- Open Access
- Authors : Dr. Nagaraju Kaja , Anupam Jaiswal
- Paper ID : IJERTV11IS100110
- Volume & Issue : Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2022)
- Published (First Online): 09-11-2022
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Assessment of Energy Efficiency in Pre-Construction Phase
Dr. Nagaraju Kaja1, Anupam Jaiswal2
1Faculty of Architecture, Dept of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, Vijayawada, India
2Student, Master of Building Engineering Management, Dept. of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, Vijayawada,
Abstract:- Building industry appears to be entering in to a new era of drastic changes in the process of construction for minimizing energy consumption, carbon and environmental foot prints of various building typologies. The construction industry consumes more resource and energy amongst any other sectors. whenever the building is constructed, it causes a significant impact on the environment in terms of energy consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about achieving energy efficiency at various stages involved in the pre- construction of buildings. The research uses literature study and a case study to assess the impact of energy consumption and find various methods for the energy maximization during the designing phase including selection of materials and planning process of execution of the building. This research suggested that building efficiency should consider at global level in order to reduce the impact of various factors involved in causing global warming and the depletion of natural resources.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; resource management; building; designing; planning;construction; life-cycle; greenhouse gas.
The activities involved during the construction of a building and its life cycle consumes a large amount of energy which leads to global warming. The energy efficiency of building construction is considered with efficient use of resources like materials, manpower, equipment,etc. in order to create structure and its services with the consumption of lesser resources and environmental impacts. The construction of building involves the following different stages: designing of building,planning and procurement, extraction of required raw materials; processing and manufacturing of construction materials and building components; transportation andinstallation of building materials and components; operation, maintenance, and repairor renovation of building and, finally disposal ofmaterials at the end of the building depletion. Each stage involves during construction requiresenergy, materials and other useful resources to successively complete the task.
During the execution of a project, several changes in construction, along with changes in design and selection of building materials are essential to reduce the overall energy use and its impact on emission of greenhouse gases. The assessment of these factors during pre-construction phase can improvise the process of execution and the efficient use of resources. In order to maximize energy efficiency in building construction by using the least energy- intensive means and methods of construction, the energy profile of a project is needed. This ispossible if the person involved during pre- construction planning, has access to informationregarding energy consumption during the construction of a project to identify activities thatconsume more energy. The obtained informationwould help to focus on energy-intensive activities and develop energy-efficient meansand methods to minimize energy consumption during construction. The energy efficiency improvises more than 20% by usingtechnologies and managing the resources.
The environmental challenges of the present time are global climate change, excessive fossil fuel dependency and growing demand for energy in our cities. Globally, the demand energy demand of buildings amounts to one-third of world energy use and this is responsible for more than half of total greenhouse gas emissions. This change is being driven by a need to optimize and conserveresources especially energy.
Study of various pre-construction stages and energy consumption during these stages based on previous research papers.
Analysis of Pre-Constriction methods Literature study to find out the involvement of methods and techniques in order to utilize theenergy in an efficient manner.
Study & Analysis of Green Buildingapproach
Study of process involves while designing andconstructing a Green Building project.
Conclusion & Results
Finding of conclusion on the basis of the above- mentioned process for better utilization ofenergy at different pre- construction stages
PHASES OF PRE- CONSTRUCTION STAGE
The process of construction can be separated into two major parts i.e. pre-construction stage & execution stage. The stage of pre- construction involves various factors and considerationsduring the designing and planning of construction projects. These
factors define the energy consumption of a construction project during execution and its life cycle. Many studiesreflect the importance of pre-construction planning and its effect on the projects cost and energy consumptions. These stages can categories into three major parts i.e. project scheduling, designing & selection of materials, procurement process.
The process of project scheduling defines thetotal duration of the project until execution and handing over to the client without paying much attention to any individual tasks. The total duration of the project defines the consumption of resources and energy. There are various methods to find out the accurate and shortest project duration. The selection of methods to prepare a precise schedule has the potential to change the whole perception of pre-construction planning. An efficient schedule which can involve and assess for different weather conditions, productivity factor and resource allocation for a project. The development of a detailed and comprehensive schedule can save the time duration for execution and also encourage the efficient utilization of resources and material.
The different methods of preparing a schedule for a project are as follows:
Critical Path Method (CPM)
The Critical Path Method finds out the longest duration of the project by defining the critical activities within the project. The critical activities have zero floats and it also provides theflexibility to assess the activities which contain floats. The changes in non-critical activities within the float limits wont affect the project duration. In order to use CPM, we need to have all sets of tasks and activities for a particular project. The next step to estimate the time duration of each of the activities and their inter- dependency. Lastly,we need to define the different milestones for theproject for quick assessment. This method may not be so useful if the project has so many uncertainties.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
The program evaluation and review technique is commonly known as PERT. This technique has a probabilistic approach to find the duration of a project. It consists of optimistic, most likely andpessimistic timings for a project. It also requiresthe
Duration compression is a method to reduce thetime schedule. It can be used for a project whichis under execution and got delayed. It assesses the task involves in a particular project and finds out the way to adjust the schedule withoutaffecting the scope of the activities and project. There are two techniques that you can be appliedto shorten the time duration i.e., fast- trackngand crashing. The process of Fast-tracking is done with the help of adjusting simultaneous critical activities without affecting other activities or project duration. It requires to study the critical path to decide which activities could be fast-tracked. Another method is crashing, which is nothing but just adding extra resources to complete the project on time. It is a tricky one though, as we need to have additional resources that can be utilized.
