- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 0
- Authors : K. Deepan, B. Uma
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV6IS14047
- Volume & Issue : Confcall – 2018 (Volume 06 – Issue 14)
- Published (First Online): 05-01-2019
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Augmented And Virtual Reality in Construction
Augmented And Virtual Reality in Construction
(Opens Into A New Door of Construction In Bulidings)
K. Deepan 1
Department of Civil, PITS
B. Uma 2
Department of Civil, PITS
Augmented and virtual technologies both play
or tvs, which is known as Cave Automatic Virtual Environment or CAVE . CAVE consists of multiple
vital roles in the construction industry. Augmented
technologies, however, have a higher benefit when compared to virtual. The two technology types are discussed; with their similarities and differences explained. The past, present, and future is described. Some benefits to using augmented technology are discussed. The drawbacks are mentioned, with the way to correct them detailed.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Construction Industry, Scheduling, Safety
Throughout the 20th century and beyond, the United States has seen monumental changes in a wide variety of aspects. In our regard, there has been a huge transformation in the construction industry. Through building bigger and better things, the industry has revolutionized means and methods [1,2,3,4,5].In addition, in order to overcome shortage of competent workforce, the construction industry has taken advantage of technology to better recruit and retain new workers in construction career[6,7,8]. One of the technological tool employed by the construction industry is called Virtual Reality, in which a three- dimensional, computer generated environment can be explored and interacted by a person. Augmented Reality shares the same concept, but rather than to interact in a non-existing environment (virtual reality), augmented reality uses existing environment while implementing virtual elements to appear as if both are together at the same time . The purpose of this review is to explore the changes in the construction industry that are resulting from augmented and virtual technology.
Virtual reality is an exciting innovation slowly being implemented into the construction industry. Virtual reality or VR is a computer generated simulation of three- dimensional (3D) environment, in which the user is able to both view and manipulate the contents of that environment . It has many applications that can benefit a project with increased jobsite education and safety, design improvement and communication with involved parties from the owner down to the laborer, and help to exceed owners expectations and lower project costs. VR is broken down into desktop and immersive VR categories. Desktop is displayed on computer monitors
monitors joined together to form a large screen that allows the user to feel a part of the virtual world Immersive virtual environment or IVE will typically have the following features; it will surround its user, obscuring cues from the physical environment and increasing the sense of
presence within the IVE; provide a three-dimensional visual representation of the virtual environment; track the users location and orientation and update the virtual scene to match the users movements, and give the user some degree of control over the objects in it. There is great potential for improving all parts of the construction process by implementing this technology. Augmented Reality: Due to the large amount of popularity surrounding virtual reality, augmented reality oftentimes tends to be overlooked by the public as a whole. While this may be because of a basic misunderstanding of the topic, augmented reality certainly holds merit in the world of construction technology, especially when it comes to educational, architectural, and field engineering processes for both students and professionals alike. Augmented reality consists of a live, imitative version of the real world
with the capacity to add certain elements to the simulated landscape. Augmented reality was initially introduced into the gaming world as an entertainment alternative, but the possibility of its educational potential are being thrust into the spotlight by architectural and engineering schools across the globe . Augmented reality (AR) creates an American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 2016 w w w . a j e r . o r g Page 351 environment where computer generated information is superimposed onto the users view of a real-world scene . The benefits of this for aspiring architects and field engineers alike are limitless as it allows for the user to see a project in its completed form overlaid onto an empty field. Augmented reality is being used in the world of construction by placing a 3D model in front of the eyes of the user and initiating a learning experience unlike any seen before. In this way, it allows for an individual to interact with real-world projects and deal with defects before they even occur . By creating exposure to a project before it physically exists, augmented reality creates a unique learning opportunity for the inexperienced and construction-savvy individual alike by presenting the opportunity to locate and fix a projects flaws in a safe, risk-free environment all in real time .
Virtual reality and Augmented Reality offer new and exciting benefits to the construction industry being discussed in following paragraphs.
Scheduling: Augmented reality will improve the scheduling aspect of the construction industry greatly; it can show an as-planned vs. an as-built structure to allow visualization of progress . In a survey of architects and engineers that was conducted by Mea et al. about construction progress monitoring, the results favored the augmented reality on a tablet PC to other 3D models or a Gantt chart . Based on other questions in the survey, one thing Mea et al. were able to conclude is that it is possible to see and estimate the work that is done on site is in accordance with the proposed schedule of the job . Wang et al. also mentioned using augmented reality for project progress monitoring as a way to compare the project progress to the schedule . Wang takes monitoring a step further and connects augmented reality to material tracking to ensure that the necessary materials are on site . As projects become more complex many scholars and researchers are looking to augmented reality to resolve the complexity of projects . Many researchers like Mani Golparvar-Fard have researched programs D4AR and how it is used to monitor progress on job sites . Although there are many uses for augmented reality in construction progress tracking is one of the most used functions of augmented reality today . Another function that Omar and Nedhi mention augmented reality can be used for communication .
