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Assessment of Water Quality of Baitarani River

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Assessment of Water Quality of Baitarani River

Assessment of Water Quality of Baitarani River

Dr. Tushar Kumar Natp, Bhagirathi Tripathy2 Abhijeet Das3

1Professor, IGIT, Sarang

2Assistant Professor, IGIT, Sarang

2Faculty, Civil Engg. Department, IGIT, Sarang, Dhenkanal,

Abstract – Levels of various physico-chemical parameters along with coli form cell units were determined for fourteen water samples in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post- monsoon periods between March-2014 to Feb-2015 to assess the water quality stations of Baitarani River. Most of the parameters were of maximum value in post-monsoon period. The samples were acidic in post-monsoon period where as slightly acidic to alkaline in other periods. The pH, EC, TDS, TH, the major cations and anions in all samples and DO values in most of the samples were well within the BIS and WHO limits. But turbidity, TSS, total and faecal coliform units and in some cases BOD values were beyond the limits indicating contaminated water bodies. Fe and Cr contributed a lot for high value of WQI. The sample from (S8) was found to be unsuitable for drinking and bathing purpose. The overall water quality assessment indicates proper treatment of river/stream water for public consumption. The possible sources of contamination are weathering of rocks, soil erosion, extensive mining operations and anthropogenic activities. TDS, SAR, Na%, RSC values indicated good quality of water samples for irrigation.

Keyword: Water quality index, Contamination, Streams, Physico-chemical parameters, Coliform cell units, Irrigation, Weathering.

INTRODUCTION

The irrigation of agricultural crops with water of poor quality decreases the yield. A system for assessing the suitability of the available water for irrigation of the different crops, taking in consideration the results of the chemical analysis is needed to avoid emerging problems at using inadequate quality water. The system issues recommendations how to use the water for irrigation on the base of analysis on the basis of information on cultivated crops, soil, and agro-climatic characteristics of the region. The objectives of the study are protection of water resources, soil resource, crops, and consumers, sustainable agricultural development etc. is a precondition for the crop production, which eliminates the health risks for the consumers.

Agriculture is the most important economic activity constitutes the major source of food and earning. The water is the major source for irrigation in India. The quality of water for irrigation also depends on the nature, composition of the soil, sub-soil, depth of the water table, topography, climate, etc. The quality of water reflects inputs from the atmosphere, soil, and water-rock weathering and pollutant sources. It required for irrigation depends up on the dissolved salts like Na, Ca, and Mg & HCO3 in water. The concentration of these salts and their ratio to one another are influence the

quality of water for irrigation. However, such water influences crops yield.

LITERATURE REVIEW

River basins are highly vulnerable to contamination due to absorption and transportation of domestic, industrial and agricultural waste water. Anthropogenic influence as well as natural processes degrade surface waters and impair their use for drinking, industrial, agricultural and recreational purposes (Kumar and Dua, 2009). India is heading towards a fresh water crisis mainly due to improper management of water resources and environmental degradation. Hence various technologies and policies to ensure the safety of this valuable resource is the need of the hour for a developing country like India. According to WHO organization, about 80% of all the diseases in human beings are water borne. The presence of various toxic substances in the water bodies causes health hazards. In addition to various physico- chemical parameters, the microbiological quality of water is important for environmental health because of its relationship to disease transmission. It therefore becomes imperative to regularly monitor the water quality of various sources to devise ways and means for its protection and to prevent occurrence of health hazards (Das et al., 2012), (Reza and Singh, 2010). W QI (Water quality index) is one of the most effective tool s to communicate information on overall quality status of water to the concerned user community and policy makers to shape sound public policy and implement the water quality improvement programmes efficiently (Tiwari and Mishra,1985), Kalavathy et al., 2011) and can assess a stream/rivers ability to host life and whether the overall quality of water bodies poses a potential threat to various uses of water (Kumar and Dua, 2009). The purpose of the present study is to assess the water quality for drinking and irrigation use of the local stations of Baitarani river flowing in respective areas using WQI along with some irrigational quality parameters, following Indian standard drinking water specification, IS 10500: 2012.

STUDY AREA

Baitarani River originates at an elevation of 900 m above mean sea level from Guptaganga hills of Gonasika of Keonjhar district. The beginning portion of Baitarani acts as the boundary between Odisha Jharkhand states. It flows in a north-easterly direction for about 80 km and then takes a south-east direction for the next about 170

km to reach Jajpur. Here the river turns left to flow towards east and enter the littoral plain or delta. The river enters plains at Anandpur and creates deltaic zone below Akhuapada. The river traverses a total distance of 360 km in Odisha before joining with Dhamra river and finally into the Bay of Bengal, Deo, Salandi, Kanjhari, Musal, Arredi, Siri, Kukurkata, Kusei, Gahira and Remal are major tributaries of Baitarani river.

