 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 89
 Authors : WenChih Yang , KuoFen Liu , ChenHong Lin , ZihYuan Lin
 Paper ID : IJERTV8IS090149
 Volume & Issue : Volume 08, Issue 09 (September 2019)
 Published (First Online): 27092019
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Analysis of Voltage Unbalance due to SinglePhase Dispersed Generation Systems in ThreePhase LowVoltage Distribution Feeders
WenChih Yang, KuoFen Liu ChenHong Lin, ZihYuan Lin
Department of Electrical Engineering Institute of Mechatronic Engineering Taipei City University of Science and Technology Taipei City University of Science and Technology
Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan, R.O.C.
AbstractThe major purpose of this paper is to analyze the voltage unbalance situations of a threephase lowvoltage distribution feeder with singlephase dispersed generation systems. The simulation tool used in this paper is OpenDSS. There are three factors that affect the voltage unbalance of a threephase lowvoltage distribution feeder, connection point, connection phase and power generation, which are considered in this paper. The simulation results show that the connection point, connection phase and power generation of the single phase dispersed generation systems will affect the original voltage unbalance of the lowvoltage distribution feeders. If the connection points and phases of singlephase dispersed generation systems can be arranged appropriately in advance, the voltage unbalance of the lowvoltage distribution feeders will be improved.
KeywordsDispersed generation system, distribution feeder, OpenDSS, voltage unbalance.

INTRODUCTION
In recent years, the greenhouse effect of the earth has become increasingly obvious, climate change has become severely, and the frequency of natural disasters has increased. Affected by this, the concept of dispersed generation (DG) attracts more and more attention from people and has
distribution feeder become more serious? It is really interesting.
In order to realize the problem described above, a typical threephase lowvoltage distribution system was employed as a sample system in this research. The sample system interconnected with a DGS. The simulation software, OpenDSS, was adopted to simulate the sample system. Simulation results have been reorganized and presented in this paper. They are analyzed and discussed in detail according to the three factors that affect the voltage unbalance of a three phase lowvoltage distribution feeder. The results shown in this paper will be beneficial to the operation and maintenance of threephase lowvoltage distribution systems.

THE SAMPLE SYSTEM
Fig. 1 shows the structure of the sample system. The major components of the sample system are a threephase distribution transformer, a threephase breaker and a three phase distribution feeder. The threephase distribution feeder is called as the sample feeder in this paper. Its structure is threephase fourwire scheme. Therefore, it consists of three supply conductors and one neutral conductor. For simplicity, the neutral conductor is not shown in Fig. 1.
gradually become a trend in the power generation industry [1]. DG is usually renewable energy power generation, such as wind power, solar power or hydropower generation [2]. Largescale renewable energy power generation systems are usually interconnected with transmission systems or high voltage power distribution systems. Conversely, smallscale renewable energy power generation systems are interconnected with lowvoltage distribution systems [3]. In Taiwan, renewable energy generation systems with a capacity
High voltage side
Low voltage side
Bus
1A
Load
1A
Bus 1B
Bus
2A
Load
2A
Bus 2B
Bus
3A
Load
3A
Bus 3B
Bus
4A
Load
4A
Bus 4B
Bus
5A
Load
5A
Bus 5B
Bus
6A
Load
6A
Bus 6B
of less than 100 kW are only allowed to be interconnected to lowvoltage distribution feeders.
A lowvoltage power distribution system consists of transformers, switches, distribution feeders and protection equipment. Lowvoltage distribution systems supply electric power to their users by the distribution feeders. The distribution feeders of lowvoltage distribution systems have a threephase structure, but the singlephase loads usually exit in
Threephase
transformer Breaker
Load 1B
Bus 1C
Load 1C
Load 2B
Bus 2C
Load 2C
Load 3B
Bus 3C
Load 3C
Load 4B
Bus 4C
Load 4C
Load 5B
Bus 5C
Load 5C
Load 6B
Bus 6C
Load 6C
them, so threephase voltage unbalance problems arise [4,5]. Today, more and more smallscale singlephase dispersed generation systems (DGSs) are integrated into lowvoltage distribution systems. Under such circumstances, does the voltage unbalance problem of the threephase lowvoltage
Fig. 1. The structure of the sample system employed in this paper.
The sample feeder is 60 m long. Six virtual buses are placed on the sample feeder. The interval between two adjacent buses is 10 m. The six virtual buses are numbered 1
to 6, where A, B, and C are represented as phases. Each bus connects with a load.
The maximum generating capacity of the DGS is 10 kW. The interconnection point and phase of the DGS depend on the research scenarios, so the DGS is not shown in Fig. 1. The parameters of the distribution transformer and the distribution feeder in the sample system are shown below. The load of each bus are shown in Table I.
Distribution transformer:

Rating capacity : 150 kVA

Winding connection : Delta Grounded wye

Rating voltage : 11.4 kV/380220 V

Winding impedance : 0.0176+j0.025 pu Distribution feeder:

Length : 60 m

Diameter : 125 mm2
Impedance : 0.1842+j0.0982 /km
Bus phase
A
B
C
Bus number
Load (kVA)
Power factor
Load (kVA)
Power factor
Load (kVA)
Power factor
1
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
2
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
3
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
4
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
5
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
6
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
Bus phase
A
B
C
Bus number
Load (kVA)
Power factor
Load (kVA)
Power factor
Load (kVA)
Power factor
1
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
2
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
3
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
4
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
5
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
6
4
1.0
5
1.0
8
1.0
TABLE I THE LOAD OF EACH BUS IN THE SAMPLE SYSTEM


FACTORS AFFECTING VOLTAGE UNBALANCE When DGSs are interconnected with a low voltage
distribution system, the original voltage unbalance of the low voltage distribution system is affected [6]. There are three major factors affecting the voltage unbalance of lowvoltage distribution systems, namely the interconnection point, interconnection phase, and power generation. The three factors are explained below.

Interconnection Point
The interconnection point is where the DGS is interconnected with a lowvoltage distribution feeder. The types of lowvoltage distribution feeders in Taiwan are all radial. After a DGS is interconnected with a lowvoltage distribution system, it will inject electric power into the connected lowvoltage distribution feeder. In this way, the magnitude and direction of the power flow in the lowvoltage distribution feeder will be changed, so that the voltage profile of the lowvoltage distribution feeder changes, and the three phase voltage unbalance will also change.

Interconnection Phase
In Taiwan, the threephase lowvoltage distribution system has a threephase fourwire structure. The threephase distribution feeder of the threephase lowvoltage distribution system consists of three supply conductors and one neutral conductor. The single phase DGS is only connected between one of the supply conductors and the neutral wire. When the DGS outputs electric power, only the voltage profile of the connected supply conductor is changed, so the original three phase voltage unbalance of the lowvoltage distribution feeder is also changed.

Power Generation
The voltage drop Vd and magnitude Vm of the threephase lowvoltage distribution feeder are determined by (1) and (2), where Is is the current flowing in the supply conductor, Z is the unit impedance of the supply conductor, l is the length of the supply conductor, and Vs is the voltage on the secondary side of the transformer. When a DGS is interconnected to a threephase lowvoltage distribution feeder, its power generation will affect the magnitude and direction of the current flowing in the connected supply conductor [7]. This will affect the threephase voltage unbalance of the low voltage distribution feeder. The greater the power generation of the DGS, the greater the impact on the threephase voltage unbalance of the lowvoltage distribution feeder.
Vd = Is Ã— Z Ã— l (1)
Vm = Vs – Vd (2)


SIMULATION RESULTS
In order to analyze the effect of a singlephase DGS on the voltage unbalance of a threephase lowvoltage distribution feeder, 10 simulation scenarios have been carried out by this research. The definitions of the 10 simulation scenarios and simulation results will be described and discussed in the following subsections according to the three factors stated in section III.

Interconnection Point
A GDS may be connected to any bus of a lowvoltage distribution feeder. The interconnection point of a GDS is different, the effect on the voltage unbalance of the connected lowvoltage distribution feeder is different. In this research, 4 simulation scenarios namely S0, S1, S2 and S3 have been carried out to present this effect. The 4 simulation scenarios are described as follows. The feeder voltage simulation results are shown in Figs. 2 to 5 and the voltage unbalance ratios (VURs) of the sample feeder are shown in Fig. 6. The VUR is defined in (3).
S0: No DGS connects with the sample feeder.
S1: A DGS connects with the phase A of the bus 6 of the sample feeder and output 10kW of active power.
S2: A DGS connects with the phase A of the bus 3 of the sample feeder and output 10kW of active power.
S3: A DGS connects with the phase A of the bus 1 of the sample feeder and output 10kW of active power.
VUR=(Max.(VA,VB,VC)Min.(VA,VB,VC))/(VA+VB+VC)/3 (3)
Where the VA, VB and VC are the phase voltages of a bus on the sample feeder. Max. means to get the maximum value. Min. means to take the minimum value.
Fig. 2. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S0.
Fig. 3. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S1.
Fig. 4. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S2.
Fig. 5. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S3.
Fig. 6. The VURs of the sample feeder in scenario S0 to S3.
The simulation results in Fig. 6 show that the change of a DGSs interconnection point does affect the voltage unbalance of the connected lowvoltage distribution feeder. The closer the interconnection point of a DGS is to the end of the connected lowvoltage distribution feeder, the greater the effect on the voltage unbalance of the connected lowvoltage distribution feeder.