Communication/Information Retrieval:In the construction industry, communication and information retrieval are two important keys to the success of all projects . Access to project information on-site is significantly improving with the introduction of different augmented reality (AR) programs compared to more traditional information sources  These AR systems allow fast access to information helps project managers to decide on corrective actions to minimize cost and delays due to performance discrepancies . To reduce the difficulties for on-site information retrieval many companies are starting to develop lightweight mobile devices. These companies are working to develop devices that could project construction drawings and related information based on the location of the user  Also researchers are developing progams that work with a mobile device's camera to help identify location and orientation of field based solely on a site photograph  These new AR programs allow multiple parties associated with a construction projects the ability to clearly grasp the whole picture of the project site and to make accurate predictions about future activities  The added visualization benefits of AR technologies allow for better communication between parties when commenting and making suggestions for a particular project  There are however a few barriers to the adoption, immature core virtual reality technology, conservative nature of construction businesses and size of building information
models  AR is still relatively its early stages of development pertaining to the construction industry but it is already showing great potential.
Man-labor Hours: In the construction industry, time and efficiency are key to a successful project. As the world evolves there is a constant push for innovation in all aspects of life. This is no exception in the construction industry. As new technologies emerge the construction process is becoming more and more streamlined due to new technologies and innovation. These innovations solve problems including lack of manpower in the management, and cost efficiencies within the construction project. These innovations include augmented reality and virtual reality technologies. Augmented reality, which is a new and emerging technology in construction, is deemed to be a key enabler to address the current shortcomings of BIM on-site use in construction . These technologies allow construction management to address defects that might be overlooked in the inspection process and save time doing so. If managers know the core control time points and measures for works to be checked proactively through the defect domain ontology, then the worker's performance can be automatically checked at the right time with BIM and AR applied inspection tools without visiting the workplace This allows managers to save both time and money on specific projects while lowering Man-Labor hours and cost efficiencies due to defects and construction rework. Much money and time are wasted because plans or drawings are misinterpreted, or the information is transferred imprecisely from the American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 2016 w w w . a j e r . o r g Page 352 plan to the real object . By implementing AR technologies managers are much more time oriented to their project. If managers know the core control time points and measures for works to be checked proactively through the defect domain ontology, then the worker's performance can be automatically checked at the right time with BIM and AR applied inspection tools without visiting the workplace  Another benefit of AR is that this technology allows for a better understanding of what work is actually going on, and what it should look like when it is completed. AR was regarded as a way to bring notable additional value and sense of concreteness especially in close-to-target locations where the shapes and volume of the planned buildings could be visualized.  In other words, the reduction of time due to switching treatment implies that AR facilitates an assemblers understanding of the assembly process. 
Safety: In the construction industry, just as any other field of work, safety needs to be the top priority to everyone associated with our field of work. No other industry promotes and encourages safety as the construction industry. Unfortunately, there are too many accidents in this industry. In 2011, the construction industry accounted for 16% of fatal occupational injuries in the U.S. . A lot of companies invest a tremendous amount of money into safety programs and trainings. By using augmented reality, the total cost of the same
knowledge that needs to be imparted with respect to safety, could be reduced dramatically . The total cost of using augmented reality is cheaper because the equipment used could vary from high end gear to a simple smartphone. A smartphone could be use because of the infinite possibilities that applications provide. Augmented reality applications are cheaper and more efficient ways to enhance human safety . These applications could run various drills, or specific scenarios that will give the user a real life feeling of a potential hazard. Various authors also state that progress monitoring are not systematically monitored well, making jobsites prone to potential risks . In addition, the authors explain how the use of augmented and virtual reality on cranes will provide a safer method of locating and selecting the appropriate cranes for different projects . A different approach for using augmented and virtual realities is how they could improve safety by obtaining better training. A research illustrates, for example, how the usage of augmented reality proves the best training in the shortest time, while also retaining the longest knowledge and skill acquired through the simulator . There are also other types of trainings; one in which focuses on better decision making by using simulated technology such as augmented and virtual will dramatically improve to have safer decisions [37, 38] These type of technologies will only improve the quality of work of the person who underwent training using augmented and virtual reality, ultimately reducing the probability of accidents.
