      CROP

      Kc VALUE

      GROWTH PERIOD

      Banana

      0.9-1.05

      300-365

      Coffee

      0.95-1.10

      150-180

      Cotton

      0.5-0.65

      180-195

      Coconut

      0.6-0.7

      280-300

      Rice

      0.45-0.65

      90-150

      Jowar

      0.3-0.45

      120-130

      Sugarcane

      1.05-1.2

      275-365

      Ragi

      0.3-0.45

      125-180

      Groundnut

      0.25-0.45

      130-140

      Pepper

      0.3-0.55

      120-210

      For each crop, monthly consumptive use differs district- wise according to the potential evapotranspiration rate value. Monthly Consumptive value is found out for a crop for a particular district for a whole year keeping in account of the crop pattern, sowing and harvest season and by multiplying per day consumption rate with the total number of cultivated days.

    4. Calculation of Net Irrigation Requirement for each district – Effective Rainfall of a particular month of that specific district is subtracted from the Monthly Consumptive value of a crop of respective destined bounds. This value is multiplied with area sown in hectares for that specific district.

      TABLE XVI. DISTRICT-WISE NET IRRIGATION REQUIREMENT IN

      METER CUBIC OF TAMIL NADU

      CROP

      ANNUAL NIR

      IN m

      AREA SOWN IN HECTARES

      ANNUAL NIR IN MC

      Trichy

      Banana

      21.22

      7360

      1561.48

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      12.55

      139987

      1757.13

      Sugarcane

      59.79

      24443

      1461.45

      Erode

      Ragi

      5.29

      5326

      281.99

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      1.546

      7600

      117.53

      Pepper

      12.86

      5410

      696.02

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      12.71

      14268

      1814.1

      Groundnut

      2.02

      31428

      633.72

      Dindigul

      Jowar

      0.24

      25400

      614.1

      Coimbatore

      Jowar

      1.54

      34400

      528.77

      Coconut

      0.66

      82704

      544.68

      Salem

      Ragi

      0.436

      8202

      35.76

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      0.712

      20895

      148.77

      Sugarcane

      21.84

      7905

      172.64

      CROP

      ANNUAL NIR

      IN m

      AREA SOWN IN HECTARES

      ANNUAL NIR IN MC

      Trichy

      Banana

      21.22

      7360

      1561.48

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      12.55

      139987

      1757.13

      Sugarcane

      59.79

      24443

      1461.45

      Erode

      Ragi

      5.29

      5326

      281.99

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      1.546

      7600

      117.53

      Pepper

      12.86

      5410

      696.02

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      12.71

      14268

      1814.1

      Groundnut

      2.02

      31428

      633.72

      Dindigul

      Jowar

      0.24

      25400

      614.1

      Coimbatore

      Jowar

      1.54

      34400

      528.77

      Coconut

      0.66

      82704

      544.68

      Salem

      Ragi

      0.436

      8202

      35.76

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      0.712

      20895

      148.77

      Sugarcane

      21.84

      7905

      172.64

      TABLE XVI. DISTRICT-WISE NET IRRIGATION REQUIREMENT IN METER CUBIC OF TAMIL NADU (contd.)

      CROP

      ANNUAL NIR

      IN m

      AREA SOWN IN HECTARES

      ANNUAL NIR IN MC

      Thanjavur

      Paddy

      11.25

      177426

      1994.81

      Sugarcane

      22.02

      7690

      1693.57

      Nagapattinam

      Paddy

      10.04

      163794

      1644.66

      Pudukottai

      Paddy

      27.31

      73625

      2010.53

      CROP

      ANNUAL NIR IN m

      AREA SOWN IN HECTARES

      ANNUAL NIR IN MC

      Mandya

      Paddy

      2.36

      90200

      2126.93

      Jowar

      3.17

      1974

      626.92

      Ragi

      0.289

      85300

      246.93

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      0.16

      17900

      288.34

      Sugarcane

      0.65

      28900

      1886.9

      Groundnut

      0.34

      20100

      692.56

      Banana

      0.12

      12810

      1568.22

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      0.02

      192100

      308.46

      Jowar

      2.29

      3000

      687.24

      Groundnut

      0.76

      93300

      705.72

      Coconut

      0.66

      122500

      813.2

      Mysore

      Banana

      0.21

      7820

      1600.9

      Cotton

      0.29

      3097

      910.83

      Hassan

      Ragi

      0.34

      53920

      180.64

      Jowar

      0.09

      6100

      555.7

      Coffee

      0.02

      36025

      780.92

      Coconut

      0.01

      62575

      686.44

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      0.12

      5481

      683.36

      CROP

      ANNUAL NIR IN m

      AREA SOWN IN HECTARES

      ANNUAL NIR IN MC

      Mandya

      Paddy

      2.36

      90200

      2126.93

      Jowar

      3.17

      1974

      626.92

      Ragi

      0.289

      85300

      246.93

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      0.16

      17900

      288.34

      Sugarcane

      0.65

      28900

      1886.9

      Groundnut

      0.34

      20100

      692.56

      Banana

      0.12

      12810

      1568.22

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      0.02

      192100

      308.46

      Jowar

      2.29

      3000

      687.24

      Groundnut

      0.76

      93300

      705.72

      Coconut

      0.66

      122500

      813.2

      Mysore

      Banana

      0.21

      7820

      1600.9

      Cotton

      0.29

      3097

      910.83

      Hassan

      Ragi

      0.34

      53920

      180.64

      Jowar

      0.09

      6100

      555.7

      Coffee

      0.02

      36025

      780.92

      Coconut

      0.01

      62575

      686.44

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      0.12

      5481

      683.36

      TABLE XVII. DISTRICT-WISE NET IRRIGATION REQUIREMENT IN METER CUBIC OF KARNATAKA

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      0.07

      88853

      635.12

      Groundnut

      0.84

      5200

      438.8

      Pepper

      0.96

      3500

      335.4

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      0.02

      101229

      209.4

      Pepper

      0.17

      8880

      150.6

    5. Calculation of Irrigation Supply for each district – Area Irrigated for each crop is multiplied with Annual NIR obtained to get the extent of supply for each district state-wise.

