Assessment of Quality of Water Resources in Radhanagari

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Assessment of Quality of Water Resources in Radhanagari

Miss. Sneha Sanjay Bhalvankar1, Mr. S.M. Bhosale2

1,2Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Technology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur,

Maharashtra, India

Abstract This paper contains the water quality evaluation of the water resources available in the town of Radhanagari. Assessment of water quality is the general method of assessing the physical, chemical and biological nature of water. In this research work, we surveyed the village of Radhanagari and selected 15 surface and groundwater sample sites. We calculate the water sample's physical, chemical and biological parameters as pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season and represent the seasonal variations of these parameters. It is vital to explore the consistency of water from time to time to ensure good water quality as environmental factors continue to change, thus affecting the quality of water. Based on this examination, we realized that the available water sources are appropriate for drinking purposes or not.

Keywords Water quality of water resources, drinking water water quality, ground water quality, water quality assessment.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Water may be a profitable and limited asset on Soil. Water amount as well as quality are becoming dominant issues in numerous nations. Water could be a rare valuable source which is the essential prerequisite for presence of all living things. The operations included in water quality analysis are a lot of complicated. Water quality appraisal is the around the world handle of assessment of the physical, chemical and natural nature of the water, through water quality checking is the gathering of the significant data. Thus, numerous nations have significant problems concerning not as it were extreme water shortage but moreover destitute water quality.

    Soil and surface water that are the most sources of new

    water for drinking purposes, water system and different other uses, speak to as little division of water burden on soil. It is pointed out that as it were 30% of the freshwater (3% of the full volume of water on Soil is groundwater). Yet, streams are the fundamental water hotspots for household, modern, and farming water system purposes. In a local, stream water quality is one among vital factors legitimately in regard to with soundness of mankind and living creatures. In this manner, it is essential just as fundamental to have trustworthy information on water quality attributes for practical defilement control and water resource organization.

    1. STUDY AREA

Radhanagari would be a village and the central command of Radhanagari tehsil inside the radhanagari subdivision in the Indian Territory of Kolhapur of Maharashtra. The geocoordinate of the scope 16.40571 and the longitude 73.9662898 Radhanagari. Its placed on the bank of Bhogawati River, close to the Laxmi Talav Dam and the radhanagari forest. Radhanagari gets daily response from surrounding villages as Radhanagari is a taluka. Main attraction of Radhanagari is Laxmi Talav for the visitors as Radhanagari has a beauty of nature in all 3 seasons. So that thousands of visitors visits the village which has full of natural environment.

In 2011, Radhanagari village's literacy rate was 84.01 percent compared to Maharashtra's 82.34 percent. As By the constitution of India and the Panchayati Raaj Act, the village of Radhanagaris Sarpanch is administered (Village Head) who is chosen illustrative of the town.

Fig.1- village map

RAINFALL:

The major portion of this persists in the rain shadow of the Sahyadri rangas. It gets rain from the south-east and from north-east monsoons. In this village the rain falls from May to November. However, main season is from June to

October. Months of June, July, and August are of heavy rainfall. In this area the rainfall is very heavy and farming without irrigation is possible in rainy season. Following table gives us the annual rainfall information of Radhanagari.

Year

Annual Rainfall in mm (1June To 31 May)

2007/08

5634.00

2008/09

4904.00

2009/10

4285.00

2010/11

4306.00

2011/12

3871.00

2012/13

5554.00

2013/14

4340.00

2014/15

4823.00

2015/16

2779.00

2016/17

4534.00

2018/19

5361.00

Table No.1- Annual Rainfall

In this village the ground water sources are total 03 bore wells and 10 open wells which are properly works in all seasons and the surface water sources are 01 brooklets and Bhogavati River which is the central belt of Radhanagari. Following table gives the sample location.

Sample No.

Location(geocoordinates)

Surface water-

1.

(NL-160 2525; EL-730 5945)

2.

(NL-160 2431; EL-730 5944)

Open wells-

3.

(NL-160 2439; EL-740 01)

4.

