Applications of TCP/IP Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

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Applications of TCP/IP Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Mr. R. Jayaraj1

Research Scholar, Department of CSE, Annamalai University, TamilNadu, India


Associate Professor, Department of CSE, Annamalai University, TamilNadu, India

Abstract:- Transmission management protocol (TCP) may be a transport protocol designed specifically for wired net. In wireless unintentional network, changes in topology will occur oft and erratically that results in packet loss and delay. Communications protocol misinterprets that condition as congestion and it reacts by reducing the transmission rate and causes the performance to degrade and lower turnout. The communications protocol needs to be changed if to acknowledge the distinction between packet loss thanks to link failure or congestion. To adapt communications protocol to the present strict paradigm, some modifications are projected. This study evaluates the performance of the projected increased communications protocol for mobile unintentional network (MANET) setting. The improved communications protocol is integrated with Snoop protocol and put in in each node of the system model. The system model styled is meant is intended and developed mistreatment OPNET software package design tool. The simulation results show the improved communications protocol produces improved performance with higher turn out and support for node quality.

Keywords:- TCP, ad hoc network, MANET, routing, congestion, throughput.


Over the past few years, mobile unintended networks (MANET) area unit considered mobile nodes that area unit capable of communication among themselves while not the employment any communication infrastructure. Mobile users will vagabond within the fixed space and still will communicate directly with different mobile node. For this purpose, each mobile user conjointly is a relay or router for different nodes. Antecedently most researchers have an interest in routing protocol challenges for wireless unintended networks. But during this study the main focus is on developing a mechanism, which may improve the performance of transmission management protocol (TCP) along with net protocol (IP) for network. The TCP/IP is wide accepted in net because the reliable end-to-end transport protocol. Whereas the information science handles the particular information delivery, the protocol manages the individual packet for economical routing within the net. By mistreatment flow management, sequence range, acknowledgement and timer, the protocol will guarantee delivery from the causation method to the receiving method properly, orderly and error-free. but in painter atmosphere, configuration change and discontinuities happens of inflicting packet loss, that protocol misinterprets as congestion [3].The

protocol can react by reducing the transmission rate and have an effect on the performance to degrade with lower turnout. The protocol assumes congestion has occurred whenever Associate in nursing acknowledgment fails to arrive before a time-out expires thanks to section loss. The section loss are often indicated in 2 ways that namely Occurring of a time-out or; Receiving duplicate acknowledgements. The protocol

should be changed so as to acknowledge the distinction between link failure and congestion if to figure effectively in painter. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Future section reviews some existing schemes for rising protocol. Section three presents the projected theme and Section four describes the system model. Section five discusses the simulation results and eventually Section six presents the conclusion.


      In this section, the a lot of common projected schemes to boost protocol performance for Mamet [4][5][6] design are conferred.

    2. SnoopProtocol:

      Snoop protocol [7] is meant to be protocol aware. The snoop protocol modifies the network layer package on the bottom station to cache the protocol packets and perform native retransmissions across the wireless links. it's enforced as a layer in TCP/IP design stack. It may be placed each at the access point and also the mobile node. The Snoop protocol runs on a snoop agent that's enforced within the base station or wireless devise. The agent monitors the packet that passes through and caches the packet into a table for protocol affiliation. Then the agent forwards the packets to their destinations and monitors the corresponding acknowledgements (ACKs) while not forwarding the ACKs to the sender.

    3. Mobile-TCP

      Another answer is that the mobile-TCP [8], that could be a transport protocol for mobile computing designed specifically for prolonged disconnections or frequent disconnections. Mobile-TCP informs the sender that a disconnection has occurred. It ensures that football play is economical and also the end-to-end protocol linguistics maintained. If protocol sender detects a packet loss (duplicate acknowledgement or timeout) it'll perform retransmissions however while not reducing its window size. Once disconnection ends, the sender is educated to resume traditional operation

    4. ATCP Protocol

While the ATCP protocol [9] utilizes the network layer feedback. It doesn't impose changes to the quality protocol itself. It's a layer between informatics and protocol that follows the network state data of Destination Unreachable message and also the specific Congestion Notification (ECN) message provided by ICMP, just in case of route failure, the ICMP Destination Unreachable message can enable the protocol sender to enter persist state. The ECN message will differentiates packet loss because of congestion or wireless transmission errors. just in case of loss, the protocol sender enters persist state and just in case of congestion, ATCP won't interfere with management protocol|TCP|protocol|communications

protocol}congestion management algorithms however forwards the packet to protocol so it will invoke its congestion control mechanism ordinarily.


