Assessment of Yamuna River Water Quality at Agra: A Case Study

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Assessment of Yamuna River Water Quality at Agra: A Case Study

Bhuri Singh

Department of Chemistry B.S.Anangpuria Institute of Technology and Management,

Faridabad, Haryana-121004

Abstract- Present work studies of Yamuna river water quality at Agra. Rivers water is important role in ecological balance. Yamuna river is the second largest tributary of the river Ganga. Its water flows from Yamuna Nagar, Panipat, Sonipat, Delhi, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Faridabad, Palwal, Aligarh, Mathura, Agra, Etawah and Prayagraj (Allahabad). Yamuna river water has highly polluted at Agra. The reasons are being urbanization, industrialization and agriculture waste and fertilizers.So,water samples collection have been done on the basis of survey and taking samples on the different intervals at Hathi Ghat near railway bridge, Agra. These parameters were applied to pH ( 7.6 to 7.95), temperature ( 28 0C to 35.5 0C), electrical conductivity ( 1680 µS/cm to 1762 µS/cm), dissolved oxygen ( 4.5 mg/L to 4.8 mg/L), turbidity (15 NTU to 25 NTU ), total dissolved solid ( 1300 mg/L to 1550 mg/L ), salinity (0.48 ppt to 0.56 ppt ),

chloride ( 270 mg/L to 310 mg/L), acidity ( 11.84 mg/L to 22.28 mg/L), total alkalinity ( 295 mg/L to 520 mg/L), total hardness (290 mg/L to 372 mg/L ), nitrate ions ( 33 mg/L to 40 mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand ( 20 mg/L to 30 mg/L) and chemical oxygen demand ( 75 mg/L to 90 mg/L). Mostly, water quality parameters have exceeded the desire prescribed limit of Bureau of India Standard. Yamuna river water is not perfect for drinking and domestic purposes and river water could not directly be used.so, its needs to spread the aware for the pollution status of Yamuna river publicly.

Keywords- Urbanization, water pollution, Yamuna river.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Water is most valuable sources on earth out of which ninety seven percent surface water is salty only three percent is fresh water. It is a renewable source for all of us and is required for biotic development of environment. Surface water played an important role in the hydrological cycle. The Yamuna river is second largest tributary of river Ganga. Its water flows from Banderpooch (Himalayas), through Yamuna Nagar, Sonipat, Delhi, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Faridabad, Palwal, Aligarh, Mathura, Agra, Etawah and Allahabad [1].The river water is usually confined to a channel made up of stream bed between river banks. Its water is used as sources for domestic,

agriculture and industrial usage. In total, seventy percent water is used for irrigation purposes, twenty two percent is consuming for industrial purpose and remaining eight percent is used for different domestic activities. Domestic and industrial unwanted materials are the main resource of water pollution [2]. Some industries are discharging their waste into Yamuna river which includes pulp and paper, sugar, distilleries, textiles, leather, chemical, pharmaceuticals, oil refineries, thermal power plant etc. All these industries are situated at Yamuna river bank [3].Its needs to spread the aware for the pollution status of Yamuna river publicly [4]. It suggested that Yamuna river water could not directly be used [05].

2.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD

Yamuna river is most polluted river in North India [6] Its water flows from Banderpooch, Yamuna Nagar, Sonepat, Delhi, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Faridabad, Palwal, Aligarh, Mathura, Agra, Etawah and Allahbad.Its water is very polluted at Agra. There are many industries in the surrounding area and urban waste disposal exist in the region. Water quality monitoring at Hathi Ghat, Agra. River water samples were collected in the summer season during 2014- 2016 The sampling containers were washed with distilled water and ringed by river water sample. Its samples were immediately transported to the laboratory. Water samples were stored at 40C in refrigerator. Its samples were analyzed by standard method [7-8].

3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Yamuna is one of the most polluted river in the India. Its basin is also established in large urban and industrial centers. Water pollution is increasing in it due to rapid economic development. Fourteen physicochemical parameters were analyzed by standard method and comparison has been made according to BIS.

Table 1: Water quality monitoring at Hathi Ghat, Agra.

Water quality parameters

Unit

BIS

Hathi Ghat near railway bridge, Agra.