(NL-160 2438; EL-740 01)

5.

(NL-160 2439; EL-740 01)

6.

(NL-160 2428; EL-730 5952)

7.

(NL-160 2428; EL-730 5952)

8.

(NL-160 2426; EL-730 5953)

9.

(NL-160 2441; EL-730 5956)

10.

(NL-160 2440; EL-730 5956)

11.

(NL-160 2440; EL-730 5941)

12.

(NL-160 2441; EL-730 5956)

Bore wells-

13.

(NL-160 2448; EL-740 00)

14.

(NL-160 2439; EL-740 01)

15.

(NL-160 2443; EL-730 5941)

Table No.2-sample location

  1. METHODOLOGY

    Analysis of Physical, Chemical and Biological Parameters: In this research work, the physical, and chemical parameters of water quality are studied. The parameters are temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, and total dissolved solids, (TDS), hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, nitrogen, and phosphate. The outcomes of the site of each sample is presented as post monsoon and pre monsoon and discussed seasonal variation for each parameter.

    Biological parameters are significant factors that determine water quality as a drinking intent. It's more crucial throughout the immediate impact of human health than

    physical and chemical parameters. It is seemed to define the presence of microbiological organisms and water-borne pathogens. When eaten by humans and livestock, many organisms can cause disease. Either naturally or through the release of untreated or partially handled waste material, microorganisms and waterborne pathogens enter the water resources as river, brooklets, wells etc. Polluted with Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria, drinking an bathing water can readily trigger diseases.

    Water samples were collected in pre monsoon and post monsoon seasons. The samples were collected in one litre plastic cans. Above mentioned parameters were analyzed and tabulated in following tables. The seasonal variation of each parameter is shown below by graphically.

    sample

    temp(0C)

    pH

    Turbidity(NTU)

    EC(mhos/cm)

    TDS(mg/L)

    1

    21

    8.40

    2.0

    74

    38

    2

    20

    7.21

    1.5

    85

    162

    3

    20.5

    7.52

    1.4

    359

    135

    4

    21

    6.51

    1.1

    237

    140

    5

    20

    7.22

    1.2

    174

    81

    6

    21

    6.97

    1.3

    345

    212

    7

    21

    7.02

    1.5

    246

    168

    8

    20

    7.33

    1.3

    346

    180

    9

    21

    7.64

    1.2

    236

    155

    10

    21

    8.04

    1.0

    347

    120

    11

    21.5

    8.42

    1.3

    248

    118

    12

    20

    8.15

    1.0

    278

    121

    13

    21

    7.11

    0.9

    332

    115

    14

    20.5

    7.29

    0.8

    306

    165

    15

    20

    7.52

    1.0

    269

    122

    Table No.3- Post Monsoon Physical Parameters

    sample

    Temp(0C)

    pH

    Turbidity(NTU)

    EC(mhos/cm)

    TDS(mg/L)