The criteria or factors thought-about during this study in rising this TCP to fulfill the demand of node quality in Edouard Manet square measure known. There square measure 2 major factors thought-about so as to enhance the TCP turnout.

  1. Route Failure:

    The protocol should be able to distinguish between packet loss thanks to route failure and packet loss thanks to congestion.

  2. Congestion Window:

The protocol should not use the previous route congestion window size for the new route, since it's unlikely for similar conditions conjointly still exist within the new route. In reality, a number of the concepts developed for this solutions can also be increased [8][10], and new paradigms will be designed, during this work, we have a tendency to propose to integrate this TCP with the Snoop protocol to match our demand. The subsequent factors square measure relevant to the project enhances wireless TCP protocol:

  • The new protocol should preserve the TCP end-to-end acknowledgement and linguistics so as to spot the presence of varied network condition.

  • The protocol should support wireless transmission errors, route failures and handoffs.

  • The protocol will handle congestion well.

  • The protocol uses a replacement congestion window size for a replacement route.

  • The protocol won't have an effect on the TCP structure.

      1. Snooping in unintended Network

        To improve the TCP performance theSnoop protocol is integrated within the unintended network, wherever every node acts as host furthermore as router for alternative nodes. In alternative words, each node within the network is supplied with a Snoop module. Snooping at every node can increase the packet accessibility even once nodes arrange themselves by connection or effort the network. The packet is shipped from one mobile host to a different with random speed and to random destinations. If 2 hosts square measure shut enough to every alternative they'll communicate directly. However, if they're way apart, then alternative host will relay the packets to and from these 2 distant users throughout the communication.

        Working from the initial Snoop protocol, all modifications come about at the bottom station and therefore the hosts. The distinction between wired network and unintended network is within the degree of the physical infrastructure gift. the initial Snoop protocol was designed with the vision of wireless network becomes A Next to the wired network. In unintended network situation, every mobile node works with alternative nodes therefore on dynamically maintain topology by broadcasting packets to any or all the neighboring nodes. Every mobile user is a relay or a router for alternative nodes and permits communication

        among them.

      2. Snoop Cache

    The Snoop cache is employed to cache packets that square measure received from the upper layer. It'll conduct these packets once Snoop detects a loss packet thanks to the

    received of duplicateICARCAKD. LA-s2m02e1nCtioonnfearnetnecceePderonctelyed, itnhges Snoop in every node can broadcast the packets to any or all neighboring nodes. Caching the packets in the slightest degree nodes can increase the packets accessibility. Thus, every node needs larger cache size. The amount of packets within the cache can decrease because the Snoop protocol receives the ACK. the amount of cached packets can become zero once the TCP association is completed. 3.3Snooping States

    For information transfer in Manet, the Snoop protocols can management the information transmission. In doing therefore, the Snoop protocol enforced in each mobile nodes can perform in many states. The attainable states are:

  • Normal State

  • Congestion State

  • Loss State

  • Disconnection State


        The OPNET creator [11] is that the simulation tool accustomed style and develop the system model. The quality802.11 local area network model [7][12] is chosen for the node model. Similar parameters and attributes because the previous transmission control protocol model, the Manet routing protocol and also the IEEE 802.11 local area network model were adopted once more excepts people who would like some modification to validate the results. especially the parameters square measure established consistent with the quality IEEE 802.11b waterproof Protocols. All nodes (workstations, LANs, server and routers) support transmission control protocol and supply parameters that square measure configurable. The networks square measure sculptures in an exceedingly superimposed manner at intervals the simulation setting. There square measure four layers of framework modeling for any network setting namely:

        Network Domain.

        Node Objects.

        • Process Models/ State Transition Diagram (STD).

Enter and Exit Executives Pads.

    1. Network Domain

      The network domain for Manet setting consists of ten nodes and every node has its own configuration. For wireless unplanned network, every link within the network is unreliable. The approach taken to as certain reliable link is by applying Snoop and caching at each node. The Snoop implementation doesn't cash in of the very fact that at the link layer any packet is broadcast to all or any the neighboring nodes. Caching the packets in any respect nodes can increase the packet convenience hugely. but in doing thus, every node needs larger cache size. The network parts of the transmission control protocol system model comprise the subsequent basic components namely: servers, workstations, routers, switch, computer network and links.

