Approach to Development Cooperation 3.0: From the Statutes to the Praxis in a NGDO

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV12IS030054

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Approach to Development Cooperation 3.0: From the Statutes to the Praxis in a NGDO

  1. Ascension Olcina Simon

    MOS Solidaria, Cullera, Spain

    Maria Morales-Suarez-Varela1,2

    1Unit of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Sciences, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain.

    2CIBER in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    Nadia San Onofre3,4

    3 Observatory of Nutrition and Food Safety in Developing Countries, Food & Health Lab, Institute of Materials Science, University of Valencia, Paterna, Spain.

    4Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine and Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain.

    Jose M. Soriano

    Observatory of Nutrition and Food Safety in Developing Countries, Food & Health Lab, Institute of Materials Science, University of Valencia, Paterna, Spain.

    Abstract The progress of development cooperation has been carried out in the world originally focusing to reduce poverty and to increase the economic growth. Subsequently, the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) resulted in the appearance of the term development cooperation 2.0. However, the use of scientific focus applied in this area is giving rise a new concept called development cooperation 3.0. In this article, we have explained in a practical contribution in a non-governmental development organization (NGDO) starting by its statutes to examples conducted in three countries.

    Keywords Non-governmental development organization (NGDO); development cooperation 3.0; Ethiopia; Saharawi refugee camps.


      Humanitarian aid [1] and development cooperation [2] are strategies key to help countries achieve long-term sustainable economic growth, by supporting poverty reduction. In 1980s [3], the model in developing countries was based in non- governmental development organizations (NGDOs) which help to the several needs of grassroots sectors and their organizations (GROs), with the support of international development cooperation institutions (IDCIs). In this way, NGDOs are important part in the preparation, design and application of development strategies, with or without the Alliance of governments or international institutions. Focusing in this development cooperation, this approach can be classified as Development Cooperation 1.0. In fact, Asturias (Spain) hosted, in 2008, the meeting in Development Cooperation 2.0 to provide a step towards the uniqueness of good practices in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in all areas of development [4]. However, in the last years, a little revolution is taking place in this area, being expanded, a new theoretical concept called Development Cooperation 3.0, in the Observatory of Nutrition and Food Safety in Developing Countries from University of Valencia [5], from 2010s, in several Meetings for teachers and students. This new concept, including all tools, of previous version, along with the application of research and scientific publications, was carried out in field activities of development

      cooperation with the establishment of the first NGDO, known as MOSS [6], which works with this new vision in three places; Valencian Community (Spain), Sahrawi refugee camps and Ethiopia. The aim of this manuscript is to explain the actions applied of this NGDO from the creation of statutes to intervention in these three places.


      The constitutional document (presented in italics) of this NGDO is the following:



      Art. 1. Denomination

      The Association called MOS Solidaria (MOSS), is a non- profit body, being constituted and adhered to the provisions of Organic Law 1/2002, of March 22, regulating the Right of Association [7] and Law 14/2008, of November 18, of Community Associations from Valencian Community [8], and under the provisions of article 22 of the Spanish Constitution [9].

      Art. 2. Legal Personality

      The Association has its own legal personality and full capacity to act to manage and dispose of its assets and fulfill its proposed purposes.

      Art. 3. Domicile and scope of action

      The address of the Association is established at Avda. Blasco Ibañez, 5-8º-16ª Cullera (Valencia) with Zip code 46400.

      The Association will carry out its activities mainly in the territorial scope of the Valencian Community, in the refugee camps of the Sahara, in Ethiopia, or in another country that the Association establishes.

      Art. 4. Purposes

      The purposes of the Association are: of a non-profit social nature and without occupation of political issues.

      1. Combat/reduce malnutrition in populations at risk.

      2. Cooperate for the promotion of human development and co-development.

      3. Awareness actions for the promotion of volunteering and citizen solidarity.

      4. Activate actions for the treatment of diseases in people with functional diversity such as: dysphagia, reduced mobility, the elderly and the elderly.

      5. Hygienic, health and nutritional care for the elderly and people at risk of social exclusion.

      6. Promote and execute actions aimed at sustainable development and encourage participatory citizenship in Spain and abroad

      7. Promote education for development and co- development and carry out actions aimed at the continuous training of future trainers and professionals.