    1

    22

    8.21

    0.8

    72

    36

    2

    22

    6.84

    0.7

    80

    165

    3

    20

    6.92

    1.2

    389

    137

    4

    20.5

    7.26

    1.3

    273

    145

    5

    21

    7.80

    1.1

    168

    85

    6

    22

    6.75

    1.5

    355

    210

    7

    21.5

    7.79

    1.2

    256

    173

    8

    22

    6.20

    1.4

    326

    184

    9

    20

    7.38

    1.3

    216

    157

    10

    22

    7.68

    1.1

    367

    118

    11

    22.5

    8.40

    1.0

    268

    115

    12

    21.5

    8.24

    1.2

    298

    119

    13

    22

    8.05

    0.8

    352

    110

    14

    20

    7.32

    0.7

    336

    168

    15

    21

    7.56

    0.8

    289

    126

    Table No.4- Pre Monsoon Physical Parameters

    sample

    TH

    Alkalinity

    Cl

    NO3

    SO4

    Ca

    Mg

    Na

    K

    Phosphate

    N

    1

    92

    75

    3

    6.23

    64.75

    24.30

    25

    5.6

    2.6

    2.32

    16

    2

    74

    77

    8

    7.18

    92.36

    22.0

    23

    5.2

    4.3

    2.59

    19

    3

    97

    81

    19

    18.48

    85.40

    14.4

    18

    5.3

    4.9

    1.52

    20

    4

    123

    91

    8

    13.74

    84.47

    19.8

    16

    6.5

    4.7

    1.85

    22

    5

    62

    78

    6

    12.64

    85.49

    12.3

    24

    7.0

    2.8

    1.92

    20

    6

    103

    87

    19

    21.89

    80.41

    16.4

    12

    6.0

    5.9

    1.61

    16

    7

    114

    90

    16

    16.69

    86.49

    21.4

    21

    5.9

    7.6

    1.11

    20

    8

    132

    132

    57

    26.71

    92.75

    18.7

    18

    7.6

    7.8

    2.58

    23

    9

    178

    84

    41

    16.91

    79.41

    16.2

    17

    8.0

    5.8

    2.02

    17

    10

    128

    92

    13

    8.63

    72.89

    22.2

    22

    3.8

    7.3

    1.34

    14

    11

    74

    85

    16

    7.86

    67.95

    15.8

    15

    7.0

    6.7

    1.25

    21

    12

    103

    80

    7

    8.48

    82.0.2

    12.1

    11

    8.8

    5.9

    1.02

    19

    13

    112

    65

    13

    19.05

    47.92

    32.5

    32

    2.5

    2.5

    1.60

    13

    14

    158

    74

    9

    2.34

    50.98

    24.9

    25

    4.5

    4.5

    2.05

    15

    15

    118

    70

    11

    5.43

    54.18

    23.8

    23

    2.7

    4.7

    2.42

    16

    Table No.5- Post Monsoon Chemical Parameters

    sample

    TH

    Alkalinity

    Cl

    NO3

    SO4

    Ca

    Mg

    Na

    K

    Phosphate

    N

    1

    90

    71

    2

    6.75

    67.64

    24.0

    20

    6.0

    2.8

    2.36

    15

    2

    70

    70

    7

    7.05

    94.56

    23.2

    22

    4.3

    4.4

    2.65

    18

    3

    95

    76

    20

    19.75

    86.44

    15.6

    15

    6.8

    5.0

    1.56

    21

    4

    125

    90

    7

    13.56

    88.44

    18.2

    14

    7.0

    4.8

    1.89

    24

    5

    60

    72

    5

    11.44

    84.50

    11.2

    21

    7.6

    2.4

    1.98

    19

    6

    105

    82

    18

    21.05

    82.14

    16.8

    14

    5.4

    5.8

    1.65

    15

    7

    111

    70

    15

    17.89

    88.42

    23.3

    23

    7.2

    6.7

    1.09

    19

    8

    135

    120

    58

    27.05

    90.50

    19.9

    20

    8.2

    7.2

    2.60

    25

    9

    180

    88

    42

    15.68

    84.45

    17.4

    19

    8.4

    4.9

    2.01

    16

    10

    130

    76

    12

    8.08

    76.46

    23.8

    23

    4.5

    7.1

    1.36

    13

    11

    70

    80

    15

    6.82

    69.68

    12.6

    12

    6.2

    5.7

    1.22

    22

    12

    105

    78

    6

    9.85

    84.05

    11.8

    13

    8.5

    4.8

    1.08

    20

    13

    110

    60

    12

    18.71

    48.54

    32

    28

    2.8

    2.7

    1.62

    12

    14

    160

    72

    8

    2.88

    51.24

    25.6

    23

    3.9

    3.6

    2.23

    18

    15

    120

    74

    10

    5.75

    56.80

    24.7

    24

    2.1

    4.3

    2.20

    14

    Table No.6- Pre Monsoon Chemical Parameters

    Sample

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    11

    12

    13

    14

    15

    Total coliform (MPN/100mL)

    11

    07

    12

    13

    10

    19

    15

    19

    10

    15

    08

    10

    07

    10

    09

    Table No.7- Post Monsoon Biological Parameters

    Sample

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    11

    12

    13

    14

    15

    Total coliform (MPN/100mL)