Interconnection Phase
For a threephase lowvoltage distribution system, its distribution feeder has three phases: A, B and C. A single phase GDS can be connected to any phase of a lowvoltage distribution feeder. The interconnection phase of a GDS is different, the effect on the voltage unbalance of the connected lowvoltage distribution feeder is different. In this research, 4 simulation scenarios namely S0, S4, S5 and S6 have been carried out to present this effect. The 4 simulation scenarios are described as follows. The feeder voltage simulation results are shown in Figs. 2 and 7 to 9 and the VURs of the sample feeder are shown in Fig. 10.
S0: No DGS connects with the sample feeder.
S4: A singlephase DGS connects with the phase A of the bus 6 of the sample feeder and output 10kW of active power.
S5: A singlephase DGS connects with the phase B of the bus 6 of the sample feeder and output 10kW of active power.
S6: A singlephase DGS connects with the phase C of the bus 6 of the sample feeder and output 10kW of active power.
Fig. 7. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S4.
Fig. 8. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S5.
Fig. 9. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S6.
Fig. 10. The VURs of the sample feeder in scenario S0 and S4 to S6.
The simulation results in Fig. 10 show that the change of a DGSs interconnection phase affect the voltage unbalance of the connected lowvoltage distribution feeder largely. In the four simulation scenarios, the largest VUR occurs at scenario S4, while the smallest VUR occurs at scenario S6. The major reason is that the load of phase A of the sample feeder is lighter than the phase C. The simulation results in Fig. 10 show that DGSs should be connected to the phase with a heavy load of a lowvoltage distribution feeder. In this way the effect of the interconnection of DGSs on the voltage unbalance of the threephase lowvoltage distribution system can be reduced effectively.

Power Generation
When a DGS is connected to a lowvoltage distribution feeder, it will inject electric power into the connected distribution feeder. The power generation of the DGS directly
affects the voltage profiles and the voltage unbalance of the connected distribution feeder. In this research, 4 simulation scenarios namely S0, S7, S8 and S9 have been carried out to present this effect. The 4 simulation scenarios are also described as follows. The feeder voltage simulation results are shown in Figs. 2 and 11 to 13 and the VURs of the sample feeder are shown in Fig. 14.
S0: No DGS connects with the sample feeder.
S7: A singlephase DGS connects with the phase C of the bus 6 of the sample feedr and output 10kW of active power.
S8: A singlephase DGS connects with the phase C of the bus 6 of the sample feeder and output 6kW of active power.
S9: A singlephase DGS connects with the phase C of the bus 6 of the sample feeder and output 3kW of active power.
The simulation results in Fig. 14 show that the variation of a DGSs power generation affect the voltage unbalance of the connected lowvoltage distribution feeder. If the DGS is connected to the phase with a light load, the greater the DGS output power, the greater the effect on the voltage unbalance of the connected distribution feeder. Conversely, if the DGS is connected to the phase with a heavy load, the greater the DGS output power, the less the effect on the voltage unbalance of the connected distribution feeder.
Fig. 11. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S7.
Fig. 12. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S8.
Fig. 13. The voltage profiles of the sample feeder in scenario S9.
Fig. 14. The VURs of the sample feeder in scenario S0 and S7 to S9.


CONCLUSIONS
The voltage unbalance of a threephase lowvoltage distribution feeder with a DGS has been analyzed by this research. Simulation results shown in this paper has demonstrated that the interconnection of a DGS does affect the voltage unbalance of the connected threephase low voltage distribution feeder. This effect may increase or decrease the degree of voltage unbalance, depending on the interconnection point, interconnection phase, and power
generation of the DGS. In general, the closer the interconnection point of a DGS is to the end of the connected distribution feeder, the greater the effect of the distribution feeders voltage unbalance. If a DGS interconnects to the phase with heavy load of a distribution feeder, its effect on the voltage unbalance of the distribution feeder will be less. In addition, the greater the power generation of a DGS, the greater the effect on the voltage unbalance of the connected distribution feeders. The application of DG is more and more today [8].The results shown in this paper can be used as a reference for power engineers to assist them in maintaining the power quality of their lowvoltage distribution systems.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research was founded by a grant provided by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C., under the grant number: MOST 1072221E149001.
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