The process of simulation uses a different set of activities to calculate the total duration of a project. This method is useful when the project has various uncertainties and variables. The simulation involves assumptions so we can use this method even if we dont have all set of project activities and scope. One of the models we can apply is a Monte Carlo Simulation, which considers different assumptions and possible outcomes into account, resulting in forecasted duration.
Resource leveling is redefining a schedule by adjusting the resources to cut down the time duration of handing over of project and to avoidunder- or overutilization of resources. It can be utilized for an individual activity in a project. To define the schedule by using resource leveling, segregate or merge activities as per theavailability of resources, so there will be nounder- or overutilization of resources.
Designing and Selection of Materials
Significant efforts have been made on the improvement of energy efficiency in buildings during construction and its life cycle. It is foundthat the concept of energy-efficient constructionof buildings is related to the energy consumed orneeded to complete the execution of the project inefficient manner. In order to design an energy-efficient building, the design criteria and construction parameters must be asses. The best way to incorporate the energy-efficient features in buildings is during the conceptual design phase. Its also analyzed that the design of buildings based on energy-saving criteria can reduce cost throughout its life cycle. Designinghas a direct impact on selecting and defining themechanical system of the building which contributes to the energy efficiency of a building. Therefore, identifying the energy efficient building elements plays a critical part ofthe entire project execution and operational cycle. The efficient design can lead up to lesser emission of greenhouse gases. While designing a public building, it is important to consider both these strategies. The building elements like windows should be placed in a manner to reduces the glare and unwanted solar heat gain. The geometry of window should complement the efficiency of daylight within a space. The various elements and features should contribute towards the efficiency of system along with the consideration of aesthetics. The selection of material for different components of buildings like walls, fenestration,roof, foundation, terrace, roof, projection or shading devices. Its found that these elements can contribute up to
30-40% in energy efficiencyfor a high-rise building. The architects should consider passive techniques while designing any space or building envelope. The incorporation ofefficient natural ventilation, daylighting technique, orientation, shading devices canreduce the consumption of energy. It can also help with the improvement of occupant health and its safety.
Procurement and Pre-Planning Process
The process of pre-planning can reduce the overall time duration and cost of a project. The pre-planning could be defined as the process of collecting and developing efficient resources to reduce the risk and maximize the percentage fora successful project. The process of procurementis a major activity in the entire process of construction and it creates a huge impact on the success of any project. The process involves broad framework and detailed planning which includes all the factors which may affect the process of execution. It involves various participants and various task that contributes to the efficient utilization of resources. The lack inthe scope of work can impact on total budgeted cost and time of project which may get extendedduring the construction. The involvement of project managers andstakeholders can define a complete scope ofwork during the stage of pre-construction. Theinput from various stakeholders defines thedegree of their importance towards the project. To achieve value for money it is essential todetermine all the factors which may affect thecost of material and other resources. All therelevant and financial and non-financial costs and benefits must be considered during theprocess of procurement. The process should alsoinvolve the consideration to create less impact onthe environment during the construction ofproject.
The method or technique for procurementmanagement assess all the necessary cost and provides optimum solutions. The strategy of realproperty contracting officers can define efficientmethods. Each project requires its ownmanagement strategy based on project cost, duration, and level of quality required. The studyof risk allocation, price competition, and flexibility of the contract is also part of theprocurement process. The studies reflect that the involvement of primavera has a major impact on the planning process and further its execution. Application Enterprise resource planning is acting a solid base for the collaboration of various organizations throughout the World. It connects organizations like accounting, finance, human resources, manufacturing, and supply, etc. the studies show that the application of ERP systemsprovides a good platform in the sector of construction, specifically for contractors, designfirms, consultants. The application of MS projectfor a smaller scale of the project is an optimum solution in the process of procurement. The application of the perfect method can lead up to an optimum and efficient process of procurement which also contributes towards energy efficiency.
APPROACH OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY DURING PRE-CONSTRUCTION PHASE
The process of designing and executing a green building is an integrated and comprehensive process. The approach for executing a green building should be considered in both designing and construction phases. The involvement of various stakeholders including architects, owner,engineers, project manager, contractor can execute a successful green building which can contribute to energy efficiency during its life cycle. The participation of each stakeholder contributes and generate innovative and efficientgreen building solutions. The integrated approach at the designing stage is an appropriateapproach that involves all the pre-construction stages. This method provides feasible methods that can be implemented during the execution stage while considering all the green rating systems. The sequence for developing a green building design started with study and examining the technologies and methods for the construction phase. It is based on Design bid build (DBB) project delivery method. The implementation of this method in South Korea sets an example howa contractor can contribute to the process of green building design and executing it further. The purpose of this method for each stakeholder to execute the project and get appropriate green ratings from agencies. The process of green rating system with the integrated approach will minimize the need for additional documentationduring the application.
Designing and executing an energy-efficient building to achieve a long-term benefit. Theprocess of pre-construction creates a major impact on utilization of all the resources during the execution of project. The selection of appropriate methods for preparing a project schedule may help in completion of project on time. The stage of designing and selection of material contributes to the energy efficiency for the entire life cycle of a building. Theprocess ofprocurement involves important aspects like selection of designing and building methods.The procurement of resources during execution plays an important role in the project duration. Only the designing of green building features cannot provide energy efficiency. The designmust be feasible and executed under all the guidelines to get the benefits of its efficiency throughout building life cycle. Involvement of all the stakeholders considering the contractor aswell provides various solutions and completescope of work at the pre-construction stage.