    10

    08

    11

    15

    12

    21

    13

    13

    12

    16

    07

    11

    06

    09

    10

    Table No.8- Pre Monsoon Biological Parameters Graphically the seasonal variation of all parameters is shown below:

    Fig.2-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Temperature Fig.3-Graph- Seasonal Variation of pH

    Fig.4-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Turbidity Fig.5-Graph- Seasonal Variation of EC

    Fig.6-Graph- Seasonal Variation of TDS Fig.7-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Hardness

    \Fig.8-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Alkalinity Fig.9-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Chloride

    Fig.10-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Nitrate Fig.11-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Sulphate

    Fig.12-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Calcium Fig.13-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Magnesium

    Fig.14-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Sodium Fig.15-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Potassium

    Fig.16-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Phosphate Fig.17-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Nitrogen

    Fig.18-Graph- Seasonal Variation of Total Coliform

  2. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    Temperature:

    Temperature acts as a significant chemical and biological role reactions of organisms in water. The reactions are speeded up at higher temperatures along with reduction in solubility of gases and changes in taste and odour. The best temperature range for pleasantly tasting and refreshing water is between 70C and 110C. Temperature also controls other parameters like pH, conductivity and solubility of gases and hence plays a significant part role in their determinations [1]. The oscillations of seasons in water temperature at the 15 different Sampling place shown in Table No.3&4 and it is graphically in Fig.2. There is not much temperature variation in sampling as the morning sample was gathered, the general range of temperature for this 15 samples is varies between 200C to 22.50C which is within desirable limit (below 400C).

    pH:

    pH is a hydrogen ions indicator in water, reflecting the acidic or alkaline condition of water. Natural water has pH of 7.0, any disturbance from this value leads to water being acidic (pH<7.0) or alkaline (pH>7.0) due to imbalance in H+ and OH- ions concentration. Generally most fresh waters are alkaline because of the appearance of carbonates in large amount. Affects in pH occur due to biological activity, disposal of waste etc. as such pH has no direct adverse effect on health of living systems. The pH of all the 15 locations of study area varied in a range of 6.20 to 8.40 which are in desirable limit prescribed by WHO (6.0 to 8.5). The seasonal variation of pH values is shown in Table No.3&4 and graphically given in Fig.3.

    Turbidity:

    Turbidity is due to the presence of particles which having sizes bigger than the true particles i.e., sizes greater than 10- 9m, like clay, silt, organic matter and microscopic

    organisms. The seasonal change (post and pre monsoon) in the turbidity level of water which is collected from 15 different location of water resources in Radhanagari Village is seen in Table No.3&4 and graphically presented in Fig.4. In the recent work it is seen that, an average turbidity is slightly more for post monsoon Compared with pre monsoon and yet it is within the desired limit (5NTU) as WHO prescribed.

    Electrical Conductivity:

    Water conductivity shows the availability in water of ionic salts. It also offers recognition of the concentration of TDS and industrial discharges in it. The connection between TDS and conductivity relies on the type and character of the dissolved ions in water. [2].Conductivity is heavily temperature-dependent. Water can be categorized based on electrical conductivity values as,

    Type Range of Electrical Conductivity

    Excellent 250 S/cm

    Good 250-750 S/cm

    Permissible 750-2000 S/cm

    Doubtful 2000-3000 S/cm

    Unsuitable >3000 S/cm

    In the current research, Table No.3&4 shows the seasonal variation in electrical conductivity and graphically in Fig. 5.After the analyzing samples, generally EC range varied from 72 µS/cm to 389 µS/cm which is excellent as well as good range of EC and within desirable limit.

    Total Dissolved Solids:

    Concentration of dissolved solids is a significant thing parameter to assess water quality. Natural water contains carbonates, bicarbonates, sulphates, nitrates, phosphates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium dissolved solids. Seasonal variation of TDS in table No.3&4

    and graphically seen in Fig.6. The values of the TDS varied from 36 mg/L to 212 mg/L for all 15 sample locations. The TDS value below 100 mg/L is categorized as non-saline water [3]. Sample No.1 and 5 are non-saline in this investigation.

