- Open Access
- Authors : Mujahid Mohammed Umair Saleemudddin, Kalaivani Muthuvelan, Shaikh Rehan Abdul Rasool
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV9IS04029
- Volume & Issue : NREST – 2021 (Volume 09 – Issue 04)
- Published (First Online): 10-03-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Auto Phase Sequence Control System with RFID
Mujahid Mohammed UmairSaleemudddin.
Department of ElectricalEngineering,
Fr.C Rodriques Institute of Technology ( Affiliated to MumbaiUniversity).
M.E, ( Power systems Engineering), Department of Electrical Engineering,
Saboo Siddik Polytechnic (Affiliated to MSBTE/AICTE) Mumbai, India.
Shaikh Rehan Abdul Rasool
Student, Department of ElectricalEngineering,
M.H. Saboo Siddik Polytechnic (Affiliated to MSBTE/AICTE) Mumbai, India.
Abstract – In industries the motors play a major role. The motors present in industries are single phase motors, three phase motors and DC motors. The three- phase motor is powered by 3 phase supply RYB. The Three phase motor is used for different purpose in industries like for conveyor belts for production, for food processing and for other heavy and precise works. The common faults that can arise in Three Phase Induction Motor are, Short circuit, Single Phasing, Change in Phase Sequence, etc. The three phase motors rotate normally in clockwise direction but when phase sequence of supply given to motor changes from RYB to RBY the motor starts rotating in opposite direction. The load needs protection not only from change of phase sequence but also from access of unauthorized person. The unauthorized person can harm the system. So as to provide the protection to motor or three phase loads from change of phase sequence and from access of unauthorized person a proposed system has been made which is named as Auto phase sequence control system
Key Words : Phase sequence, both the direction of rotation, RFID, Auto phase sequence.
Usually, The three phase motors and loads are provided with different kind of protection systems for detection of
change in phase sequence from supply. The device usually used is phase sequence relay.
This phase sequence relay detects the change in phase sequence from its sensors and comparators and cutoff the supply to the load. This practice stops the production.
In many industries the stoppage of machinery even for second can cause a huge loss so that to save the industry from huge loss there is no options either to change the phase sequence manually. Hence there needs to be automatic phase sequence controlling device.
Security must be provided to entire machines controlling a process from unauthorized persons hence RFID system is also provided with Phase sequence protection.
NO Normally open
NC Normally closed
RFID Radio Frequency Identification
MCB Miniature Circuit Breaker
BLOCK DIAGRAM –
Here a single channel 5V relay module is getting controlled by Arduino and RFID. Only for the authorized RFID tags The RFID system will operate the 5V relay module.
The Authorized tags are the tags which are added to Arduino at the time of programming of Arduino by authorized person.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION –
The working Principle of the project i.e. Auto phase sequence control system is changing the phase sequence of the three phase supply as to make the phase sequence to thethree phase load correct.
If the phase sequence of the three phase supply is correct then the system will detect the phase sequence and without changing the phase sequence the three phase supply is feedto three phase load.
If the phase sequence of the three phase supply is incorrect then the system will detect the incorrect phase sequence and it will change the existing phase sequence of the three phase supply and then the supply is feed to three phase load.
Based on the operation of relays the phase sequence is detected and accordingly either Contactor 1 or Contactor 2 is activated to supply the three phase load. The phase sequence can be changed by interchanging the any two of the three phase supply lines.
Assume the phase sequence of the supply to be R-Y-B
, so by interchanging Y phase with B phase of the supply the phase sequence of three phase supply can be changed and then the phase sequence will become R-B-Y.
RFID (RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION)
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. An RFID tag consists of a tiny radio transponder; a radio receiver and transmitter. When triggered by an electromagnetic interrogation pulse from a nearby RFID reader device, the tag transmits digital data, usually an identifying inventory number, back to the reader. This number can be used to inventory goods. There are two types. Passive tags are powered by energy from the RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags are powered by a battery and thus can be read at a greater range from the RFID reader; up to hundreds of meters. Unlike a barcode, the tag doesn't need to be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID isone method of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC).
RFID READER – 8. RFID BLOCK DIAGRAM –
A RFID Reader is a device that uses radio-frequency waves to wirelessly transfer data between itself and a
RFID tag/label in order to identify, categorize and trackassets.
RFID TAG –
RFID tags are used in many industries. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses.
AUTO MODE –
As the name suggests in auto mode the phase sequence will be changed automatically. The auto mode can be selected by changing the position of selector switch from off position to auto position. In automatic mode with any possible phase sequence combination the three phase load wont operate in wrong phase sequence the phase sequence to the three phase load will always remain same.