      8. Promotion of different articles such as aid and financing for projects.

      9. Configuration and promotion of practical and civic ethics standards committed to sustainable development, Human Rights and with special emphasis on the gender approach for widespread compliance.

      10. Request for aid and subsidies to the corresponding official bodies, as well as to private sector entities that do not present any conflict of interest with the principles of development and co-development of the association.

      11. Promote alliances with other entities, platforms and groups in the field of sustainable human development and co- development.

      12. Promote research in all academic and professional disciplines that is required for the correct evolution and improvement of Human Rights [10].

      13. Promote the teaching orientation of the disciplines required in its contents, didactic activity, and multidisciplinary activities for the development of global citizenship and human development.

      14. Be registered as a NGDO. Art.5. Activities

      For the fulfillment of the purposes listed in the previous article, the following activities will be carried out:

      1. Those specific to the organizational functioning of the association referring to the good governance of the entity, to collegiate decision-making processes, to accountability and to compliance with the statutes themselves.

      2. Those activities referred to combat/reduce malnutrition in populations at risk through specialized actions carried out by health personnel, dietitians, nutritionists, such as: Anthropometric and biochemical measurements, workshops, courses, and educational seminars on food, hygienic-sanitary guidelines, adequacy of diets in populations at risk, either by the protocol stipulated by UNICEF [11] in cases of severe and/or severe malnutrition in children, or by the adequacy and complementation of te menus with food within reach, maintenance and control of water for human consumption and

        irrigation of the orchards, control of sanitation and treatments to alleviate parasitological diseases that cause malnutrition.

      3. Those related to the promotion of actions for development with a social impact (campaigns, exhibitions, conferences, etc.) To these activities are added the initiative of an institutional nature, the preparation and execution of projects, networking with other local social actors and volunteering.

      4. To achieve the purposes and organization of the activities, the Association may create work teams.

        The meaning and objective of these actions, in addition to the purposes established in the articles of these statutes, will be to carry out actions aimed at the formation and training of a responsible, active, motivated and effective citizenry and volunteering that incorporates the values for sustainable human development. and human rights to their behavior and social action.

      5. Cooperate for the promotion of development and co- development with training actions for the population and professionals that empower the citizens of the area where action is taken, promoting sustainability over time of the actions carried out, such as: Well drilling or creation of dams, if possible, creation of orchards, creation of soup kitchens, with action, participation and development of the local population.

      6. Awareness-raising actions for the promotion of volunteering and citizen solidarity: Several awareness-raising and promotion campaigns are carried out to help volunteers to facilitate their solidarity contribution through: information campaigns, displays and visibility of the actions carried out in the field, talks and presentations, training workshops and organization of field expeditions.

      7. Actions for the treatment of diseases in people with functional diversity such as: dysphagia, reduced mobility, the blind and deaf-mute, the elderly and the elderly through professional actions with specialized educational treatments in personalized clinical feeding as required by each case, oral, enteral feeding, parenteral etc.

      8. Hygienic-sanitary and nutritional care for the elderly and people at risk of social exclusion: Evaluation of nutritional status through anthropometric and biochemical measures, adaptation and improvement of menus and diets that preserve health status following food safety guidelines, preparation of complemented menus and healthy and balanced tappers.

      9. Execute actions aimed at sustainable development in Spain and abroad, raising awareness among the population through talks and actions to avoid food waste and the recovery of surplus food, holding workshops in associations, schools, canteens, etc. for understanding food labeling, recommendations for seasonal and local products through endorsed nutritional tables and pyramids.

      10. Carry out actions aimed at the training of future trainers and professionals through didactic material and specialized courses, face-to-face and online, in healthy eating, hygiene care, food safety, to train actors who continue with sustainable development initiated for health promotion.

      11. Promotion of different articles such as aid and financing for projects, with the creation of handicrafts and identifying products to contribute to the achievement of projects, organization of solidarity acts, raffles and events, etc.

      12. Configuration of ethical and civic norms of general compliance such as the decalogue of good volunteering practices and norms that guarantee good practices and the transparency of the efforts that the association and its associates carry out.