      TABLE XVIII. DISTRICT-WISE IRRIGATION SUPPLY IN METER CUBIC OF TAMIL NADU

      CROP

      ANNUAL NIR IN m

      AREA IRRIGATED IN HECTARES

      ANNUAL SUPPLY IN MC

      Thanjavur

      Paddy

      11.25

      136370

      1533.21

      Sugarcane

      22.02

      5911

      1301.68

      Nagapattinam

      Paddy

      10.04

      83879

      842.23

      Pudukottai

      Paddy

      27.31

      53768

      1468.29

      Trichy

      Banana

      21.22

      4078

      865.22

      Cuddalore

      Paddy

      12.55

      82550

      1036.18

      Sugarcane

      59.79

      14414

      861.81

      Erode

      Ragi

      5.29

      3484

      184.48

      Sugarcane

      83.86

      14610

      1225.23

      Banana

      14.42

      7026

      1012.83

      Salem

      Ragi

      0.436

      3964

      18.36

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      0.712

      9453

      67.30

      Sugarcane

      21.84

      3576

      781.11

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      1.546

      3952

      61.12

      Tumkur

      Ragi

      0.02

      164802

      264.63

      Jowar

      2.29

      2574

      589.58

      Groundnut

      0.76

      80042

      605.44

      Coconut

      0.66

      105093

      697.64

      Mysore

      Banana

      0.21

      5223

      1069.24

      Cotton

      0.29

      2068

      608.34

      Hassan

      Ragi

      0.34

      50685

      169.8

      Jowar

      0.09

      5390

      522.36

      Coffee

      0.02

      33863

      734.06

      Coconut

      0.01

      58821

      645.25

      Bangalore

      Cotton

      0.12

      4220

      526.19

      Chikmagalur

      Coffee

      0.07

      49758

      355.67

      Groundnut

      0.84

      2912

      245.73

      Pepper

      0.96

      1960

      187.82

      Kodagu

      Coffee

      0.02

      10186

      207.24

      Pepper

      0.17

      8788

      149.05

      Pepper

      12.86

      2813

      361.93

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      12.71

      6608

      840.11

      Groundnut

      2.02

      14554

      293.48

      Dindigul

      Jowar

      0.24

      11687

      282.55

      Coimbatore

      Jowar

      1.54

      20791

      319.59

      Coconut

      0.66

      49986

      329.21

      Erode

      Ragi

      5.29

      3484

      184.48

      Sugarcane

      83.86

      14610

      1225.23

      Banana

      14.42

      7026

      1012.83

      Salem

      Ragi

      0.436

      3964

      18.36

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      0.712

      9453

      67.30

      Sugarcane

      21.84

      3576

      781.11

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      1.546

      3952

      61.12

      Pepper

      12.86

      2813

      361.93

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      12.71

      6608

      840.11

      Groundnut

      2.02

      14554

      293.48

      Dindigul

      Jowar

      0.24

      11687

      282.55

      Coimbatore

      Jowar

      1.54

      20791

      319.59

      Coconut

      0.66

      49986

      329.21

      Pepper

      12.86

      2813

      361.93

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      12.71

      6608

      840.11

      Groundnut

      2.02

      14554

      293.48

      Dindigul

      Jowar

      0.24

      11687

      282.55

      Coimbatore

      Jowar

      1.54

      20791

      319.59

      Coconut

      0.66

      49986

      329.21

      Erode

      Ragi

      5.29

      3484

      184.48

      Sugarcane

      83.86

      14610

      1225.23

      Banana

      14.42

      7026

      1012.83

      Salem

      Ragi

      0.436

      3964

      18.36

      Dharmapuri

      Ragi

      0.712

      9453

      67.30

      Sugarcane

      21.84

      3576

      781.11

      The Nilgris

      Coffee

      1.546

      3952

      61.12

      Pepper

      12.86

      2813

      361.93

      Namakkal

      Sugarcane

      12.71

      6608

      840.11

      Groundnut

      2.02

      14554

      293.48

      Dindigul

      Jowar

      0.24

      11687

      282.55

      Coimbatore

      Jowar

      1.54

      20791

      319.59

      Coconut

      0.66

      49986

      329.21

      TABLE XIX. DISTRICT-WISE IRRIGATION SUPPLY IN METER CUBIC OF KARNATAKA

  2. Daily Domestic Usage Analysis

    1. Population Forecasting – Tamil Nadu

      DISTRICT

      1991

      2001

      2011

      R1 IN

      %

      R2 IN %

      R

      2017

      Ariyalur

      636400

      695524

      754894

      9.29

      8.54

      0.1

      3

      810676

      Coimbatore

      2493700

      2916620

      3458045

      16.96

      18.56

      0.2

      5

      3956188

      Cuddalore

      2122759

      2285395

      2605914

      7.66

      14.02

      0.1

      6

      2848341

      Dharmapuri

      1123600

      1295182

      1506843

      15.27

      16.34

      0.2

      2

      1700848

      Dindigul

      1760601

      1923014

      2159775

      9.22

      12.31

      0.1

      5

      2353407

      Erode

      1802900

      2016582

      2251744

      11.85

      11.66

      0.1

      7

      2469442

      Karur

      854162

      935686

      1064493

      9.54

      13.77

      0.1

      7

      1168152

      Krishnagiri

      1305100

      1561118

      1879809

      19.62

      20.41

      0.2

      8

      2183100

      Madurai

      2400339

      2578201

      3038252

      7.41

      17.84

      0.1

      9

      3377959

      Nagapattina m

      1377700

      1488839

      1616450

      8.07

      8.57

      0.1

      2

      1728058

      Namakkal

      1322715

      1493462

      1726601

      12.91

      15.61

      0.2

      0

      1928667

      DISTRICT

      1991

      2001

      2011

      R1 IN

      %

      R2 IN %

      R

      2017

      Ariyalur

      636400

      695524

      754894

      9.29

      8.54

      0.1

      3

      810676

      Coimbatore

      2493700

      2916620

      3458045

      16.96

      18.56

      0.2

      5

      3956188

      Cuddalore

      2122759

      2285395

      2605914

      7.66

      14.02

      0.1

      6

      2848341

      Dharmapuri

      1123600

      1295182

      1506843

      15.27

      16.34

      0.2

      2

      1700848

      Dindigul

      1760601

      1923014

      2159775

      9.22

      12.31

      0.1

      5

      2353407

      Erode

      1802900

      2016582

      2251744

      11.85

      11.66

      0.1

      7

      2469442

      Karur

      854162

      935686

      1064493

      9.54

      13.77

      0.1

      7

      1168152

      Krishnagiri

      1305100

      1561118

      1879809

      19.62

      20.41

      0.2

      8

      2183100

      Madurai

      2400339

      2578201

      3038252

      7.41

      17.84

      0.1

      9

      3377959

      Nagapattina m

      1377700

      1488839

      1616450

      8.07

      8.57

      0.1

      2

      1728058

      Namakkal

      1322715

      1493462

      1726601

      12.91

      15.61

      0.2

      0

      1928667

      TABLE XX. GEOMETRIC MEAN METHOD- TAMIL NADU

      CROP

      ANNUAL NIR IN M

      AREA IRRIGATED IN HECTARES

      ANNUAL SUPPLY IN MC

      Mandya

      Paddy

      2.36

      54770

      1291.47

      Jowar

      3.17

      1198

      380.66

      Ragi

      0.289

      51794

      149.94

      Chamrajanagar

      Ragi

      0.16

      116110

      259.51

      Sugarcane

      0.65

      26010

      1698.21

      Groundnut

      0.34

      18090

      623.31

      Banana

      0.12

      11529

      1411.39

      TABLE XX. GEOMETRIC MEAN METHOD- TAMIL NADU

      (contd.)