A major portion of the basin (94.8%) lies within the state of Odisha, while a small patch of up reach (5.2%) lies in Jharkhand state. The basin covers 8 revenue districts of the state. The main urban centres in Baitarani basin are keonjhar, Joda, Jajpur, Vyasana, Bhadrak, Anandpur, Chandabali and Dhamnagar.

AREA COVERAGE OF DISTRICTS(IN PERCENTAGE) IN BAITARANI BASIN IN ODISHA

BALASORE, 30% SUNDERGARH, 2% ANGUL, 0.50%

MAYURBHANJ, 10%

KENDRAPADA, 37%

KEONJHAR, 79%

BHADRAK, 100%

JAJPUR, 35%

The below (figure1&2) showing monitoring stations of Baitarani basin by the application of GIS Software.

(Figure1. Baitarani basin showing monitoring stations)

(Figure2. Baitarani basin showing Rain gauge stations)

Geographic Information System:

MATERIALS AND METHODS

places from local stations of Baitarani river (Table) in pre-

GIS is a system of hardware and software used for storage, retrieval, mapping, and analysis of geographic data. A geographic information system, or GIS, is a computerized data management system used to capture, store, manage, retrieve, analyze, and display spatial information. GIS is an interdisciplinary tool, which has application in various fields such as Geography, Geology, Cartography, Engineering, Surveying, Rural & Urban planning, Agriculture, Water resources, etc.

Collection of Samples:

The present study was carried out for a period of one year 2014-15. Water samples were collected from 14 different

monsoon (March-June-2014), monsoon (July-October- 2014) and post monsoon (November-February-2015) periods at a regular interval of once in a month. Water samples were collected in acid- washed plastic bottles of one l tr. capacity having double stopper faciities to its full capacity without entrapping air bubbles inside. Two bottles of water was collected from each station i.e. one for analysis of physico-chemical parameters and other for heavy metals. About two ml. of concentrated HNO3 was added to the second bottle of each station to preserve the heavy metals present in the sample. Also, water Samples were collected in sterile glass bottles and were preserved in an ice bucket at 40C for analysis of total coliforms and faecal coliforms.

Table1.WATER SAMPLING LOCATIONS

SAMPLE NO

MONITORING STATIONS

1

CHANDABALI

2

JAJPUR

3

AKHUAPADA

4

DAITARI

5

BONTH

6

ANANDAPUR

7

GHARTAGAON

8

THAKURMUNDA

9

SWAMPATNA

10

KEONJHARGARH

11

KARANJIA

12

JHUMPURA

13

JOSHIPUR

14

CHAMPUA

3 4 3 4

The collected samples were sent to water quality laboratory of Central Water Commission, Bhubaneswar for analysis of physico-chemical parameters like pH, turbidity, EC, TDS,

TSS, total hardness, cations like Ca2+,Mg2+,Na+,K+, and anions like,HCO -, SO 2,- NO -, PO 3-,Cl-. Analysis of heavy metals like Fe and Cr were done by AAS (Shimadzu

AA6300) and ICP-OES (PerkinElmer Optima 2100 DV) in IMMT, Bhubaneswar. However, pH, EC,were measured by using respective digital meters. Other parameters were measured by standard methodology of APHA (1998), (Trivedy and Goel, 1984). These parameters were compared with the standard guideline values, recomended by BIS- 10500 (2012) and WHO (2006). WQI (Water quality index) was calculated (Kalavathy et al., 2011), (Reza and Singh, 2005), (Mukherjee et al., 2012), (Ravikumar et al., 2013)

for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods to assess the suitability of water for drinking purposes and for biotic communities. For WQI calculation, total 14 parameters such as pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca) ions, magnesium (Mg) ions, total Fe, Cr, Cl-, SO 2- , NO – were considered and desirable limit of each parameter was used as per BIS standard.