      13. Propose and request aid and subsidies from the corresponding official bodies, as well as from private sector entities, that do not conflict with the interests

      14. To be registered as a Non-Governmental Development Organization ONGD within the registry of associations of the Valencian Community through this document following the regulations stipulated for this purpose.


      Art. 6. Capacity

      All natural and legal persons who, freely and voluntarily, have an interest in the development of the purposes of the association may be part of the Association in accordance with the following principles:

      1. Natural persons with capacity to act and who are not subject to any legal condition for the exercise of the right.

      2. Non-emancipated minors over fourteen years of age must have the documented consent of the persons who must replace their capacity.

      3. Legal persons, with the express agreement of their competent body.

      They must submit a written request to the representative body, and it will decide at the first meeting it holds; If the applicant complies with the conditions required in the statutes, the representative body may not deny admission.

      The status of associated person is non-transferable. Art. 7. Rights of associated persons

      The rights that correspond to the associated persons are the following:

      1. To participate in the activities of the Association and in the governing and representative bodies, to exercise the right to vote, as well as to attend the General Assembly, in accordance with the Statutes. In order to be a member of the representative bodies, it is an essential requirement to be of legal age, to be in full use of civil rights and not to be subject to the grounds of incompatibility established in current legislation.

      2. To be informed about the composition of the governing and representative bodies of the Association, its statement of accounts and the development of its activity. They will be able to access all the information through the representative bodies.

      3. To be heard prior to the adoption of disciplinary measures against them and to be informed of the facts that give rise to such measures, and the agreement that, if applicable, imposes the sanction must be motivated.

      4. To challenge the agreements of the bodies of the Association that it deems contrary to the Law or the Statutes.

      5. To know the Statutes and the regulations and operating rules approved by the bodies of the Association. They will also have the right to be provided with a copy of the current Statutes and the Association's Internal Regulations, if any.

      6. To consult the books of the Association. Art. 8. Duties of the associated persons The duties of the associated persons are:

      1. To share the aims of the Association and collaborate to achieve its aims.

      2. To pay the dues, contributions and other contributions that, in accordance with the Statutes, may correspond to each associated person.

      3. To respect and comply with the agreements validly adopted by the governing and representative bodies of the association.

      4. Adjust their performance to the statutory provisions. Art. 9. Causes of leave

      They are cause of withdrawal from the Association:

      1. The interested party's own will, communicated in writing to the representative bodies. He may receive the initial equity participation and other economic contributions made without including membership fees to the association and provided that the equity reduction does not imply damages to third parties.

      2. Failure to meet the established quotas. Art. 10. Penalty Regime

      Members will be separated from the Association due to sanctions when they commit acts that make them unworthy of continuing to belong to the Association. It will be presumed that this type of act exists:

      1. When the associated person deliberately prevents or puts obstacles to the fulfillment of the corporate purposes.

      2. When intentionally hindering the functioning of the governing and representative bodies of the Association.

      In any case, for the imposition of the sanction of separation by the governing body, it will be necessary to process a disciplinary file instructed by a body other than the one competent to resolve it and that guarantees the rights of the associated persons to whom the procedure is instructed. to be informed of the accusation and to formulate allegations against it, as well as to the notification of the General Assembly. The disciplinary decision will be motivated. The statute of limitations for offenses and sanctions will be three years.


      Art. 11. The General Assembly

      The General Assembly is the supreme governing body of the Association, made up of all the people associated by their own right, inalienable and in absolute equality, which adopts

      its agreements by the principle of majority or internal democracy.

      All members will be subject to the agreements of the General Assembly, including those absent, dissidents and those who, even while present, have abstained from voting.

      Art. 12. Meetings of the Assembly

      The General Assembly will meet in ordinary session at least once a year, in the first quarter of the year.

      The General Assembly will meet extraordinarily whenever necessary, at the request of a number of associates representing at least ten percent of the total.

      Art. 13. Call of the assemblies

      The calls of the General Assemblies, both ordinary and extraordinary, will be made in writing. The announcements of the call will be placed in the usual places at least fifteen days in advance. Whenever possible, all members will be summoned individually. The call will express the day, time and place of the meeting, as well as the agenda.

      At the beginning of the meetings of the General Assembly, the President and the Secretary of the same will be designated.