      Pudukkottai

      1327148

      1459601

      1618345

      9.98

      10.88

      0.15

      1757713

      Salem

      2573667

      3016346

      3482056

      17.20

      15.44

      0.23

      3944746

      Sivaganga

      1103100

      1155356

      1339101

      4.74

      15.90

      0.17

      1468317

      Thanjavur

      2053700

      2216138

      2405890

      7.91

      8.56

      0.12

      2570432

      Theni

      1049323

      1093950

      1245899

      4.25

      13.89

      0.15

      1351532

      The Nilgiris

      710214

      762141

      735394

      7.31

      -3.51

      0.06

      763343

      Thiruvarur

      1100100

      1169474

      1264277

      6.31

      8.11

      0.10

      1340657

      Tiruchirappali

      2196473

      2418366

      2722290

      10.10

      12.57

      0.16

      2977750

      Tiruppur

      1532000

      1920154

      2479052

      25.34

      29.11

      0.39

      3015253

      Viluppuram

      2755674

      2960373

      3458873

      7.43

      16.84

      0.18

      3827860

      TABLE XXI. DOMESTIC DEMAND AND SUPPLY -TAMIL NADU

      DISTRICT

      DEMAND (LITRES PER DAY)

      SUPPLY (LITRES PER DAY)

      Ariyalur

      109441196

      6506817

      Coimbatore

      534085389

      242779982

      Cuddalore

      384526097

      50266185

      Dharmapuri

      229614543

      19133044

      Dindigul

      317709907

      39771784

      Erode

      333374625

      83760719

      Karur

      157700509

      20654074

      Krishnagiri

      294718562

      24647940

      Madurai

      456024529

      85028028

      Nagapattinam

      233287808

      30795573

      Namakkal

      260370103

      53347505

      Pudukkottai

      237291232

      20983450

      Salem

      532540660

      175929722

      Sivaganga

      198222739

      30459047

      Thanjavur

      347008311

      27080360

      Theni

      182456817

      52028986

      The Nilgiris

      103051293

      32411839

      Thiruvarur

      180988724

      21962838

      Tiruchirappali

      401996267

      13877807

      Tiruppur

      407059192

      71097858

      Viluppuram

      516761120

      35446169

    2. Population Forecasting Karnataka

      TABLE XXII. GEOMETRC MEAN METHOD- KARNATAKA

      DISTRICT

      1991

      2001

      2011

      R1 IN

      %

      R2 IN

      %

      R

      2017

      Bangalore Urban

      4839169

      6537124

      9621551

      35.09

      47.18

      0.59

      12698573

      Bangalore Rural

      717525

      850968

      990923

      18.60

      16.45

      0.25

      1131942

      Chamarajanagar

      883365

      965462

      1020791

      9.29

      5.73

      0.11

      1086274

      Chikmangalur

      1017283

      1149007

      1255104

      12.95

      9.23

      0.16

      1371318

      Hassan

      1569684

      1721669

      1776421

      9.68

      3.18

      0.10

      1882932

      Mandya

      1644374

      1763705

      1805769

      7.26

      2.38

      0.08

      1887311

      Mysore

      2281653

      2641027

      3001127

      15.75

      13.63

      0.21

      3361975

      Ramanagara

      955669

      1030546

      1082636

      7.84

      5.05

      0.09

      1142120

      Tumkur

      2305819

      2584711

      2678980

      12.10

      3.65

      0.13

      2877193

      TABLE XXIII. DOMESTIC DEMAND AND SUPPLY – KARNATAKA

      DISTRICT

      DEMAND (LITRES PER DAY)

      SUPPLY (LITRES PER DAY)

      Bangalore Urban

      2520666826

      1739704560

      Bangalore Rural

      152812223

      62256831

      Chamarajanagar

      146646973

      59745063

      Chikmangalur

      185127951

      68565908

      Hassan

      254195757

      131805207

      Mandya

      254786987

      217040767

      Mysore

      453866640

      474038490

      Ramanagara

      154186204

      62816601

      Tumkur

      388421067

      189894744

    3. Population Forecasting Kerala

      TABLE XXIV. GEOMETRIC MEAN METHOD- KERALA

      DISTRI CT

      1991

      2001

      2011

      R1 IN

      %

      R2 IN

      %

      R

      2017

      Idukki

      10,55,100

      11,29,22

      1

      11,08,974

      7.03

      1.7

      9

      0.0

      7

      115357

      4

      Wayanad

      6,72,128

      7,80,619

      8,17,420

      16.1

      4

      4.7

      1

      0.1

      7

      897318

      TABLE XXV. DOMESTIC DEMAND AND SUPPLY KERALA

      DISTRICT

      DEMAND (LITRES PER DAY)

      SUPPLY (LITRES PER DAY)

      Idukki

      155732489

      25904147

      Wayanadu

      121137869

      24683325

  3. Irrigation Project Efficiency Analysis

    TABLE XXVI. EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATION PROJECT- TAMIL NADU

    PROJECT NAME

    CULTURABLE COMMAND AREA (CCA) (TH HA)

    POTENTIAL CREATED (PC) (TH HA)

    Cauvery Delta

    368

    504.64

    Cauvery Mettur

    103.6

    111.7

    Kattalai

    30.89

    49.45

    Lower Bhavani

    83.77

    68.02

    Lower Coleroon Anicut

    53.54

    66

    Mettur Canal

    18.21

    18.21

    Parambikulam Aliyar

    101.25

    101.25

    PROJECT NAME

    CULTURABLE COMMAND AREA (CCA) (TH HA)

    POTENTIAL CREATED (PC) (TH HA)

    Cauvery Anicut

    76.88

    77.17

    Harangi

    54.82

    54.59

    Hemavathy

    283.29

    283.58

    Kabini

    87.89

    44.51

    Krishnarajasagar

    79.31

    79.31

    Nugu

    10.5

    10.53

    PROJECT NAME

    CULTURABLE COMMAND AREA (CCA) (TH HA)

    POTENTIAL CREATED (PC) (TH HA)

    Cauvery Anicut

    76.88

    77.17

    Harangi

    54.82

    54.59

    Hemavathy

    283.29

    283.58

    Kabini

    87.89

    44.51

    Krishnarajasagar

    79.31

    79.31

    Nugu

    10.5

    10.53

    TABLE XXVII. EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATION PROJECT- KARNATAKA

  4. Ground Water Usage Analysis for Tamil Nadu

    TABLE XXVIII. GROUND WATER USAGE ESTIMATION-TAMIL NADU

    Over-Exploited

    DISTRICT

    NET GROUND WATER AVAILAB ILIY

    (IN MCM)