    2. Node Model

      To go with manet model, the first snoop module is changed to satisfy the new transmission control protocol for wireless setting. Additionally, the Snoop and

      Packet Error Generator (PEG) layers square measure incorporated as new transmission control protocol options victim the first local area network node model. So

      emphasize the importance of snoop and PEG layers that square measure settled on top of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) layer of the quality transmission control protocol. The local area network node model is chosen because the customary for every layer within the node model style. There square measure different higher layers enforced within the local area network node model like the appliance, transmission control protocol and scientific discipline layers. the most interest is concentrated on the transmission control protocol and scientific discipline layers of the transmission control protocol node model. Fig. five shows local area network node model of the new transmission control protocol integrated with changed snoop module. Snoop agent is more between creative person and scientific discipline layers. It suggests that the snoop module is enforced within the wireless devise because the base station. The Snoop agent is employed to cache packet that square measure received from the upper layer. To facilitate the Snoop protocol, a further layer, known as a PEG is more between creative person and scientific discipline layers that is below the snoop agent layer. Whereas packets square measure sent, PEG can generate packet loss by dropping packets that was received from the higher layer or lower layer.

    3. Process Model

      The engine for snoop model is that the method model, as shown in Fig. 6. It is viewed as a series of logical operations performed on information. The method model represents the logical of the $64000 components in transmission control protocol snoop protocol. Any alteration to enhance transmission {control protocol| TCP| protocol| communications protocol} performance likes congestion control and route running is created at intervals this method. It'll go deeply on the enter and exit. Wherever it's here that ever one the codes square measure noted down. The enforced method model is totally different to the first Snoop since the sole nodes existed within the network is that the mobile nodes, and with no different mounted hosts or base station. The transmission control protocol model is developed by choosing the specified node and link models from the OPNET Object Palette and activates the specified applications and also the supported profiles. Intensive simulation runs were performed on the models. Every parameter change creates a unique situation and also the results were analyzed and compared so as to grasp the network behavior. The simulation parameters thought-about for the network domain of the manet model is simplified as shown in Table one and Table a pair of below.

      Fig. 5: WLAN Node Model with Snoop

      ICRADL – 2021 Conference Proceedings

      Fig. 6: Snoop Process Model

      Number of mobile hosts


      Field Size

      300m x 300m

      Simulation Time

      1 hour

      Maximum Segmented Size

      2264 bytes

      TCP Packet Size

      536 bytes

      Maximum Congestion Window


      Maximum Receiver Window


      Table 1: Network Topology Simulation Parameters

      MAC Layer

      IEEE 802.11b

      Link Bandwidth

      2 Mbps/p>

      Radio Transmission Radius


      Routing Protocol


      Table 2: MANET Simulation Parameters

    4. Simulation set up

There were ten nodes on completely different locations of the receiver and sender within the vary of one hop to nine hops. every node may be at most distance of 250m off from the closest neighbor. From [13] the information turnout equation for IEEE 802.11 MAC for MANET is as follows:

Data Packet x 2Mbps (1)

Data Packet + knowledge Packet Overhead

Data Packet Overhead = RTS + CTS+ raincoat Header + MAC ACK

  • RTS (Request to Send) Size = forty Bytes.

  • CTS (Clear to Send) Size = thirty-nine Bytes.

  • raincoat Header Size = forty seven Bytes.

  • raincoat ACK Size = thirty-nine Bytes.

    When knowledge packet of 536 bytes is applied, the IEEE

    802.11 raincoat knowledge turnout is 1.53 Mbps. With numerous inter-frame timings are counted, this limit is reduced to 1.43Mbps (0.1Mbps for knowledge packets). This can be IEEE 802.11 raincoat knowledge turnout for a receiver of 1 hop off from the sender. On the opposite hand, by victim (1) the new TCP knowledge turnout may be calculated as (2) below:

    Data Packet x 2Mbps (2) Data Packet +Data Packet Overhead

    +TCP ACK Overhead

    Data Packet Overhead = TCP H. + IP H. + RTS + CTS + raincoat H. + MAC ACK .

    TCP ACK Overhead = TCP H. + IP H. + RTS + CTS

    + MAC H. + MAC ACK . TCP Throughput over Number of



  • RTS (Request to Send) Size = forty Bytes

  • CTS (Clear to Send) Size = thirty-nine Bytes

  • raincoat Header Size = forty seven Bytes

  • raincoat ACK Size = thirty-nine Bytes

  • TCP Header Size = twenty Bytes

  • IP Header Size = twenty Bytes

With applied knowledge packet of 536 bytes, the TCP knowledge turnout is 1.13 Mbps. once inter-frame timings ar thought-about, the limit reduces to 1.93Mbps (0.1Mbps for knowledge packets and zero.1Mbps for TCP ACK). this can be the results of the expected TCP turnout for a receiver that's one hop away.