The automatic mode consists of double pole MCB, Triple pole MCB, RFID with single channel relay, Phase sequence relay, Timer, Contactor and 8 pin electromagnetic relay.
When both the MCBs are closed the single phase supply is stopped at single channel relay module and three phase supply is stopped at main contactor.
Once an authorized person operates the RFID the single channel relay module will change its position from normally closed to normally open and thus it will operate the SelectorSwitch and Main Contactor.
As shown in the figure the three phase supply is given from main contactor to contactor 1 in proper phase sequence and the supply to contactor 2 is given in improper phase sequence.
Now if the phase sequence of the system is proper i.e R- Y-B then the position of phase sequence relay will be at normally closed and the common point of phase sequence relay is supplied with single phase control supply. Thus the single phase supply will activate the Timer 1 and after the set time the normally open contact of Timer 1 will act as normally closed contact and then the timer 1 will activate Relay 1 and thus the normally closed contact of Relay 1 will become normally open and normally open contact of Relay 1 will become normally closed. Thus it will operate the Contactor 1 and hence the three phase load will get the three phase supply in desired phase sequence.
The common of a phase sequence relay is connected to Common of Timer 1, Common of Relay 1, Common of Timer 2 and Common of Relay 2 respectively.
Now if the phase sequenceof the system is improper that is R-B-Y then the position of a Phase sequence relay will be at normally open. Thus the single phase supply will activate timer 2 and after the set timer the normally open contact of timer 2 will act as normally closed contact and then timer 2 will activate relay 2 and thus the normally open contact of relay 2 will become normally closed and normally closed contact of relay 2 will become normally open. Thus Relay 2 will operate contractor 2 and hence the connected three phase load will get proper phase sequence.
The supply from the Timer 1 and Timer 2 can be directly given to Contactor 1 and Contactor 2 respectively but due to high impedance of Contactor coil, the Timer may get damaged and the Relay coil is having low impedance hence the Timer is operating Relay and Relay is operating Contactor.
As Relay 1 and Relay 2 are operating Contactor 1 and Contactor 2 respectively so interlocking between Relay 1 and Relay 2 is given because if Relay 1 and Relay 2 will operate simultaneously then there will be short circuit in 3 phase supply because Contactor 1 and Contactor 2 you willbe operating at the same time.
The interlocking between Relay 1 and Relay 2 is given such as the normally closed contact of Relay 2 to is connected to normally open contact of Relay 1 and normally closed contact of relay one is connected to normally open contact of Relay 2 hence of Relay 1 is operating the Relay 2 will remain in off position.
MANUAL MODE –
Manual Working –
When the selector switch is selected to manual operation. As soon as supply turned ON the supply then goes to main contactor and the single phase supply goes to RFID relay.
As soon as the card shown to RFID detector the single phase supply then goes to the selector switch and from selector switch it goes to the push buttons NC and NO.
As the 3 phase supply further transferred to two contactorsthat is contactor 1 and contactor 2.
The contactor 1 is supplied with correct phase sequence at input terminal but contactor 2 is supplied with changed phase sequence.
For contactor 1 : Sequence of phase is RYB For contactor 2 : Sequence of phase is RBY
Whenever supply phase sequence changes the supply shiftsfrom contactor 1 to contactor 2
Case 1 :
When the push button 1 is presses the supply goes to the NC of contactor 2 and which is further connected to the coil of contactor 1 this will make contactor 1 coils energized and then NC will become NO and NO will become NC and at this time the push button for contactor 2 supply will never turn on unless and until contactor 1 turned off.
As above case 1 for contactor 1 when 2nd push button is pressed for contactor the supply passes through NC of contactor 1 and goes to coil of contactor 2 this will energize the contactor 2 coil and same NC will become NO and NO will be NC. And similarly the 1st contactor will now stop working at this time.
The purpose of interlocking between these two contactors is to prevent the machine from short circuit. When these two push buttons pushed at same time this will make short circuit and can cause huge fault and danger so that by providing interlocking between these two contactors we cansave the machine from fault.
RESULT – 13. FRONT VIEW OF PANEL –
rotation of motor without
rotation of motor
R Y B
R B Y
In first case the supply to the motor was give as R Y B the phase sequence indicator rotates in clockwise direction andmotor also rotates in clockwise direction.
In second case the supply to the motor is given as R B Y hence the phase sequence indicator shows the rotation in anticlockwise direction but the motor runs in same forward/clockwise direction as the Auto phase sequencecorrects the phase sequence.
A Textbook of Electrical Technology – Volume II