    EXISTING GROSS GROUND

    WATER DRAFT FOR ALL USERS (IN MCM)

    STAGE OF GROUND WATER DEVELO PMENT (IN %)

    CATEGORIZATION OF DISTRICT

    Ariyalur

    314.97

    161.52

    51

    Safe

    Coimbatore

    438.81

    506.15

    115

    Over-Exploited

    Cuddalore

    1237.08

    1066.76

    86

    Semi Critical

    Dharmapur i

    375.84

    497.3

    132

    Over-Exploited

    Dindigul

    536.56

    636.75

    119

    Over-Exploited

    Erode

    696.03

    651.68

    94

    Critical

    Karur

    323.23

    298.64

    92

    Critical

    Krishnagiri

    354.94

    471.44

    133

    Over-Exploited

    Madurai

    658.68

    380.27

    58

    Safe

    Nagapattin am

    159.16

    162.88

    102

    Over-Exploited

    Namakkal

    491.73

    439.84

    89

    Semi Critical

    The Nilgiris

    118.94

    11.31

    10

    Safe

    Perambalur

    207.62

    280.76

    135

    Pudukottai

    1431.08

    314.38

    22

    Safe

    Salem

    523.56

    856.32

    164

    Over-Exploited

    Thanjavur

    789.05

    819.33

    104

    Over-Exploited

    Theni

    357.18

    307.78

    86

    Semi Critical

    Thiruvarur

    299.8

    214.2

    71

    Semi Critical

    Tiruchirapa lli

    725.6

    571.15

    79

    Semi Critical

    Villupuram

    1498.28

    1539.35

    103

    Over-Exploited

  5. Coleroon Discharge Analysis

TABLE XXIX. DISCHARGE CALCULATION AT COLEROON

MONTH

TIME INTERVAL

Q(C USE CS)

Q AVER AGE

VOLUME (FT^3)

UNIT

0

2000

24

2000

2,000

48,000

JULY END

12

150

1,075

12,900

12

3879

3

19,472

2,33,658

TOTA L

0.29

Million Cubic Feet

0

3600

0

41,000

15

1072

76

71,638

10,74,570

11

8000

0

93,638

10,30,018

12

7100

0

75,500

9,06,000

AUGUST

12

4600

0

58,500

7,02,000

12

1280

00

87,000

10,44,000

24

1350

00

1,31,50

0

31,56,000

TABLE XXIX DISCHARGE CALCULATION AT COLEROON (Contd.)

MONTH

TIME INTERVAL

Q(C USE CS)

Q AVER AGE

VOLUME (FT^3)

UNIT

12

1430

00

1,39,00

0

16,68,000

12

1600

00

1,51,50

0

18,18,000

24

6000

0

1,10,00

0

26,40,000

24

1109

72

85,486

20,51,664

TOTA L

16

Million Cubic Feet

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

  1. Irrigation Supply and Demand Graph

    Fig 2 Graph between Irrigation Supply and Demand-Tamil Nadu

    Fig 3 Graph between Irrigation Supply and Demand-Karnataka

    Suggestions –

    • From both the graphs and calculations, it is observed that Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are harvesting rice and sugarcane in large quantities. These water- intensive agricultural cropping patterns cannot be justified in this basin.

    • At the policy level, what is grown in the basin area has never come under dispute. Apart from linking

      rivers and building canals and dams, modifying cropping patterns and supporting ground water management projects can be more focused on. This kind of approach is the key to fostering co-operation rather than competition.

    • 23% of Karnatakas share of Cauvery water is utilized to irrigate paddy fields alone. Sugarcane also

      consumes around 3 Lakh Hectares. This type of irrigation is done for a region where the soil is porous sandy loam which has less water holding capacity, resulting in less effective flood irrigation.

    • Before independence, farmers practiced rain-fed agriculture. After establishment of dams like

      Krishnarajasagar and Mettur dams, river flow was blocked to increase its irrigation potential. Farmers adapted to irrigation-fed practice which requires surface water utilization.

    • Farmers in Karnataka can adopt less irrigated crops like Millets (ragi, jowar), Oilseeds (sesame,

      groundnut), Pulses (black gram), etc., which was predominant in the pre-independence era.

    • Cauvery is a monsoon dependent perennial river. It is

      concluded from the study by Water Resources ministry that water yield in Cauvery is decreasing faster than the rate of declining rainfall in the basin. So, if water sharing conflict is the temporary issue, in the long run, drying up of Cauvery River is the major problem.

    • For Tamil Nadu farmers, it is suitable to do inter- cropping using Banana, Sunflower, Cotton and

      Pulses as they require less water, maintain soil fertility and are indigenous to the region.

    • Agriculture Model Intercomparison & Improvement Project (AgMIP) is implemented in Tamil Nadu. It

      suggested ways to cultivate paddy more climate and resource friendly. It also recommended direct sowing of rice seeds that does not require flooding.

    • Using short-duration varieties crops which require less water as growth period is reduced.

  2. Domestic Usage Supply and Demand Graph

    Fig 6 Graph between Domestic Supply and Demand-Karnataka

    Observations and Suggestions

    Fig 4 Graph between Domestic Supply and Demand- Tamil Nadu

      • In all the three states, there is a considerable difference between demand and supply of water for domestic usage irrespective of rural or urban criteria. To eliminate this unpleasant gap, there are certain suggestions to minimize it.

      • Rain water harvesting system must be established in each and every house as much as possible. Periodic inspection

        of proper installation and maintenance of these units must be carried out.

      • Metered water supply and pump rating metres must be installed for both ground water and domestic supply to

        check whether the particular household is scrutinizing water supply.

      • Control stations must be set up taluk-wise to check the quantity and quality of water supply with that of

        permissible values.

      • Recycling of grey water will reduce the demand elaborately.

  3. Irrigation Project Efficiency Graph

    600000

    Fig 5 Graph between Domestic Supply and Demand- KL

    500000

    Area in hectares

    Area in hectares

    400000

    300000

    200000

    100000

    Culturable Command Area Potential Created

    0

    Irrigation Project

    Fig.7 Graph between Irrigation Projects and their Efficiency-Tamil Nadu

    300000

    250000

    Area in hectares

    Area in hectares

    200000

    150000

    100000

    50000

    0

    Irrigation Project

    Culturable Command Area Potential Created

    and U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in the water level in the range of 2-4 m has been observed in 14% of wells analyzed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Theni, Trichy and Villupuram districts. Rise in water level more than 4 m has been observed in 11% of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Erode, Karur, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Salem Sivaganga, Theni, Trichy and Villupuram districts. The fall in water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 21% of wells analysed and noted in all the districts and U.T. of Puducherry. The fall in water level in the range of 2-4m has been observed in three percent of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dindigul, Erode, Madurai, Nilgiris, Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga and Trichy districts. The fall in water level more than 4 m has been observed in two percent of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Dindigul, Erode, Karur,

    Fig. 8 Graph between Irrigation Projects and their Efficiency-Karnataka

  4. Ground Water Usage Analysis

    This report also does an extensive study about usage of ground water for agricultural and domestic purposes. For this procedure, fluctuation in ground water level of four different months to its corresponding decadal mean is taken for observation. The information is collected from the annual ground water report of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu for the years 2014-2015, 2015- 2016 and 2016-2017. The aim is to compare the change in ground water level in 2015 and change in ground water level 2016 for all three states.