      The Secretary will draw up the Minutes of each meeting that will reflect an extract of the deliberations, the text of the agreements that have been adopted and the numerical result of the voting. At the beginning of each meeting of the General Assembly, the Minutes of the previous meeting will be read in order to be approved or not.

      Art. 14. Powers and validity of the agreements

      The Assembly will be validly constituted on first call with the assistance of a minimum of one third of the associated persons present or represented; and in the second call, whatever the number of them, it will have to be held half an hour after the first and in the same place.

      In the meetings of the General Assembly, one vote corresponds to each member of the Association.

      The following are the competence of the General Assembly:

      1. To control the activity of the representative body and approve its management.

      2. To examine and approve or reject the annual income and expense budgets, as well as the Annual Activity Report.

      3. To establish the general lines of action that allow the Association to fulfill its purposes.

      4. To order all measures aimed at guaranteeing the democratic functioning of the association.

      5. To set the ordinary or extraordinary quotas.

      6. To elect and dismiss the members of the representative body.

      7. To adopt agreements regarding:

      • To ratify the registrations of associates or associates agreed by the representative body and definitively agree on their withdrawals.

      • To agree on the union of associations, the integration into federations or confederations, the separation of the same, as well as the creation and participation in coordinators or other specific organizations.

      • To request for the declaration of public utility or public interest of the Valencian Community.

      • To agree the dissolution of the Association.

      • To modification of the Statutes.

      • To disposal and disposal of assets.

      • Remuneration, where appropriate, of the members of the representative body.

      • To approve the Association's Internal Regulations.

      • Any other that does not correspond to another body of the Association.

      The agreements will be taken by a simple majority of the persons present or represented, when the affirmative votes exceed the negative ones. However, they will require a qualified majority of the persons present or represented, who will result when the affirmative votes exceed half, the agreements related to the dissolution of the association, modification of the Statutes, disposition or alienation of assets and remuneration of the members of the representative body, provided that the corresponding assembly has been specifically convened for this purpose.


      Art. 15. Composition of the representative body

      The Association will be governed, administered and represented by the representative body called the board of directors, made up of the president, secretary, treasurer and members. The election of the members of the representative body will be made by free and secret suffrage of the members of the General Assembly. The candidacies will be open, that is, any member may apply, with essential requirements being: to be of legal age, to be in full use of civil rights and not to be subject to the grounds of incompatibility established in current legislation, charge to charge. The candidacies will respect parity criteria between men and women. The positions of President, Secretary and Treasurer must fall to different people. The exercise of the charges will be free.

      Art. 16. Duration of the mandate in the representative body

      The members of the representative body will hold office for a period of four years, and may be re-elected indefinitely.

      Termination of office before expiration of the regulatory term may be due to:

      1. Voluntary resignation presented by means of a document in which the reasons are reasoned.

      2. Illness that incapacitates for the exercise of the position.

      3. Cancel as a member of the Association.

      4. Penalty imposed for an offense committed in the exercise of the position.

      Vacancies that occur in the representative body will be filled at the first General Assembly to be held. However, the representative body may have, provisionally, until the next General Assembly, a member of the Association for the vacant position.

      Art. 17. Powers of the representative body

      The representative body has the following powers:

      1. To hold and exercise the representation of the Association and carry out the management and administration in the broadest manner recognized by law and comply with the decisions made by the General Assembly, and in accordance with the rules, instructions and guidelines that this General Assembly establishes.

      2. To take the necessary agreements for the appearance before public bodies, for the exercise of all kinds of legal actions and to file the pertinent resources.

      3. To decide on the admission of new associates, keeping the updated list of all associates.

      4. To propose to the General Assembly the establishment of the fees that the members of the Association have to pay.

      5. To call the General Assemblies and control that the agreements adopted there are fulfilled.

      6. To communicate to the Registry of Associations, the modification of the Statutes agreed by the General Assembly within a month.

      7. To submit the balance sheet and statement of accounts for each financial year to the General Assembly for approval, and prepare the budgets for the following financial year.

      8. To keep accounts in accordance with the specific rules that allow obtaining a true image of the assets, results and financial situation of the entity.