4 3

Table2.Water quality parameters with B.I.S Standard and unit weights

PARAMETERS

BIS STANDARDS

WEIGHTAGE (Wi)

pH

6.5-8.5

0.0054

Turbidity

5

0.00814

TDS

500

0.0000814

TSS

100

0.00029

DO

6

0.0068

BOD

3

0.0136

TH

300

0.000136

Ca

75

0.00054

Mg

30

0.00136

Fe

0.3

0.1357

Cr

0.05

0.814

Cl-

250

0.000163

2-

SO4

200

0.00021

NO3

45

0.0009

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The analytical results obtained for various physico-chemical parameters from different sampling locations in the study period are summarized in Table 2 to 4. The pH values varied between 6.06 and 7.43 during the study period. Turbidity ranged from 8.2 to 65.4 NTU. Dissolved oxygen level varied between 4.78 and 8.01 mg/L and BOD ranged from 0.86 to5.16 mg/L. The observed EC values were in the range 96-393 s/cm. The TDS, TSS and Total Hardness of the water samples varied from 74-247 mgL, 30-168 mg/l and 64-135 mg/l respectively in the study period. Various cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+,Na+, K+, Fe and Cr concentrations varied as 12.83-29.74, 0.97-5.83 2.0-13.0,

4

3 4 3

0.7-3.7, 0.132-1.432 and 0.051-0.194 mg/L respectively. The concentrations of various anions HCO -, SO 2- NO -, PO 3-and Cl- were in the range 41.92-91.46, 2.31-7.16, 0.65- 5.30, 0.22-1.18 and 7.41-28.86 mg/L respectively. The total coliform and faecal coliform cells were observed from 970 to 15000 and 70 to 590 CFU/100ml respectively.

DRINKING WATER QUALITY

PH:

The water samples in study area were slightly acidic to alkaline in pre-monsoon and monsoon periods where as predominantly acidic in post- monsoon period. The minimum value was recorded in post-monsoon and maximum value was recorded during monsoon period. The pH values were within the BIS and WHO limits in almost all stations in the study period except the samples S8 and S12 with below the permissible limit. The recorded high pH

values in pre-monsoon may be due to the solar radiation, penetration of water into the soil and high biological activity and the lower value observed during post-monsoon may be due to the influence of fresh water influx, seeping of drainage from mines, low temperature, automobiles and decomposition of organic matter.

TURBIDITY AND TSS

The turbidity of surface water is usually between 1 NTU and 5 NTU. Turbidity exceeds both the BIS and WHO standard limits within the study period. Though TSS was within the BIS and WHO limits in some of the stations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods, it was beyond the limits in monsoon period. The water samples were found to be maximum turbid with highest suspended solids during the monsoon and of minimum value in pre-monsoon period, analogous to the results obtained by Mandal et al. (2012). This may be due to massive soil erosion, water discharge, urban and rural run- offs, effluents from mines and industries, domestic sewage, recreational use of the streams and river, algal growth, leachates and run off from the overburden dumps as explained by Parmar and Parmar (2010), Rath et al. (2010). As per USEPA Guidelines and Rath et al. (2010), reduced clarity due to high turbidity and TSS are likely to increase the suspended colloidal particles and contaminate the fresh water sources, often associated with higher levels of disease-causing micro organisms makes the water less desirable for many of its uses. These organisms can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps,

diarrhea, and associated headaches. With respect to these parameters the water samples are not suitable for drinking.

EC, TDS, TH

Electrical conductivity (EC) of water is a direct function of total dissolved salts, which is a measure of salinity of water and presence of various cations and anions, minerals and metallic ions comprising both colloidal and dissolved solids as previously reported by Kumar and Dua (2009), Shetty et al. (2013). Total hardness in water is mainly imparted by the calcium and magnesium ions, which apart from sulphate, chloride and nitrate are found in combination with carbonates and bicarbonates as explained by Shetty et al. (2013), Singh et al. (2010). These three parameters are within the permissible limits of BIS and WHO standards. Higher values of EC and TDS were recorded in the water samples of streams in monsoon period and higher values were obtained in post-monsoon period in the water samples of river. Comparatively higher EC values with appreciable level of TDS along with higher TH in some samples like S2, S3, S6,S 8, S12 than others, in monsoon and post-monsoon. These observations are similar tothose of Shetty et al. (2013). This may be due to multiple factors like weathering of rocks and minerals, the adverse effect of mining with high levels of suspended solids and dissolved solids along with heavy metals, (Rath et al., 2010), discharge of sewage from nearby market places and residential areas, agricultural runoff and anthropogenic activities (Singh et al., 2010; (Kalavathy et al., 2011; Rajathi et al., 2013). In the present study, the water samples are of moderately hard category as explained by Muniyan and Ambedkar (2011) and Ravikumar et al. (2013).