    1. Tamil Nadu

      Fig. 9 Water level fluctuation – Decadal mean Jan 2015

      Mean Water Levels for The Period January 2006-2015 & January 2016 – The water level data for January 2016 were compared with mean water level for the period January 2006- 2015. Rise in the water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 49% of wells analyzed, spread all over the State

      Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Theni and Villupuram.

      Fig 10 Water level fluctuation – Decadal mean Jan 2016

      Fig 11: Water level fluctuation decadal mean May 2015

      Fig 12 Water level fluctuation decadal mean May 2016

      Mean Water Levels for The Period May 2006-2015 & May 2016

      – The water level data for May 2016 were compared with mean water level for the period May 2006-2015. Rise in the water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 42% of wells analysed, spread all over the State and U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in the water level in the range of 2-4 m has been observed in 14% of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Cuddalore, Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Madurai, Nagapattinam, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Tiruvannamalai, Tiruchchirappalli and Tiruvarur districts. Rise in water level more than 4 m has been observed in eight percentage of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Kancheepuram, Kanyakumari, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Salem, Thanjavur, Theni and Tiruchirappalli districts. The fall in water level in the range of 0- 2m has been observed in 25% of wells analysed and noted in all the districts. The fall in water level in the range of 2-4m has been observed in seven percentage of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Kancheepuram, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni and Tiruchirappalli districts. The fall in water level more than 4 m has been observed in four percentage of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Dindigul, Erode, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Salem, Theni and Tiruchirappalli districts.

      Mean Water Levels for the Period August 2006-2015 & August 2016 -The water level data for August 2016 were compared with mean water level for the period August 2006-2015. Rise in the water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 37% of wells analysed, noted all over the State and U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in the water level more than 2 m has been observed in 19% and of wells analysed and noted in all the districts except in Tiruvarur districts and U.T. of Puducherry. The fall in water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 31% of wells analysed and spread all over the State except and U.T. of Puducherry. The fall in water level in the range of 2-4m has been observed in 10% of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Dharmapuri

      (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode (Undivided), Karur, Madurai, Nagapattinam, Namakkal, Nilgiris, Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Tiruvarur and Tiruchirappalli districts. The fall in water level more than 4 m has been observed in three percent of wells analysed and noted as isolated pockets in Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Erode (Undivided), Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, and Tiruchirappalli districts.

      Mean Water Levels For the Period November 2006-2015 & November 2016 – The water level data for November 2016 were compared with mean water level for the period November 2006- 2015. Rise in the water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in nine percent of wells analysed, noted as isolated pockets in Chennai, Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Nagapattinam, Nilgiris, Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Tiruchirapalli, and Villupuram districts. Rise in the water level in the range of 2-4 m has been observed in two percent of wells analysed and noted in Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Nagapattinam, Namakkal and Salem districts. Rise in water level more than 4 m has been observed in one percent of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Erode, Namakkal, and Sivaganga districts. The fall in water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 41% of wells analysed and spread all over the State and U.T. of Puducherry. The fall in water level in the range of 2-4m has been observed in 26% of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Madurai, Nagapattinam, Namakkal, Nilgiris, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Tiruvarur, Trichy, and Villupuram districts. Fall in water level more than 4 m has been observed in 21% of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Tiruvarur, Trichy, and Villupuram districts.

      Mean Water Levels for the Period January 2005-2014 & January 2015 – The water level data for January 2015 were compared with mean water level for the period January 2005-2014. Rise in the water level in the range of 0-2 m has been observed in 33% of wells analysed, and noted in all the districts of Tamil Nadu and

      U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in the water level in the range of 2-4 m has been observed in seven percent of wells analysed and observed in Chennai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Madurai, Nagapattinam, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Salem and Trichy districts. Rise in the water level in the range of more than 4 m has been observed in five percent of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Kanyakumari, Madurai, Namakkal, Sivaganga and Theni districts. The fall in water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 34% of wells analysed and noted in all the districts and U.T. of Puducherry. The fall in water level in the range of 2-4m has been observed in 11% of wells analysed and noted in all districts except Kanyakumari, Nagapattinum, Nilgiris and U.T. of Puducherry. The fall in water level more than 4m has been observed in 10% of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur, Pudukottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Tiruvarur, Trichy and Villupuram districts.

      Mean Water Levels for the Period May 2005-2014 & May 2015 – Rise in the water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 41% of wells analysed, spread all over the State and U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in the water level in the range of 2-4 m has been observed in 14% of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Maurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Trichy, Villupuram districts and Karaikal region of U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in water level more than 4 m has been observed in 10% of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Kanyakumari, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Salem, Sivaganga, Theni and Trichy districts. The fall in water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 23% of wells analysed and noted in all the districts and U.T. of Puducherry except Karaikal region and Tiruvarur district. The fall in water level in the range of 2-4m has been observed in nine percentage of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Trichy and Villupuram districts. The fall in water level more than 4 m has been observed in three percentage of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Erode, Namakkal, Pudukkottai, Salem, Trichy and Villupuram districts.

      Mean Water Levels for the Period August 2005-2014 & August 2015 – Rise in the water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 39% of wells analysed, noted all over the State and

      U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in the water level in the range of 2-4 m has been observed in 11% of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Tirunelveli, Trichy, and Villupuram districts. Rise in water level more than 4 m has been observed in eight percentage of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Erode, Kanyakumari, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Salem, Sivaganga, Theni and Trichy districts. The fall in water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 29% of wells analysed and spread all over the State and U.T. of Puducherry except Tiruvarur district. The fall in water level in the range of 2- 4m has been observed in nine percentage of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dindigul, Erode, Kancheepuram, Karur, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Trichy and Villupuram districts. The fall in water level more than 4 m has been observed in four percentage of wells analysed and noted in Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Namakkal, Pudukkottai, Salem and Villupuram gar districts.