      9. To carry out the inventory of the Association's assets.

      10. To prepare the annual activity report and submit it for approval by the General Assembly.

      11. To resolve provisionally any case not provided for in these Statutes and give an account of it in the first subsequent General Assembly.

      12. Any other power that is not specifically attributed in these statutes to the General Assembly.

      Art. 18. Meetings of the representative body

      The representative body, previously convened by the President or by the person who replaces him, will meet in ordinary session with the periodicity that its members decide, which in any case may not exceed two months. It will meet in extraordinary session if requested by a third of its components.

      The representative body will be validly constituted with a prior call and a quorum of half plus one of its members.

      The members of the representative body are obliged to attend all the meetings that are called, being able to excuse their attendance for justified reasons. In any case, the attendance of the President and the Secretary or the people who replace them will be necessary.

      In the representative body, the agreements will be made by a simple majority of votes of the attendees. In the event of a tie, the President's vote will be of quality.

      The agreements of the representative body will be recorded in the minute book. At the beginning of each meeting thereof, the minutes of the previous session will be read for approval or rectification.

      Art. 19. The President

      The President of the Association will also be President of the representative body.

      The following functions belong to the President:

      1. Those of management and legal representation of the Association, by delegation of the General Assembly and the representative body.

      2. The presidency and direction of the debates of the governing and representative bodies.

      3. Sign the calls for the meetings of the General Assembly and the representative body.

      4. Endorse the minutes and certificates made by the Secretary of the Association.

      5. The remaining powers of the position and those delegated by the General Assembly or the representative body.

      Art. 20. The Treasurer

      The Treasurer will have the function of custody and control of the Association's resources, as well as the preparation of the budget, balance sheet and settlement of accounts, in order to submit them to the representative body, as determined in article 17 of these Statutes. He will sign the receipts, installments and other treasury documents. He will pay the bills approved by the representative body, which will have to be previously endorsed by the President.

      Art. 21. The Secretary

      The Secretary must keep the documentation of the Association, draw up and sign the minutes of the meetings of the governing and representative bodies, draw up and authorize the certifications that must be issued, as well as keep the list of associates updated.


      Art. 22. Initial assets and financial resources

      The initial patrimony of this Association is valued at 0 euros.

      The annual budget will be approved each year at the Ordinary General Assembly.

      The economic resources of the Association will be nourished by:

      1. Of the fees set by the General Assembly for its members.

      2. Official or private subsidies.

      3. Of donations, inheritances or/and legacies.

      4. From the income from the same patrimony or from other income that they may obtain.

      Art. 23. Benefit of the activities

      The profits derived from the exercise of economic activities, including the provision of services, will be used exclusively for the fulfilment of the purposes of the Association, without allowing in any case their distribution between the associates or between their spouses or people who live with those with analogous relationship of affectivity, nor between their relatives, nor their gratuitous transfer to natural or legal persons with lucrative interest.

      Art. 24. Quotas

      All members of the Association have the obligation to support it financially, through quotas or contributions, in the manner and in the proportion determined by the General Assembly at the proposal of the representative body.

      The General Assembly may establish entrance fees, periodic monthly fees, and extraordinary fees.

      The fiscal year will end on December 31. Art. 25. Provision of funds

      Current accounts or savings books opened in credit establishments must include the signature of the President, the Treasurer and the Secretary.

      In order to have funds, two signatures will be sufficient, one of which will necessarily be that of the Treasurer or that of the President.


      Art. 26. Causes of Dissolution and delivery of the remainder

      The Association will be dissolved:

      1. If so agreed by the General Assembly convened expressly for this purpose and with the favourable vote of more than half of the people present or represented.

      2. For the causes determined in article 39 of the Civil Code.

      3. By firm court ruling.

      4. Due to the withdrawal of associates, so that they are reduced to less than three.

      Article 27. Liquidation

      The dissolution of the Association opens the liquidation period, until the end of which the entity will retain its legal entity.

      The members of the representative body at the time of dissolution become liquidators, unless the General Assembly designates others, or those that the judge, if applicable, agrees in his judicial decision.