DO, BOD AND COLIFORM COUNTS

Though DO values are >6, and within limits of BIS and WHO in water samples at most of the stations, the values are not so higher value to consider water quality to be excellent type. The detected DO values of samples S2, S8 are below the the BIS and WHO limits. BOD values in some stations like S2, S5, S8, S10 and S12 are beyond the permissible limits. Maximum DO and BOD values were recorded in monsoon period where as minimum DO and BOD values were observed in pre-monsoon and post- monsoon period respectively for the analyzed samples. It is largely attributed to increase in aeration level due to fresh water influx in monsoon with increased flow current of river water. Similar observation was also found by Singh et al. (2013). Faecal coliforms originate in human and animal waste. Total coliforms include faecal and also other bacteria with similar properties which originate in soil and are non faecal. Much higher number of total coliform and faecal coliform cell units were found throughout the study period. Maximum units of coliform cells were detected during monsoon period than the respective levels in Pre- monsoon and Post- monsoon.

Higher coliform population during monsoon is due to increased land run off and higher faecal inputs into the river and streams from various sources is similar to earlier findings of Rath et al. (2010), Srivastava and Srivastava (2011). Minimum units of coliform cells were detected in water samples of river and streams in post- monsoon and pre-monsoon period respectively. This scenario of coliform bacteria indicates microbial contamination thereby lowering the DO levels and raising BOD values of the water samples at some stations, particularly S2, S5, S6, S8, S12, as described by Mukherjee et al. (2012) and are risk to human health as per BIS, WHO guidelines. Thus, the water samples are not potable. Some stations like S2, S5, S8, S12 are also not suitable for beneficial uses, particularly in monsoon, as per the descriptions of Mukherjee et al. (2012), Shukla et al. (2011). Coliform bacteria may not cause disease, but used as one of the indicators of pathogenic contamination with the risk of water-borne diseases such as intestinal infections, dysentery, hepatitis, typhoid fever, cholera and other illnesses (Srivastava and Srivastava, 2011).

Table3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BAITARANI RIVER IN PRE-MONSOON

td>

12

1

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BAITARANI RIVER IN PRE-MONSOON

MONITORI NG

STATIONS

p H

TURBI DITY

TD S

TS S

EC

D O

B O

D

TH

HC

O3

SO

2-

4

N

O3

PO

3-

4

Cl-

Ca

2+

M

g2+

Na

+

K+

TOTA L

COLI

FEAC AL

COLI

Fe

Cr

NTU

mg

/L

mg

/L

s/

cm

mg

/L

mg

/L

mg

/L

mg/

L

mg

/L

mg

/L

mg

/L

mg

/L

mg

/L

mg

/L

mg

/L

mg

/L

CFU/1

00ml

CFU/1

00ml

mg

/L

mg

/L

CHANDAB

ALI

7.

1

8.2

74

30

96

7.8

4

1.0

2

64

41.

92

2.4

1.2

2

0.3

5

9.4

3

14.

83

1.5

8

2

1.5

970

80

0.1

92

0.0

58

JAJPUR

6.

97

15.8

14

1

10

6

182

6.1

5

3.2

5

76

64.

38

6.3

4

3.4

9

0.4

7

18.

15

19.

24

3.1

6

9.9

2.2

2000

200

0.8

31

0.1

25

AKHUAPA

DA

7.

5

13.5

16

7

65

216

7.6

5

2.3

9

10

4

79.

8

5.5

2

1.0

3

0.5

9

16.

27

26.

25

2.1

9

7

1.8

3750

210

0.5

02

0.0

86

DAITARI

7.

21

17.3

10

8

51

137

6.8

4

1.6

2

88

56.

44

3.4

1

0.9

2

0.2

5

10.

92

21.

64

3.4

8

4

1.4

3000

150

0.2

47

0.0

67

BONTH

7.

4

20.5

15

3

92

206

5.8

2

2.0

9

79

74.

31

5.1

4

0.8

3

0.2

8

15.

08

18.

64

3.8

9

9.2

2.1

2500

180

0.5

51

0.1

24

ANANDAP

UR

7.

35

15.1

16

0

85

243

7.4

6

1.2

3

80

65.

18

2.6

5

1.9

1

0.4

3

12.

07

20.

86

2.5

4.6

1.1

3000

120

0.6

26

0.1

03

GHARTAG

AON

6.

73

10.4

97

52

120

8.0

1

0.8

6

71

55.

4

3.6

5

0.8

1

0.3

5

7.8

7

16.

51

2.6

1

4.3

0.7

2000

70

0.2

18

0.0

51

THAKURM

UNDA

6.

35

24.5

17

8

318

4.7

8

4.2

3

12

1

79.

94

6.8

7

4.8

6

0.4

8

27.

26

27.