      Mean Water Levels for the Period November 2005-2014 & November 2015 – Rise in the water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 33% of wells analysed, noted all over the State and U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in the water level in the range of 2- 4 m has been observed in 16% of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Madurai, Nagapattinam, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, Tiruvarur, Trichy and Villupuram districts and U.T. of Puducherry. Rise in water level more than 4 m has been observed in 10% of wells analysed and noted in Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Madurai, Namakkal,

      Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Thanjavur, Theni, and Trichy districts. The fall in water level in the range of 0-2m has been observed in 25% of wells analysed and spread all over the State except in Nagapattinam, districts and U.T. of Puducherry. The fall in water level in the range of 2-4m has been observed in 10% of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Namakkal, Nilgiris, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukottai, Salem, Sivaganga, Trichy, and Villupuram districts. Fall in water level more than 4 m has been observed in six percent of wells analysed and noted in Chennai, Coimbatore, Dharmapuri (Undivided), Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Madurai, Namakkal, Perambalur (Undivided), Pudukkottai, Salem, Theni, Trichy, and Villupuram districts.

    2. Karnataka

      Fig 13 Water level fluctuation – decadal mean Aug 2016

      Fig 14 Water level fluctuation – decadal mean Aug 2015

      Change in Water Level: Mean (January 2006 to January 2015)- Jan 2016 – Major parts of the districts, under consideration, are showing fall in water level as compared to decadal mean water level of 2006-2015 with respect to January 2016 water level. In the rise category, water level showing less than 2 m is observed in parts of all most all districts as minor patches. Rise in the range of

      2-4 m is observed in Bangalore rural, Bangalore Urban, Chamrajanagar, Chitradurga, Kodagu, and Mandya, Mysore, and Tumkur districts. Rise of more than 4 m water level is observed as small patches in parts of Bangalore Rural, Chikmagalur, Kodagu, Mandya, Tumkur, and Chitradurga districts. Fall in water level less than 2 m and 2-4 m is noticed in parts of almost all the districts. Fall of water level of more than 4 m is observed as small patches in all the districts.

      Bangalore Urban district.

      Bangalore Urban district.

      Change in Water Level, Mean (May2006 to May 2015) May 2016 – Rise in water level in the range of 0 to 2 m is observed in all parts under consideration. A rise in water level of 2 to 4 m is noticed as patches in almost all parts of the State except in the Mandya district. Rise in water level of >4m is noticed as small patches in all the districts except Mandya, and Chitradurga. Fall in water level of <2 m is noticed in almost all parts of the districts. Fall in Water levels in the range of 2 to 4 m is also noticed in almost all parts of the districts. Fall in water level of >4 m is noticed as small patches in almost all parts of the districts except

      Fig 15 Water level fluctuation – decadal mean Nov 2016

      Fig. 16 Water level fluctuation – decadal mean Nov 2015

      Change in Water Level, Mean (Aug 2006 to Aug 2015)-Aug 2016

      – Major part of the State is showing fall in water level compared to decadal mean water level of 2006-2015 with respect to August 2016 water level. In the rise category, water level less than 2 m rise observed in parts of Chitradurga, Tumkur, Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Mandya, and Chamarajanagar districts. Rise of 2 to 4 m is observed in parts of almost all the districts except Mysore district. More than 4 m rise is observed as small patches in Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Chamarajanagar Ramanagara, Shimoga, and Tumkur districts. Fall in water level of less than 2m and 2 to 4 m is recorded in parts of almost all the districts of Karnataka State. Fall in water level of more than 4 m is observed in parts of almost all the districts except Hikkaballapura, Bangalore urban and Tumkur.

      Change in Water Level, Mean (Nov 2006 to Nov 2015) Nov 2016 – Major parts of the districts are showing fall in water levels as compared to decadal mean water level of November 2006 – November 2015 with respect to November 2016 water level. In the rise category, water level showing rise of less than 2 m is observed in parts of almost all the districts as minor patches. Rise in the range of 2 to 4 m is observed in parts of Bangalore Rural, Bangalore Urban, Kodagu, and Tumkur districts. Rise of more than 4 m in water level is observed as small patches in parts of Bangalore Rural and Tumkur districts. Fall in water levels of less than 2 m and 2 to 4 m are noticed in parts of almost all the districts. Fall of water level of more than 4 m is observed as small patches in all the districts.

      Change in Water Level: Mean (January 2005 to January 2014)- Jan 2015 – In the rise category, rise of 0 to 2 m is observed in entire Karnataka State. Rise in water level of 2 to 4 m is noticed as patches in almost all districts except in Mysore and Hassan. Rise in water level of greater than 4 m is recorded as small patches in Bangalore Rural, Chamrajanagar, Chikmagalur, Chitradurga, Hassan, Kodagu, Mandya, and Tumkur districts of Karnataka State. In fall category, fall n water level of 0-2 m is seen in almost in all districts considered in Karnataka. Fall in water level of 2 to 4 m is noticed as patches in almost all districts considered in Karnataka State. Fall in water level of greater than 4 m is seen in almost all districts except Kodagu district.

      Change in Water Level: Mean (May 2005 to May 2014) May 2015 – Rise in water level of <2m is noticed in almost all parts of the State. A rise in water level of 2-4 m is noticed as patches in almost all parts of the State except in the coastal districts. Rise in water level of >4m is noticed as small patches in all districts except Bagalkot and Koppal districts. Fall in water level of <2 m is noticed in almost all parts of the State. Water level fall of 2-4 m is also noticed in almost all parts of the State except Koppal districts. Fall in water level of >4 m is noticed as small patches in almost all parts of the State except Chamrajanagar, Kodagu, Koppal and Tumkur districts.

      Change in Water Level, Mean (Aug 2005 to Aug 2014)-Aug 2015

      – Major part of the State, under consideration, are showing fall in water level compared to decadal mean water level of 2005-2014 with respect to August 2015 water level. In the rise category water level less than 2m rise observed in Chitradurga, Tumkur, Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Mandya, and Chamrajanagar districts. Rise of 2-4 m is observed as patches in Chitradurga, Tumkur, Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Mandya, and

      Chamrajanagar districts. More than 4 m rise is observed as small patches in Chitradurga, Chikmagalur, Hassan, Tumkur, Bangalore urban, Mandya, Mysore, Chamrajanagar and Kodagu districts. Fall in water level less than 2m and 2-4 m is recorded in almost all the districts under consideration. Fall in water level of more than 4 m is observed in almost all districts except Chamrajanagar, Kodagu and Mandya districts.

      Change in Water Level: Mean (Nov 2005 to Nov 2014) Nov 2015 – Majority of the districts are showing fall in water level as compared to decadal mean water level of 2005-2014 with respect to November 2015 water level. In the rise category, water level showing less than 2m is observed in parts of all most all districts as minor patches. Rise in the range of 2-4 m is observed in Bangalore rural, Bangalore Urban, Chamrajanagar, Chitradurga, Kodagu, Mandya, Mysore, and Tumkur districts. Rise of more than 4m water level is observed as small patches in parts of Bangalore rural, Chikmagalur, Kodagu, Mandya, Tumkur and Chitradurga districts. Fall in water level less than 2m and 2-4 m is noticed in parts of almost all districts. Fall of water level of more than 4m is observed as small patches in all the districts.