In this work, area unit some configurations to be setup to determine the mobile impromptu network model:

  • Each node is enforced with Snoop module.

  • The TCP and Snoop protocol area unit incorporated in Manet.

  • Congestion will occur within the network.

  • Mobility is a component of the mobile hosts.

The Manet system model consists of ten nodes, so there will be nine hops the foremost. The TCP output of the system model is measured and compared with the theoretical worth. From channel utilization (1/n) as planned by [13], wherever n is that the variety of hops, the theoretical result will be calculated for instance, knowledge packet sent from the primary node to the second node, the measured output is 0.90Mbps, that is roughly adequate to the theoretical worth of 0.93Mbps. So the result's valid. Fig. eight shows the TCP output decreases with increasing hop counts, since the primary host is claimed to inject additional knowledge than alternative mobile hosts. So the output is highest at the causation node. The most output achieved at one hop is sort of 0.93Mbps for each sensible and theoretical conditions. Because the variety of hops is any raised, the TCP output decreases exponentially and approaches 0.10Mbps for each things.

Fig. 8: TCP Throughput over Number of Hops

Clearly this is often because of interference that each node experiences reckoning on its location within the circumstantial network chain. While Fig. nine shows the improved TCP turnout performance for painter network integrated with Snoop protocol. In an advert hoc network, information packets and acknowledgements should travel a lot of dynamically, taking advantage of the out there nodes. The turnout

improvement is thatICthReArDesLu-lt2s02o1f ChoignhferaecncceesPsribocileietdyinogfs packets achieved through caching at every node. The performance of cached packets is shown in Fig. 10. the advantages of cached packet at every node build it realistic for Snoop protocol to convey any information packets from its cache while not informing the sender or waits for time RTO once packet lost is detected.

Fig. 9: TCP Throughput


In wireless network, packets losses area unit principally because of the bit errors caused by the environmental impact like noise and delay. Congestion has become the problematic think about rising the performance of information transfer in wired or wireless network. Snoop protocol overcomes this issue by introducing the result of caching packet. during this study, the Snoop protocol is enforced at every node, thus on forestall TCP congestion window from shrinking. TCP shrinks its congestion window once it detects packet lost. Shrinking the congestion window causes TCP to send less knowledge in every packet. On the opposite hand, the network can still transmits additional knowledge packets. This creates larger possibilities for packets corrupted; and this successively can shrink the congestion window and therefore the condition repeats.

It is clear that while not the Snoop Protocol, the TCP layer needs to transmit constant knowledge packet (same sequence number) many times. This can cause timeout to expire and will invoke congestion management, therefore degrades TCP performance. Hence, Snoop protocol solves this matter by detective work if the sequence is new, false or duplicate acknowledgement.

Snoop protocol acknowledges packets with regard to its sequence range and assumes all packets with higher sequence range area unit lost. The Snoop can transmit packets solely from the primary lost packet.


The result obtained is valid since there's tiny distinction between the 2 throughputs, theoretical and measured price. Because the range of hops will increase, the turnout degrades because of factors like interference and high bit error rate. That's why the performance of traffic packet decreases because the knowledge transmission distance from sender to receiver will increase. From the performance graphs shown, the Snoop protocol will improves the TCP turnout performance while not ever-changing different layer stacks. The TCP/IP layer is unrestricted, therefore the linguistics is preserved. The turnout performance is improved with Snoop protocol. Nodes with Snoop protocol will transfer a lot of knowledge packets compared to those while not Snoop once transmittal nearly an equivalent knowledge packets (sequence number) through the network. Additionally, the result additionally shows that Snoop works well in preventing TCP congestion window from shrinking, therefore will increase the performance considerably. This proves the impact of caching at every node manufacture higher results. Therefore, the idea that each one loss, because of congestion becomes quite problematic over wireless links. Packets losses principally because of the bit errors caused by the results of environmental impact like noise and delay. Thus, varied proposals for applicable TCP modifications existed. to the current finish, we've got enforced a brand new improved TCP protocol within the OPNET surroundings mistreatment the schemes of Snoop protocol, that is a benchmark during this study and analysis. Snoop at each nodes manufacture associate improvement within the turnout. This mechanism looks applicable and ends up in the implementations of TCP over wireless link with higher performance. The result obtained from in depth simulation last mobile circumstantial network proves the new wireless TCP produces higher turnout performance.

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