25

4.3

8

9.2

1.4

8000

360

1.0

84

0.1

72

SWAMPAT

NA

6.

85

17.7

12

0

63

187

7.0

4

2.6

4

82

62.

11

5.6

7

2.2

9

0.7

3

13.

86

19.

04

3.9

3

5.2

0.9

2500

150

0.4

45

0.0

95

KEONJHA

RGARH

7.

12

25.2

13

1

80

223

7.1

5

1.2

5

91

69.

92

4.6

6

1.6

4

0.4

4

13.

68

23.

77

1.9

3

5.7

2.6

3000

220

0.4

23

0.1

01

KARANJIA

7.

06

21.3

11

5

87

192

7.2

2

1.1

7

77

64.

73

5.8

1

1.3

2

1.0

1

15.

07

20.

42

3.9

8

7.5

2.7

5500

180

0.5

26

0.1

18

JHUMPUR

A

6.

76

23.6

15

3

10

6

232

6.7

1

2.4

6

10

8

70.

9

4.7

1

2.8

5

0.7

3

28.

18

26.

13

2.7

5

8.6

1.6

7000

280

0.5

87

0.1

29

JOSHIPUR

7.

08

14.3

16

2

91

217

7.1

6

1.9

3

11

7

87.

55

5.3

8

3.4

1

1.0

4

21.

98

28.

72

4.6

3

10.

1

3.2

6000

200

0.3

88

0.1

08

Table4. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BAITARANI RIVER IN MONSOON

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BAITARANI RIVER IN MONSOON

MONITORI NG STATIONS

P H

TURBI DIY

TD S

TS S

EC

DO

BO D

TH

HC

O3

SO4

2-

NO

– 3

PO4

3-

CL-

CA

2+

MG

2+

NA

+

K+

TOTAL COLI

FE AC AL CO

LI

FE

CR

NTU

MG

/L

MG

/L

S/ CM

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

MG

/L

CFU/100M L

CF

U/1 00

ML

MG

/L

MG

/L

CHANDAB

ALI

7.26

27.3

98

85

108

7.57

2.63

78

52.17

3.21

1.31

0.22

7.41

17.45

1.59

2.9

1.4

4000

150

0.171

0.062

JAJPUR

6.92

53.8

178

151

205

6.07

4.36

86

58.08

5.19

2.92

0.6

14.85

16.05

3.1

9.6

3.4

10000

500

0.512

0.103

AKHUAPA DA

7.43

47.6

202

112

287

7.12

2.01

98

70.41

4.02

2.23

0.61

16.77

23.25

1.59

8.3

2.3

8000

300

0.243

0.081

DAITARI

7.1

35.2

121

98

173

6.31

3.17

71

62.72

2.98

1.67

0.32

9.29

20.26

0.97

4.7

1.8

6000

270

0.194

0.075

BONTH

7.31

48.7

174

134

276

6.65

3.78

74

59.98

4.2

3.64

0.65

11.32

15.03

4.13

6.9

1.5

10500

480

0.317

0.12

ANANDAP UR

7.12

32.2

171

107

294

6.84

2.66

64

63.94

2.26

2.32

0.42

9.54

13.97

3.88

6.6

2.8

8500

270

0.425

0.088

GHARTAG AON

6.51

18.7

103

86

143

7.51

1.05

70

53.02

3.23

1.74

0.35

7.3

12.83

4.38

3.9

1.4

3000

160

0.211

0.053

THAKURM

UNDA

6.44

65.4

218

168

372

5.87

5.16

108

45.83

4.9

5.3

0.96

17.51

19.26

5.11

10.

7

1.8

15000

590

0.658

0.194

SWAMPAT

NA

7.03

36.3

126

121

176

7.25

2.73

79

61.01

2.93

4.84

0.43

16.13

17.03

4.53

8.8

1.2

8600

350

0.213

0.092

KEONJHAR

GARH

6.86

28.7

108

103

262

7.22

3.38

84

47.23

2.81

3.76

0.51

10.43

14.61

3.16

4.4

2.3

9000

320

0.304

0.125

KARANJIA

7.03

39.8

136

125

214

7.46

2.14

80

59.12

4.66

3.74

1.18

13.58

15.63

3.38

7.7

2.7

9000

400

0.291

0.107

JHUMPUR A

6.68

45.1

185

146

271

7.01

4.23

112

68.21

4.37

5.21

0.75

18.96

19.1

3.76

9.5

1.9

11000

520

0.483

0.145

JOSHIPUR

7.01

36.3

208

127

302

7.87

2.85

119

74.31

3.27

4.05

0.96

22.12

25.35

4.04

6.8

3.7

8500

340

0.252

0.119

Table5. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BAITARANI RIVER IN POST-MONSOON