        1. Kerala

          Fig. 17 Water level fluctuation – Decadal mean Jan 2015

          Fig. 18 Water level fluctuation – Decadal mean-Jan 2016

          Fig. 19 Water level fluctuation – Decadal mean Aug 2015

          Fig. 20 Water level fluctuation Decadal mean- Aug 2016

          Fluctuation between Mean January (2006-2015) and January 2016

          • Most of the places in Wayanadu are observed with rise in the range of 0-2 m and in other parts of the districts show a decline in ground water level in the range of 0-2 m.

            Fluctuation between Mean April (2006-2015) and April 2016 – The change in water level over the last ten years period is brought out by the comparison of water level with the mean value of April measurements of the period 2006-2015. This analysis indicates that the change in water level is mostly restricted to +2(rise) to – 2(fall) m. Some parts of Idukki are showing rise in water level. However, fall in water level is predominant in many parts of Idukki district and almost all parts of Wayanadu district.

            Fluctuation between Mean August (2006-2015) and August 2016

          • The change in water level over the last ten years period is brought out by the comparison of water level with the mean value of August measurements of the period 2006-2015. This analysis indicates that the change in water level is mostly restricted to

            +2(rise) to -2(fall) m. In rise category, Rise of in the range of 0-2 m is observed as small patches only in Idukki district. However major parts of Idukki district is showing fall in the range of 0-2 m. In case of Wayanadu, almost all parts are observed to be in the range of 0-2 m of fall and some parts are noticed with fall in the range of 2-4 m.

            Fluctuation between Mean November (2006-2015) and November 2016 – The change in water level over the last ten years period is brought out by the comparison of water level with the mean value of November measurements of the period 2006-2015. Rise in the range of 0-2 m in some parts of Idukki and in a few areas of Wayanadu. Fall in the range of 0-2m is noticed in major parts of the districts. The occurrence of fall in the range 2-4 m is observed in some parts of Wayanadu and in a few areas of Idukki.

            Fluctuation between Mean January (2005-2014) and January 2015

          • The change in water level over the last ten years period is brought out by the comparison of water level with decadal mean value of January measurements for the period 2005-2014.This analysis indicate that the change in water level is mostly restricted to +2 (rise) to -2 (fall) m. Rise in water level is predominant in Wayanadu district and it is in the range of 0-2 m. But some parts of the district show fall in the range of 0-2 m. In Idukki area having fall in the range of 00-2m is comparatively larger than area with rise in the range of 0-2 m.

          Fluctuation between Mean April (2005-2014) and April 2015 – Rise in the range of 0-2 m water level is predominant in both Idukki and Wayanadu district. However, in some parts of Idukki district and in very few places in Wayanadu district show fall in the water level when compared with the decadal mean. The range of fall is again between 0-2 m.

          Fluctuation between Mean August (2005-2014) and August 2015

          -Rise in the range of 0-2 m is observed in some parts of Idukki district and in a few places of Wayanadu districts. Other parts in Idukki district and in some places of Wayanadu district show fall in the range of 0-2 m. Fall in the range of 2-4 m is also witnessed in some parts of Wayanadu district.

          Fluctuation between Mean November (2005-2014) and November 2015 – Rise in the range of 0-2 m is predominant in Idukki district. Some parts of Idukki and almost entire Wayanadu district are observed to have fallen in the range of 0-2 m.

        2. Inference

          Tamil Nadu – In the months of January, May and August while comparing the scenarios between 2015 and 2016, the districts under observation show expansion of areas where rise in groundwater level is observed. This change is high when compared to the corresponding situations of Karnataka. But the area under fall category has increased drastically when compared to the previous study periods and also larger than Karnataka. Though there is an increase in area under rise category for the months January, May and August, in November almost all the area

          has started to show drastic decline in groundwater level. So, the state needs some new ground water managing technique to soften this change.

          Karnataka – In the months of January and May, while comparing the scenarios between 2015 and 2016, the districts under observation show expansion of areas where rise in groundwater level is observed. It is noticed that only some area under fall category in 2015 has shifted to raise category in 2016 for the month of August. But for November most of the districts under rise category have started to show decline in groundwater to a depth >2 m that of its decadal mean. Though there is an increase in area under rise category for the months January, May and August, in November almost all the area has started to show drastic decline in groundwater level. So, the state needs some new ground water managing technique to soften this change.

          Kerala – The trend of increase in area under decline in groundwater is observed btween fluctuations in the years 2015 and 2016. Almost all the parts of Idukki and Wayanadu are showing a fall in the range of 0-2 m in 2016, while during the same month of 2015 the area under the fall category is less. A significant increase in area having fall of groundwater level in the range 2-4 m is observed in the months of August and November between 2015 and 2016. The fall is within the range of 4m but, if this prevails for n number of years, recharging of ground water to the original depth will become a tough job.

        3. Suggestions

      All the three states have to be effectively managed for conservation of groundwater. However, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka require adopting a new conservative action immediately. In Kerala since they are equally utilizing groundwater, rainwater and river water, there is stretch for natural recharge. Based on the findings, following ideas can be considered:

      • Reducing concrete surfaces and increasing green cover.

      • Artificial Recharge techniques (indirect and direct) can be as adopted. One of the newly developed ways is sub-surface

        dams which has following advantages: minimum amount of evaporation loss, area acquisition is low, environmental flow is maintained and damage due to collapse is eliminated.

      • Diversion of flood water towards areas with low rainfall and has soil having high water-retention capacity.

  5. Coleroon Discharge Variation

    1. Need for Analysis of Mettur dam

      The project also explores the study of Mettur dam. This was carried out due to the recent conflict of releasing the discharge directly into the sea without proper assessment or utilization by the state government water authority. Another reason is due to the resistance from officials in releasing the inflow/outflow values to the public and news media. The study is done from data collected from The Hindu newspaper. The observation is made from 19th July to 2nd August 2018. These dates were purposefully nominated because of the heavy rainfall received by Karnataka during South-

      capacity for more than 25 days till the beginning of September. Since the data is collected from newspaper, data is discontinuous.

      capacity for more than 25 days till the beginning of September. Since the data is collected from newspaper, data is discontinuous.

      West monsoon which in turn lead to excess amount of outflow from Kabini dam and Krishnarajasagar dam. Mettur dam reached its full capacity 39th time in 84-year history on 22nd July, 2018. Starting from the onset of August, the dam has been in its full

      Ma

      125

      120

      water level in feet

      water level in feet

      115

      110

      E. 3 Need for Analysis of Coleroon dam

      • Apart from the inflow from Karnataka, Mettur dam also received water from Bhavani River in Kerala and Amaravathi River in Coimbatore. For second week of August, Cauvery met with heavy flow from Kerala. During this period, flow at Mayanur in Karur was heavy.