      It corresponds to the liquidators:

      1. To ensure the integrity of the association's assets and keep its accounts.

      2. To conclude the pending operations and carry out the new ones that are necessary for the liquidation.

      3. To collect the credits of the association.

      4. To liquidate the patrimony and pay the creditors.

      5. To apply the excess assets of the association to the purposes provided by the Statutes, with the exception of conditional contributions.

      6. To request the cancellation of the entries in the corresponding Registry.

      In the event of the Association's insolvency, the representative body or, if applicable, the liquidators must immediately promote the appropriate bankruptcy proceedings before the competent judge.

      The net remainder resulting from the liquidation will go directly and proportionally to the following Association: Fundación Emalaikat C/ Bocángel, 28, 3º derecha CP 28028 Madrid and Assoc. Ajuda Als Pobles de Quart de Poblet (Valencia).

      Associated persons are not personally responsible for the association's debts.

      The members or holders of the governing and representative bodies, and the other persons who act in the name and on behalf of the association, will be liable before it, before the associates and before third parties for the damages caused and the debts contracted by fraudulent, negligent or negligent.


      Article 28. Extrajudicial resolution of conflicts

      The litigious issues that may arise due to the actions carried out or the decisions adopted within the association, will be resolved through arbitration, through a procedure adjusted to the provisions of Law 60/2003, of December 23, Arbitration [12], and subject, in any case, to the essential principles of hearing, contradiction and equality between the parties or voluntarily through mediation, in accordance with the provisions of Law 5/2012, of July 6, on mediation in civil matters and mercantile [13].


MOSS is working in three places. For Valencian Community (Spain) have been developed two projects. First (Figure 1), NGDO, with the collaboration of the Center for Research, Defense, and Promotion of the Rights of Children and Adolescents (known as Ilêwasi; created by ILÊ means house in yourubá and WASI means house in Quechua, a fusion of Latin America and Africa) [14], established workshops from nutritional education program, taught by Mari Olcina, Carmen Morán, María Giménez and Betlem Molins, for vulnerable people (with ages ranging from 6 to 17 years) in the Grao of Castellón area (Spain) to improve healthy diet [15]. Second, the project Solidarity Meals [16] was established, in a food bank at Cullera (Spain) (Figure 2), to improve nutritional needs of low income families, obtaining the following results: i) to prepare five healthy menus weekly, which will complement each other to provide the greatest number of nutrients in one meal, ii) to distribute solidarity meals daily between 1:00 pm and 2:00 pm, so that they are consumed within their highest point of bioavailability, iii) to acquire non-perishable food through small businesses in the area, in order to promote the circular

economy, iv) to distribute the menus in two-portion containers, in order to reduce the use of containers, and at the same time promoting their recycling or reuse, v) to organize and execute the project through a series of volunteers, in all its stages, from the acquisition of products for the meals, the preparation of each ration, the distribution of the same, and obtaining a motivation of the citizens in an active and organized way, in order to solve the needs of this vulnerable group, and vi) to sensitize and motivate all citizens to identify the needs of vulnerable groups or groups at risk of exclusion, and collaborate in solving their problems based on rapid solidarity responses that facilitate the improvement of day-to- day conditions.

They are organized into five large camps called wilaya. Four camps were named after main towns in Western Sahara and they were Ausserd (Awsard), El Aaiun (Al-Uyun), Smara (Smara) and Dajla (Dakhla), with a 5th camp that was a school which started as a boarding school for women situated close to camp of Smara. This project was carried out with the collaboration of MOSS, Valencian local federation of Saharawi people, Sahara marathon and Observatory of Nutrition and Food Safety in Developing Countries, ADINU and Faculty of Pharmacy of University of Valencia and University Clinic of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Physiotherapy (CUNAFF) from Lluís Alcanyís Foundation- University of Valencia. It favoured the following results: i) to sensitize the students about the nutritional needs of the people who are in the Saharawi refugee camps, ii) to develop informative material about the project to promote volunteering, iii) to identify and solve some of the nutritional



Food and nutrition





needs of refugees, and iv) to carry out the Sahara marathon as a tool for physical activity and solidarity collaboration between the participants and the Saharawi people [17].

C The NGDOs last place of work (Figure 4) was in a nutrition center in a rural Ethiopian village on the Oromia region (Figure 4) in collaboration with another NGDO, called Missionary Community St. Paul Apostle (MCSPA). The work was focussed in mothers and children and to pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers WHOs child growth standards helped in the study of children malnutrition and assessment

Fig. 1. Place (A), working diagram (B) and photos (C) of the project in Castellón (Spain).