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BAITARANI RIVER IN POST- MONSOON

MONITORI NG STATIONS

P H

TURBI DIY

TD S

TS S

EC

DO

BO D

TH

HC

O3

SO

2-

4

NO

3

PO

3-

4

CL-

CA

2+

M

G2+

NA

+

K+

TOTAL COLI

FEACA L COLI

FE

CR

NTU

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

S/ CM

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

MG

/L

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

MG/ L

CFU/10 0ML

CFU/10 0ML

M

G/ L

M

G/ L

CHANDAB

ALI

6.93

14.1

106

103

138

7.16

3.14

85

59.91

3.07

0.93

0.31

10.59

14.35

4.66

3.6

2

6000

200

0.132

0.072

JAJPUR

6.57

28.3

164

113

285

5.83

4.13

97

61.56

7.16

2.48

0.67

27.15

22.04

5.83

13.3

1.9

7000

350

0.437

0.115

AKHUAPA DA

7.16

17.5

182

89

305

6.41

2.65

105

81.21

4.9

3.66

0.66

19.21

27.25

3.16

9.5

1.6

3050

140

0.38

0.095

DAITARI

6.83

15.6

100

64

146

7.04

2.06

71

56.5

3.02

0.65

0.32

13.74

18.04

2.36

6.2

1.3

4000

180

0.358

0.103

BONTH

6.62

22.1

209

115

315

6.33

3.81

108

62.48

4.59

1.27

0.65

16.32

18.84

3.89

6.8

1.1

4600

370

0.408

0.142

ANANDAP UR

6.87

16.4

236

82

342

7.21

2.05

93

64.98

2.31

0.83

0.45

13.9

20.88

3.32

5.2

0.8

3000

200

0.672

0.114

GHARTAG

AON

7.02

11.8

97

43

121

7.69

0.88

77

63.51

2.69

0.73

0.48

8.72

14.03

4.21

6.2

1.4

2500

90

0.265

0.062

THAKURM UNDA

6.06

38.7

247

127

393

5.03

4.54

135

84.54

6.63

2.84

0.66

26.05

24.87

5.59

11.9

2.2

11000

510

1.432

0.146

SWAMPAT NA

7.2

17.5

131

70

206

7.23

1.13

88

72.97

3.05

1.85

0.82

15.81

20.04

4.81

7.3

1.6

4700

150

0.411

0.107

KEONJHA

RGARH

6.81

19.6

165

83

269

7.61

2.03

78

65.59

3.77

1.98

0.97

12.76

16.33

3.62

8

2.7

5000

180

0.367

0.101

KARANJIA

6.78

15.4

176

92

285

7.01

1.17

83

55.64

3.38

1.63

1.09

17.81

17.65

2.6

9

2.9

4000

140

0.486

0.117

JHUMPUR A

6.26

26.2

212

108

307

7.07

3.11

104

87

5.38

3.35

0.92

22.65

23.45

5.58

11.9

2.5

4000

260

0.46

0.153

JOSHIPUR

6.85

17.6

201

102

288

7.3

1.24

130

91.46

6.1

4.15

1.17

28.86

29.74

5.47

13

2.9

5000

150

0.384

0.128

Table6. CLASSIFICATION OF IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY

TDS

SAR

Value

Water Quality

Value

Water Quality

<200

Low salinity

0-10

Excellent

200-500

Medium salinity

18-Oct

Good

500-1500

High salinity

18-26

Fair

>1500

Very high salinity

>26

Unsuitable

Na%

RSC (epm)

Value

Water Quality

Value

Water Quality

<20

Excellent

<1.25

Safe/good

2040

Good

1.252.50

Marginal/doubtful

4060

Permissible

>2.50

Unsuitable

6080

Doubtful

>80

Unsuitable

CATIONS AND ANIONS

3 3 4 4

Variation of concentrations of various cations and anions like Ca2+,Mg2+,Na+,K+,HCO -,NO -,SO 2-,PO 3- and Cl- of