The purpose of this review was to explore the changes in the construction industry that are resulting from augmented and virtual technology. Furthermore, research has shown that augmented technology is a supplement of virtual technology, giving users a real time view of what is occurring before them. Although augmented technology has only been around for just over 50 years, it has seen its greatest improvements and an increase in demand in the last 20 years. It is clear from the research reviewed that these great improvements in augmented technology are having an effect on the industry in multiple ways. For example, when trying to get a picture of how a final project will look during different stages in the construction process. Along with this, it is also clear that augmented technology can greatly improve the effectiveness of safety training, because it allows people to get a real time view of different situations on the job site. Even though augmented technology appears to be an important tool in the1 construction industry, there are multiple drawbacks of such technology. However, these drawbacks and barriers are soon broken by the upcoming generations and the constant advancement in technology around the world. Assuming that augmented technology will only improve with time, it is almost certain that such technology will play a critical role in construction for years to come.
REFERENCES Sadeghi, S. A., & Karava, P. "Stochastic Model Predictive Control of Mixed-mode Buildings Based on Probabilistic Interactions of Occupants With Window Blinds." International High Performance Buildings Conference, 2014, Retrived from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6974/c82c519385ea6b9ead939e7 03930af225c73.pdf  Sadeghi, S. A. & Karava, P. Integration of Occupant Interactions with Window Blinds on Model Predictive Control of Mixed- Mode Buildings. ASHRAE Transactions, 121, 2015.  Arhami, M., Askariyeh, M.H., Momeni, M., Salimian, M., Delavarrafiee, M., Nayebyazdi, M., and Ashrafi, K., Modeling and Assessment of Air Pollutants Emission from Vehicular Sources in Tehran, Proceeding of the U.S.-Iran Symposium on Air Pollution in Megacities, Beckman Center of the National Academies of Science and Engineering, Irvine, CA, Sep 3-5, 2013  Askariyeh, M.H. and Arhami, M. "Projecting Emission Reductions from Prospective Mobile Sources Policies by Road Link-based Modeling", Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol.53,
Nos. 1/2, pp.87-106, 2013 Vallamsundar, S., M. Askariyeh, J. Zitsman, T. Ramani, N. Johnson, J. C. Pulczinski, and K. Koehler. "Maternal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution Across Different Microenvironments", Journal of Transport & Health, Vol.3,No.2, pp. S72-S7, 22016,  Escamilla, E., Ostadalimakhmalbaf, M. Capacity Building for Sustainable Workforce in the Construction Industry. The Professional Constructor. Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 51-71, 2016 American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 2016 w w w . a j e r . o r g Page 353  Escamilla, E., Ostadalimakhmalbaf, M., & Bigelow, B. F. Factors Impacting Hispanic High School Students and How to Best Reach Them for the Careers in the Construction Industry. International Journal of Construction Education and Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 82-98. 2016.  Khanzadi, M., Dabirian, S., Mohammadpour, A., & Makhmalbaf,
M. O. Selecting the best strategy of labour productivity improvement in Tehran grade 1-3 construction contractor companies by applying analytic hierarchy process and statistical analysis of effective factors on labour productivity. In The International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP), Sorrento (Naples), pp. 15-18, 2011 Satoh, K., Ohshima, T., Yamamoto, H., & Tamura, H. (1998, November). Case studies of see-through augmentation in mixed reality project. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR98).  Goulding, J., Nadim, W., Petridis, P., Alshawi, M., (2012), Construction Industry Offsite Production: A Virtual Reality Interactive Training Environment Prototype, Advanced Engineering Informatics, Vol. 26, Issue 1, January 2012, pp.103-
116 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21573727.2013.805688 Messner, J.I., Yerrapathruni, S., Baratta, A.J. and Whisker, V.E. (2003), "Using Virtual Reality to Improve Construction Engineering Education," Proceedings of the 2003 ASEE Annual Conference, Nashville, TN , 8 pages.  Tutt, D., & Harty, C. (2013, September). Journeys through the CAVE: The use of 3D immersive environments for client engagement practices in hospital design. In Proceedings 29th Annual ARCOM Conference, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, Reading (pp. 2-4).  Sacks, R., Perlman, A., & Barak, R. (2013). Construction safety training using immersive virtual reality. Construction Management and Economics, 31(9), 1005-1017.  Fonseca, D., MartÃ, N., Redondo, E., Navarro, I., & SÃ¡nchez, A. (2014). Relationship between student profile, tool use, participation, and academic performance with the use of Augmented Reality technology for visualized architecture models. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 434-445.  Chi, H. L., Kang, S. C., & Wang, X. (2013). Research trends and opportunities of augmented reality applications in architecture, engineering, and construction. Automation in construction, 33, 116-122.  Park C.S, Lee D.Y, Kwon O.S, Wang X (2013) A Framework for Proactive Construction Defect Management Using BIM, Augmented Reality and Ontology-based Data Collection Template. Automat. Constr. 33: 61-71.  Lin, T. J., Duh, H. B. L., Li, N., Wang, H. Y., & Tsai, C. C.