Fig. 2. Place (A) and photos (B) of the project in Cullera (Spain).

The second place is situated, with Saharawi populations settled in Tindouf (Algeria) (Figure 3), in a harsh desert environment characterized by high temperatures, low rainfall and little productive soil.



Fig. 3. Place (A) and photos (B) of the project in Saharawi refugee camps.

strategies for a nutritional education intervention program for women with low resources in Ethiopia [18].





Fig. 4. Place (A), photo (B) and article published (C) of the project in Ethiopia.

Other activities were carried out to apply the development cooperation 3.0 in this NGDO, as are i) use of social networks, including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram [17], ii) establishment of documentaries, including I want to be like Genet [19] and Atu, the face of a forgotten people [20], iii) bestowing grant (Scholarship for Child Nutrition Projects of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition; SEGHNP) and special prizes (including Manuel Castillos Award for the "Luis Vives" Initiative of Development Cooperation in the category of student (Mari Olcina), students association (ADINU) and documentary film (for Atu, the face of a forgotten people), in 2021, 2018 and 2020, respectively, from University of Valencia) [6], and iv) making-up of scientific articles [21].

In conclusion, the development cooperation 3.0 is an effective tool for working in developing countries and with low-income people, improving the skills of students and professionals, and developing scientific literature that can serve as a lighthouse for effective global cooperation.


[1] T. V. S. Raghavendra, N. Arudhra, K. Amaranath, B. Raviteja and G. Sreekar, Humanitarian Supply Chain Model for Flood Relief A Case Study Analysis, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3538-3547, 2014.

[2] P.A. Orliange, From poverty reduction to global challenges, a new horizon for international development cooperation?, Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional, Vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 1-26, 2020.

[3] M. Padron, Non-governmental development organizations: from development aid to development cooperation, World Development, Vol. 15, suppl. 1, pp. 69-77, 1987.

[4] Fundación CTIC. Reading Conclusions Coop 2.0 Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[5] J. Blesa and J.M. Soriano, El Observatorio de Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria para el mundo en desarrollo en la Universidad de Valencia In Salud y cooperación para el desarrollo: análisis constructivo y nuevas claves de futuro. Alicante: Fontilles. Salud y desarrollo, 2015, pp. 202-209.

[6] MOS Solidaria. Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[7] Organic Law 1/2002, of March 22, regulating the Right of Association. Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[8] Law 14/2008, of November 18, of Community Associations from Valencian Community. Available online: vc/l/2008/11/18/14/con (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[9] Spanish Constitution Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[10] Z. Kedzia, 21. Mainstreaming Human Rights In The United Nations. In International Human Rights Monitoring Mechanisms. Leiden: The Netherlands: Brill Nijhoff, 2009, pp. 231-238.

[11] World Health Organization, Department of Child, Adolescent Health,

& UNICEF, Management of the child with a serious infection or severe malnutrition: guidelines for care at the first-referral level in developing countries. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2000.

[12] Law 60/2003, of December 23, Arbitration. Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[13] Law 5/2012, of July 6, on mediation in civil matters and mercantile Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[14] Ilêwasi. Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[15] Two great workshops: Mari Olcina and Carmen Morán, for the mothers and fathers of our little fish. Available online: olcina-y.html (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[16] Food bank of MOSS. Availble online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[17] MOSS-Report of Activities 2020. Available online: 2020_compressed.pdf (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[18] Ethiopia, Saint Paul Apostle Missionary Community (MCSPA), Emalaikat and Mari Olcina. Available online: mcspa-emalaikat-y-mari-olcina/ (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[19] I want to be like Genet. Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[20] Atu, the face of a forgotten people. Available online: (accessed on 11 March 2023).

[21] R. Rotella, M. Olcina, J.M. Soriano, I. Peraita-Costa and M. Morales- Suarez-Varela, Cross-sectional study on breastfeeding related practices in rural Ethiopia: nutritional and socio-cultural aspects, Nutrición Clínica y Dietética Hospitalaria, Vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 12-22, 2022.