      • Sometimes the flow reaches 2.21 Lakh cusecs which was

        present for three consecutive days. But the carrying capacity of Mukkombu is only 35000-36000 cusecs. So, to ease the flow, major part of the water is released into Coleroon. For this incident, this project also analyses Coleroon discharge for 12 days (peak time). The water levels were collected from newspapers and by discharge calculations, volume of water released from Coleroon were estimated.

        105

        100

        95

        90

        WATER LEVEL(ft)

        Fig. 21 Mettur Dam Water Levels

        180000

        Volume of water in cusecs

        Volume of water in cusecs

        160000

        140000

        120000

        100000

        80000

        60000

        40000

        20000

        0

        250000

        VOLUME (cusec)

        VOLUME (cusec)

        200000

        150000

        100000

        50000

        0

        INFLOW (cusec) DISCHARGE (cusec)

        Fig. 23 Graph between Volume of discharge and Date

        E.3 Observations

        • From the calculations, it is observed that about 16 MCFt of water was directly released into the sea.

        • The maximum water level was reached at Grand Anicut at the initial stage of peak flow itself. Once Upper Anicut releases

        water, it goes to Grand Anicut which was already full at that instance. So, the excess discharge was released straight to the sea because of inadequate storage capacity.

        Fig. 22 Graph between Volume of Discharge and Inflow with Date of Mettur Dam

    2. Observations

      • Initially the outflow was kept less than the inflow. When the dam reached its full capacity, the outflow was made more or less equal to the inflow.

      • During mid-August, both the inflow and outflow were equal and at their peaks.

      • However, from the start of September, the outflow was maintained higher than the inflow. The reason may be clinched to two possibilities.

        • To alleviate the flood which may occur due to the upcoming North-East monsoon,

        • To irrigate Lake Samba or Lake Thaladi which help in crop cultivation for Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur, Trichy, Peramblur, and Karur.

      E.4 Suggestions

      Regarding the condition when outflow is greater than inflow:

      • The water which was released during the time period when inflow was equal to outflow, can be diverted to various irrigation fields of Thanjavur district where there is huge gap in irrigation supply and demand.

      • The excess flow can also be diverted and stored in local water

        bodies. This is a very efficient procedure as Thanjavur is in semi-critical level of ground water exploitation and the minor difference between domestic demand and supply can be minimalized.

      • Once the dam stops receiving a considerable amount of inflow, the outflow can be reduced and the water can be stored for dry season.

        Regarding the condition where there is an exclusive flood alert: The Central Water Commission in 1958 commenced Flood Forecasting Services. So far, they have established 175

        functional sites in 15 states. But it does not include Cauvery basin. Therefore, in future, it is necessary to implement such sites not only for forecasting flood, but also to control water management as a whole. Thus, there arises a need for Flow Simulation Model.

  6. Flow Simulation Model

  • Quintessential aims and objectives should be instituted according to the history of flow pattern of Cauvery River.

  • Entire basin has to be divided into number of categorized watersheds and sub-units, provided the present classification does not favor the new system.

  • A panel of professionals, PWD employees and senior students can be allocated for examining the simulation system.

  • Within the panel, teams can be split up into smaller crews and

    these crews can be assigned to different watershed units for resourceful functioning.

  • In this way of team allocation, funding for human resources

    can be reduced to an extent as stipend can be given for college students and research scholars.

  • Elementary information like Rainfall (DAD curve, Hyetograph, Intensity-depth), Infiltration data, Excess rainfall, Topography can be collected for 10 years and looked upon.

  • Initially, it is hard to obtain historical data for all the small

    units. So, it is very important to install the necessary measuring devices according to the norms mentioned in Water Management Organization, mentioned in IS 4987-1968.

  • After collection of data, the team has to simulate a model for their respective unit by considering all the hydrological aspects.

  • The simulation model must be comprised of rainfall and

    channel flow relationship and discharge at outlet of each unit.

  • This has to be submitted to the main panel. The pnel members can compress all the small units together into a potential workable prototype for the entire basin.

  • The simulation model of the entire basin should work in such a way that, hypothetically, if 75mm downpour starts at

    12:54pm on 15th October for the duration of 6 hours in Kodagu, about X% of the rainfall excess will be predicted to cause Y% of inflow at Upper Anicut at 11:32pm.

  • This process will require proper scheduling, working and

    implementing the system. This requires independent and unbiased Water Management Board for the Cauvery basin.

  • For further improvement, the entire basin must be connected to a common database by technical assistance such as Internet of Things.

  1. CONCLUSION

    The preliminary aim of the project was to focus primarily on domestic and agricultural usage of water in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, depending on Cauvery water and come up with feasible suggestions and ideas to overcome the inadequacy. As the study progressed, the scope of investigation extended to ground water analysis and evaluation of Coleroon Discharge for a particular flood period. General suggestions were given without paving way for political or legal issues. The project is done on a small-scale basis and the

    methodology adopted can be used for a grass-root level exploration.

    Judicious use of ground water, rain water and surface water sources is the best simple-cut solution for the enigma of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu water sharing policy. The present scheme is not practically viable as they dont consider agricultural requirements and patterns into account. The resolutions should be a future-based approach. Ideas like ground water management, waste water recycling and more state-confined amendments will foster co- operation rather than competition between the states in dispute.

    Socio-economic growth is directly proportional to the availability of resources where water is one among them. If sustainable water use is not put into implementation, researchers suggest that by 2030, there will be water-scarcity in river Cauvery, thereby, declining socio-economic growth of both the states.

    Main sufferers of this century old dispute are the farmers. Approximately 7 farmers die each day as of 2015. Unless there is a hope to harmonize water policies, agricultural patterns and schedule, administrative strategies and mindset of citizens, Cauvery dispute cannot be solved just by technical interferences.

  2. REFERENCES

  1. T. Subramanium, Performance Evaluation of Cauvery Irrigation System, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2014, Vol.4 (Issue 6), pp. 191- 197.

  2. T.R. Neelakantan, C.R. Suribabu, & R. Selvakumar, Opportunity to restore irrigation tanks in the Cauvery delta by mining and deepening, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 2016.

  3. S. Anbazhagan & P. Dash, Environmental case study of Cauvery river flood plain, Journal of Environmental Planning, 2003, Vol.7(Issue 12), pp. 30-35.

  4. K. Ravi Kumar & Rakesh Khosa, Fair and equitable allocation of Cauvery River water, International Water Research Association, 2007, Vol.32(Issue 4), pp. 571-588.

  5. Population Data, https://www.citypopulation.de/India- Agglo.html

  6. Tamil Nadu Ground Water Data http://www.twadboard.gov.in/twad/com

  7. Kerala Habitation Data http://indiawater.gov.in/IMISWeb/HabitationDirectory/Rep orts/rpt_HabInformation.aspx

  8. The HINDU Newspaper

Central Ground Water Board http://cgwb.gov.in/GW-Year- Book-State.html

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