(2013). An investigation of learners' collaborative knowledge construction performances and behavior patterns in an augmented reality simulation system. Computers & Education, 68, 314-321. Zollmann, S., Hoppe, C., Kluckner, S., Poglitsch, C., Bischof, H.,
& Reitmayr, G. (2014). Augmented reality for construction site monitoring and documentation. Proceedings of the IEEE, 102(2), 137-154. Mea, S., Turk, ., & Dolenc, M. (2015). Measuring the potential of augmented reality in civil engineering. Advances in Engineering Software, 90, 1-10.  Park, C. S., Lee, D. Y., Kwon, O. S., & Wang, X. (2013). A
framework for proactive construction defect management using BIM, augmented reality and ontology-based data collection template. Automation in Construction, 33, 61-71. Lin, T. H., Liu, C. H., Tsai, M. H., & Kang, S. C. (2014). Using
Augmented Reality in a Multiscreen Environment for Construction Discussion. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 29(6), 04014088. Golparvar-Fard, M., PeÃ±a-Mora, F., & Savarese, S. (2009). D4ARa 4-dimensional augmented reality model for automating construction progress monitoring data collection, processing and communication. Journal of information technology in construction, 14(13), 129-153.  Omar, T. and Nehdi, M. (2016). "Data acquisition technologies for construction progress tracking." Automation in Construction, 70, 143-155.  Pejoska, J., Bauters, M., Purma, J., & Leinonen, T. (2016). Social
augmented reality: Enhancing contextdependent communication and informal learning at work. British Journal of Educational
Technology, 47(3), 474-483. Bae, H., Golparvar-Fard, M., & White, J. (2013). High-precision vision-based mobile augmented reality system for context-aware architectural, engineering, construction and facility management (AEC/FM) applications. Visualization in Engineering, 1(1), 1.  Yeh, K. C., Tsai, M. H., & Kang, S. C. (2012). On-site building information retrieval by using projection-based augmented reality. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 26(3), 342- 355.  Hsieh, S., Kang, S., & Lin, T. (2016, January 14). Augmented reality system and method for on-site construction process. Retrieved September 19,2016, from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2016/0011842.html  Wang, X., Love, P. E., Kim, M. J., Park, C. S., Sing, C. P., &
Hou, L. (2013). A conceptual framework for integrating building information modeling with augmented reality. Automation in Construction, 34, 37-44. Park, C. S., Lee, D. Y., Kwon, O. S., & Wang, X. (2013). A
framework for proactive construction defect management using BIM, augmented reality and ontology-based data collection template. Automation in Construction, 33, 61-71. Wang, X., Truijens, M., Hou, L., Wang, Y., & Zhou, Y. (2014). Integrating Augmented Reality with Building Information Modeling: Onsite construction process controlling for liquefied natural gas industry. Automation in Construction, 40, 96-105.  T . D . Olsson , A . T . Savisalo , M . Hakkarainen and C . Woodward (2012). User evaluation of mobile augmented reality in architectural Planning. eWork and eBusiness in Architecture,
Engineering and Construction, pp.733-740 Hou, L., Wang, X., & Truijens, M. (2013). Using augmented reality to facilitate piping assembly: an experiment-based evaluation. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 29(1), 05014007.  Albert, A., Hallowell, M. R., Kleiner, B., Chen, A., & Golparvar- Fard, M. (2014). Enhancing construction hazard recognition with high-fidelity augmented virtuality. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 140(7), 04014024.  Agrawal, A., Acharya, G., Balasubramanian, K., Agrawal, N., & Chaturvedi, R. (2016). A Review on the use of Augmented Reality to Generate Safety Awareness and Enhance Emergency Response.  Golparvar-Fard, M., PeÃ±a-Mora, F., & Savarese, S. (2009). D4ARa 4-dimensional augmented reality model for automating construction progress monitoring data collection, processing and communication. Journal of information technology in construction, 14(13), 129-153.  Akyeampong, J., Udoka, S. J., & Park, E. H. (2012, July 3-6). A Hydraulic ExcavatorAugmented Reality Simulator for Operator Training. Retrieved
&sid=78db71ad-31bf-41f3-9ba2- 8e4d7a25626a@sessionmgr102&hid=126 Attia, S., Gratia, E., Herde, A. D., & Hensen, J. L. (2012). Simulation-based decision supporttool for early stages of zero- energy building design. Energy and Buildings, 49, 2-15.Retrieved from http://ww.janhensen.nl/publications_folder/12_enb_attia.pdf  Behzadan, A. H., & Kamat, V. R. (2009). Interactive augmented reality visualization for improved damage prevention and maintenance of underground infrastructure. In Proceedings of the 2009 Construction Research Congress. Seattle, WA.