2014

2015

2016

Min

Max

pH

6.5-8.5

7.6

7.95

7.7

7.6

7.95

Temperature

°C

28

35.5

33

28

35.5

Electrical Conductivity

µS/cs

1000

1680

1762

1750

1680

1762

Dissolved Oxygen

mg/L

4-6

4.6

4.8

4.5

4.5

4.8

Turbidity

NTU

10

25

17

15

15

25

Total Dissolved Solid

mg/L

500

1300

1550

1437

1300

1550

Salinity

ppt

0.48

0.56

0.53

0.48

0.56

Chloride

mg/L

250

270

310

298

270

310

Acidity

mg/L

14.74

11.84

22.28

11.84

22.28

Total Alkalinity

mg/L

200

295

474

520

295

520

Total Hardness

mg/L

200

290

372

310

290

372

Nitrate Ion

mg/L

45

40

35

33

33

40

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

mg/L

10

23

30

20

20

30

Chemical Oxygen Demand

mg/L

10

75

90

80

75

90

The hydrogen ion concentration value varies from 7.6 to 7.95. The hydrogen ion concentration values are in permissible limit. The temperature ranges from 280C to 35.5 oC in the observation period. The EC values varied from 1680 µs/cm 1762 µs/cm. The EC values are in high permissible limit indicating high dissolve ion present in water. The dissolved oxygen value varies from 4.5 mg/L to 4.8 mg/L.The turbidity varies from 15 NTU to 25 NTU, indicating soil runoff in river water. The TDS values varied between 1300 mg/L to 1550 mg/L. Its values are above the BIS permissible limit. It indicates that, Organic matters are also present in water. The salinity values varied from 0.48 ppt to 0.56 ppt. The chloride value varies from 270 mg/L to 310 mg/L .Chloride values are above the BIS permissible limit and indicated present in salty water. The acidity values of water varied from 11.84 mg/L to

    1. mg/L. The total alkalinity values varied 295 mg/L to 520 mg/L indicated that dissolved carbon dioxide present in river water. The total hardness values ranged between 290 mg/L to 372 mg/L. All samples total hardness values are above the BIS permissible limit. It indicates that calcium and magnesium ion is present in water sample. The nitrate values vary from 33 mg/L to 40 mg/L. The BOD values varied between 20 mg/L to 30 mg/L.and are not in permissible limit indicating organic matter contamination in water. The COD values varied from 75 mg/L to 90 mg/L. It values are above the BIS permissible limit and indicating oxidation of waterborne organic and inorganic matter present in river water.

      4.0 CONCLUSIONS

      Fourteen water quality parameters have been analyzed for three years. High values of turbidity, BOD, COD, total alkalinity, total hardness, TDS Chloride, and EC were found in the samples. The pH is within their respective desirable limit at site. Assessment of water quality indicated that Yamuna river water is not perfect for drinking, and domestic purposes.

      REFERENCES

      1. CPCB. (2006). Assessment and development of river basin series ADSORBS/41/200-07.Cental Control Pollution Board, New Delhi.

      2. Mehra,Pragati and Kaur, Simerjit. (2016). Assessment on impact of anthropological activities on water quality of Yamuna river at Yamuna Ghat Wazirabad, Delhi. During various. International Journal of Science Technology and Management 5(2):158-163

      3. Kumar, Atul., Sharma, RC and Rathore, Babita. (2015). Determination of WQI of river Yamuna between Mathura and Agra region. Ultra-Chemistry, 11(1): 7-11.

      4. Kathal,Rekha., Chaudhary,Vidhi., Kumar,Lalit., Puri,Aditi., Baishya,Ratul and Uniyal, P.L. (2016). Pollution status of Yamuna river, India: A national concern. International Journal of environmental science. 5(12): 1-6.

      5. Lavaniya, Arun., Divakar,R.P and Raut, Chadetrik. (2015). Assessment of water quality of Yamuna river in rural and semi urban settings of Agra,India.International Journal of earth science and engineering, 8(4): 1661-1666.

      6. Parmar, Shobhika and Singh,Vir. (2015). Water quality parameters of river Yamuna in Delhi after 20 year of the Yamuna action plan. International Journal of science and nature, 6(4): 662-669.

      7. Kaul, S.N and Gautam, Ashutosh. (2002). Water and waste water analysis, Daya publishing house, Delhi.

      8. Maiti, S.K. (2011). Hand book method in environmental studies,

Oxford book company, New Delhi.

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