3

the water samples in different periods were not in a particular trend. Most of the samples were of higher concentrations of these ions in post-monsoon period than those of pre- monsoon and monsoon period where as in some samples higher concentrations were recorded in pre-monsoon period. NO – concentration was recorded to be higher in monsoon period than the other periods. All these parameters were well within the BIS and WHO limits throughout the study period. Higher concentrations of these ions in pre -monsoon period is because of semi arid type of climate and low flow condition which promotes higher rate of evaporation causing increase in concentration of ions where as lower concentrations in post monsoon is due to recharge of water body and dilution factor as effect of the monsoon (Dash et al., 2014). Higher values of the parameters in post-monsoon period is the effect of monsoon such as influx of various eroded materials from mine sites, villages, market areas and agricultural fields along with soil erosion, weathering of rocks, atmospheric precipitations and anthropogenic activities like sewage disposal as well as recreational use of the streams and river. Similar results were presented by Prasath et al. (2013), Mandal et al. (2012), Singh et al. (2010). Generally Ca2+ in water is derived from minerals like limestone and dolomite and lithological calcareous constituents and the sources of Mg2+ are basic igneous rocks such as amphibolites; volcanic rocks such as basalts, metamorphic rocks such as talc and tremolite schists; and sedimentary rocks such as dolomite. Olivine, augite, biotite, hornblende, serpentine and talc are some major magnesium-bearing minerals (Dubey et al., 2014).

Presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ may also be due to the

seepage of effluent and domestic wastes or cationic exchange with Na+ (Kalavathy et al., 2011). However, the low concentrations of Ca and Mg do not mean that they are not influenced by the pollutants but it might be due to the reverse cationic exchange with Na+ which was previously explained by Prasath et al. (2013). In the study area, the degree of variation of Na content is probably due to the differential weathering of the plagioclase feldspar of the parent rocks, domestic sewage and wastes as well as the base exchange of Ca and Mg. (Karanth, 1987). Minerals like orthoclase, microline, and muscovite are responsible for the K content in the water of the study area, the range of which is relatively low, because of its resistance towards dissolution and its adherence to clay minerals (Dash et al., 2014). Higher concentrations of sulphates, nitrates, chlorides and phosphates in water samples near to more populated and mines areas S2, S4, S5, S6, S8 may be due to mining and

industrial discharges, presence of sodium and calcium chloride in natural water and high salinity, sewage and garbage disposal, fertilizers, decayed vegetables and animal matter and recreational use of water bodies (Kalavathy et al., 2011), (Abir, 2014), (Singh et al., 2010). The secondary source of sulphate may be weathering of traces of pyrites associated with iron minerals.

FE AND CR

The concentrations of Fe and Cr in the water samples show that most of the samples were of high metal contents in all seasons exceeding BIS limits. Fe in some stations is below the WHO limit. Higher concentrations of dissolved metals in pre-monsoon periods than that of monsoon and post-monsoon periods indicate the accumulation of the metals during low flow condition of the river. It may be attributed to high evaporation rate of surface water, followed by elevated temperature as described by Abdel (2001). According to Pandey (2009), in some cases, high concentration in post-monsoon period was due to effect of rain such as dissolution of rocks and minerals, run offs from mine sites, agricultural fields and urban as well as rural areas and atmospheric precipitation. The high concentrations of iron is due to runoff of iron- rich soil and mining activities of iron ore mines close to the streams (USEPA, 1994) as well as the leachates and run off from the overburden dumps (Rath et al., 2010). The observed high value of Cr in water may be due to physical and chemical weathering of rocks and soil, anthropogenic sources including mining, industrial, domestic waste and sewage effluents originating from nearby urban and rural areas draining and leaching into the river (Akhionbare, 2011)

IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY

The suitability of the water samples were assessed on the basis of classification of irrigation water with respect to TDS, SAR, RSC and Sodium % (Table 6) according to Richards (1954), Wilcox (1995), Ravikumar et al. (2013).The calculated irrigation quality indices indicated that all the samples in pre-monsoon period and 77% in monsoon and 61.5% in post-monsoon period are of low salinity category. 23% of samples in monsoon and 38.5% of sample in post-monsoon are of medium salinity. All the samples in the study period have SAR 0-10 and RSC less than 1.25. Considering the Na%, 54% samples in pre-monsoon 31% in monsoon and 15.4% in post- monsoon are of excellent quality. 46% of samples in pre- monsoon, 69% in monsoon and 84.6% of samples in post-monsoon period are of good quality for irrigation purpose. Thus, the overall assessment is that the watr samples are safe and good for irrigation purpose.