    Hardness:

    Hardness=calcium + magnesium.

    Water can be categorized on the criteria of hardness, Type Range of Hardness

    Soft water 0-60 mg/L

    Moderately hard 60 120 mg/L

    Hard 120- 180 mg/L

    Very hard > 300 mg / L

    The Table No.5&6 shows the seasonal variation of total hardness and graphically depicted in the Fig.7. The present research work indicates that water hardness in the region of research ranges from 60 mg/L to 180 mg/L which is below desirable limit. According to above classification the water's hardness ranges from moderately hard to hard.

    Alkalinity:

    Water alkalinity is because of carbonate salts, bicarbonates, phosphates, nitrates, and silicates along with free hydroxyl ions. The seasonal variation of alkalinity is compiled in the table No.5&6 and graphically displayed in Fig.8. The alkalinity of this research ranged from 60 mg/L to 132 mg/L, which is in desirable limit as recommended by WHO (200 mg/L).

    Chlorides:

    The rise in chloride concentration improves water's electrical conductivity. Chloride does not have a negative health effect, but it gives poor taste to drinking water. Chlorides are present normally in all kinds of waters, with fresh water having low concentrations. It is harmless up to 1500 mg/L but imparts a salty taste at 250 500 mg/L [1]. The seasonal change of chlorides depicted in Table No.5&6 and graphically described in Fig.9. Chloride ranges from 2 mg/L to 58 mg/L. The chloride content for water samples of all 15 locations displayed well below the acceptable limit [250 mg/L (WHO)].

    Nitrate:

    Nitrate normally arise in trace quantities in surface water. It can induce methemoglobinemia in infants which destroys RBC's oxygen transportation ability. Nitrates are obtained as the final oxidation product of ammonia and also due to oxidation of nitrites by micro bacteria. It's very essential nutrient in an ecosystem. However, if present in large amounts it could prove toxic even leading to death. The seasonal nitrate variation is listed in table No.5&6 and graphically described in Fig.10. In this research nitrate ranges from 2.34 mg/L to 27.05 mg/L.

    Sulphate:

    Presence of sulphate in water has does not adversely effect on health. Sulphate is a significant anion discovered water minerals like gypsum, pyrite etc. The allowable limit of

    (SO4 ) sulphate as per the WHO is 500 mg/ L. Low level of Sulphate ions do not change the taste of water [4]. It is a gastro intestinal irritant if present in high concentration. The seasonal sulphate changes in concentration is depicted in Table No.5&6 and also depicted graphically in Fig.12. In this research, the concentration of sulphate is discovered well below 500 mg/L and its value varies between 47.92 mg/L to 94.56 mg/L.

    2-

    2-

    Calcium:

    Calcium is, of course, found in water. It is dissolved from rocks and soils attributing hardness to water. The existence of calcium in water promotes to the creation of a scale. The primary sources of calcium in groundwater are silicate minerals, igneous and metamorphic rocks, calcareous and sedimentary rocks. The permissible calcium limit in water is 75200 mg/L, as per the WHO. The current research shows the seasonal variation of calcium in Table No.5&6 and graphically summarized in Fig.13. The calcium is present within the allowable limits, which is ranged from 11.8 mg/L to 32.5 mg/L.

    Magnesium:

    Magnesium also adds to water hardness. It is sourced from minerals like dolomite, magnetite etc. Magnesium forms the other important component of hardness of water along with calcium. In water the magnesium limit is approximately 100mg / L (WHO). The seasonal magnesium variation is illustrated in the table No.5&6 and graphically in Fig.14. Generally, the magnesium content ranges from 11 mg/L to 32 mg/L, which is well within the boundaries allowed in this research.