Table7. SAR, NA% AND RSC IN PRE-MONSOON, MONSOON AND POST-MONSOON

MONITORING STATIONS

Pre- monsoon

Monsoon

Post monsoon

SAR

Na%

RSC

SAR

Na%

RSC

SAR

Na%

RSC

CHANDABALI

0.129

12.387

-0.183

0.181

14.139

-0.147

0.212

15.914

-0.117

JAJPUR

0.552

28.488

-0.162

0.575

32.308

-0.104

0.653

28.447

-0.571

AKHUAPADA

0.352

18.978

-0.182

0.451

24.583

-0.137

0.46

21.924

-0.289

DAITARI

0.212

13.325

-0.441

0.278

18.767

-0.063

0.365

21.689

-0.168

BONTH

0.505

26.557

-0.032

0.406

23.669

-0.107

0.373

20.461

-0.236

ANANDAPUR

0.253

15.458

-0.177

0.4

25.948

0.032

0.277

15.434

-0.25

GHARTAGAON

0.257

16.412

-0.131

0.158

12.877

-0.131

0.373

22.69

-0.005

THAKURMUNDA

0.433

20.26

-0.409

0.56

26.97

-0.613

0.562

25.198

-0.315

SWAMPATNA

0.285

16.47

-0.255

0.49

25.29

-0.223

0.379

20.365

-0.2

KEONJHARGARH

0.302

18.927

-0.199

0.273

20.231

-0.215

0.465

26.68

-0.038

KARANJIA

0.4

22.821

-0.285

0.461

27.584

-0.089

0.528

29.704

-0.183

JHUMPURA

0.429

21.418

-0.368

0.522

26.841

-0.144

0.572

26.29

-0.203

JOSHIPUR

0.461

22.313

-0.379

0.316

19.113

-0.379

0.577

24.893

-0.435

WQI

The water quality index does not show exact degree of pollution, rather it is used to assess water quality trends for the management purpose (Mukherjee et al., 2012). The WQI results represent the level of water quality in a given water basin. The computed WQI values are classified into five types, namely, excellent water (WQI<50), good water (50>WQ<100), poor water (100>WQI<200), very poor water (200>WQI<300) and water unsuitable for drinking (WQI>300).as described by Ravikumar (2013), Mukherjee et al. (2012) and Dubey et al. (2014). It was observed that WQI values ranged from 96 to 359.

Only 7.7% of sample is of good quality in pre-monsoon period and none of the sample is under this category in pre and post-monsoon period. 54 % of the samples in pre-monsoon, 61% of the samples in monsoon and 46% of the samples in post-monsoon are of poor quality. 31% of the samples in pre-monsoon and monsoon, 46% in post monsoon are of very poor quality. 7.7% of the samples are in each of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods are considered to be unsuitable for drinking. It clearly shows that none of the sampling stations have excellent water quality, indicating lack of access to safe potable water supply.

CONCLUSION

On the basis of the present study of various physico- chemical parameters, it was found that though the cations and anions along with pH are within the BIS and WHO standard limits for almost all samples of the local streams and Baitarani River, none of the samples is fit for direct human consumption with respect to water quality index. Maximum sampling stations are contaminated with high total coliform including faecal

coliform bacteria. Water is slightly acidic at some stations, particularly in post-monsoon period and alkaline in most of the stations in monsoon and pre- monsoon period. Comparatively low DO and high BOD values along with high turbidity and TSS, high values of Fe and Cr indicate poor quality of water. In the present study, WQI reveals that degradation of water quality is due to high concentrations of Fe and Cr. None of the water samples was of excellent quality. Overall assessment is that almost all of the samples are poor to very poor quality. BOD, TSS, turbidity and coliform counts (CFU/100ml) as well as iron and chromium are relatively higher in local streams than that of Baitarani River. This may be due to low volume of water, low flow condition, dense population in the catchment area and flowing of streams in the close proximity of various iron and manganese mines. The sources of contamination are domestic sewage, disposal of garbage, soil erosion, mines run off and anthropogenic activities with extensive recreational use of the streams and the river. The sample S8 is of the most unsuitable with respect to WQI as well as other parameters because of anthropogenic activities through more population and presence of iron and manganese mines very close to the stream. Also, water samples at other stations such as S2, S5, S6, and S12 are of very poor quality.

The overall study of water quality clearly indicates that the water sources of the study area cannot be used for public consumption without any treatment though all samples are of good quality for irrigation purpose on the basis of TDS, SAR, RSC and Sodium% values. Lack of sanitary awareness mostly open defecation among the local people is one of the most important factors for the degradation of water quality in this area. Therefore, there

is a need for proper management to check the disposal of wastes into the streams and river/river catchment and to control and monitor human activities along with public awareness to ensure its minimal negative effect on the water body. Deforestation should be strictly enforced to check the massive soil erosion. The present baseline information of the physico-chemical parameters of water samples would form a useful tool for further ecological and environmental assessment and monitoring of these water ecosystems, leading to the safe survival of the inhabitants in the study area.

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