    Sodium:

    Sodium is a massive component of potable water with an average presence of greater than 100mg/L [15]. High concentration of sodium leads to difficulty in boiler operations. It also affects health. The allowable sodium threshold in water is 200 mg / L (WHO). The seasonal changes is represented in Table No.5&6 and graphically shown in Fig.14. The variation in sodium content is between

      1. mg/L to 8.8 mg/L that is well within the permitted limit.

        Potassium:

        The potassium concentration in potable water relies on the sort of therapy used. Water that passes through permanganate has reduced potassium concentrations than water that utilizes mostly softener derived potassium. The potassium concentrations discovered in drinking water are small enough not to be a good person problem, states the WHO. The seasonal change of potassium is depicted in Table No.5&6 and graphically in Fig.15. In this work potassium values varies from 2.5 mg/L to 7.8 mg/L, which is under the desired limit. (WHO 250 mg/L).

        Phosphate:

        Phosphate can occur both as soluble and insoluble forms. It naturally happens in water from leaching of phosphorous rich rocks, and also from sources anthropogenic [6]. The phosphate limit permitted in water by the WHO is 5 mg / L.

        The seasonal phosphate variation is viewed in Table No.5&6 and graphically shown in Fig.16. Phosphate values vary from 1.02 mg / L to 2.65 mg / L which is under the desirable limit in the current research. (WHO 5 mg / L).The phosphate ion is either absent or present in both seasons below the permissible threshold for samples of water from the 15 places.

        Nitrogen:

        Probably the most frequently used nitrogen fertilizers are- NaNO3 (sodium nitrate) &NH4NO3 (ammonium nitrate).Too much nitrogen as nitrate will harm young babies or young animals in drinking water. Total Kjeldhal Nitrogen's seasonal variation is computed in Table No.5&6 and revealed graphically in Fig.17. The value of TKN ranges from 12 mg / L to 25 mg / L in this research.

        Total coliform:

        The existence of oly a few fecal coliform microorganisms would show that theres no disease infecting organisms in a water in all probability, whereas massive quantities of fecal coliform microorganisms would imply a very elevated likelihood thats water could contain disease producing organisms producing unsafe water for intake. Table No. 22 tabulates the seasonal changes of complete coliform and its graphical representation given in fig. 35 in this research, the complete coliform value varies from 6 MPN/100ml to 20 MPN/100ml.

  3. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

    Conclusion:

    It can be concluded from the study of 15 distinct water specimens gained from Radhanagari village surface and groundwater sources that the physical, chemical and biological parameters current in water do not harm the living environment. Physical and chemical parameters are within permissible boundaries in this work of research, but an average turbidity is slightly higher for post-monsoon compared to pre-monsoon. Minimum value of MPN is detectable in few water samples during biological parameter assessment, so that surface water sources and bore well water sources are secure for drinking and household use after some bacteria removal treatments along with some excessive parameters such as phosphate, nitrate, potassium, etc. Mostly open wells due to dirtiness are unworkable for drinking purposes.

    Suggestions:

    Annual average precipitation intensity in the village of Radhanagari is about 4581 mm, so farming without irrigation is feasible in rainy season. There is no absence of water availability for drinking, national and agricultural use in the post-monsoon season. But people in the pre-monsoon are now facing issues of scarcity access to water. Some suggestions for sustaining water quality and amount are provided below through this research work.

        • By educating the people about the harmful effects of disposing domestic, agricultural and biomedical wastage into the river without treatment.

        • By educating the people to use filtered water at home for drinking and cooking purposes.

        • By giving awareness to the people about

          importance of government involvement to avoid pollution from Ganpati Visarjan in Bhogavati River and brooklet.

        • By restricting the people to wash clothes, vehicles,

          animals and disposal of crematorium ash in surface water sources.

        • By training the farmers to use chemicals and pesticides proportionally and to change the crop pattern seasonally.

        • By increasing people's awareness of rainwater harvesting to decrease groundwater pollution and

    enhance groundwater quality through distillation when refilled to groundwater, thereby offering high-quality water, soft and low in minerals, such as meeting the self-sufficiency of their water supply and promoting domestic water demands throughout the summer and drought.

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