Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Technology

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Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Technology

Harsh Kumar Mishra

Undergraduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Delhi Technological University New Delhi, India

Adarsh

Undergraduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Delhi Technological University New Delhi, India

Dr. Janardan Prasad Kesari

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Delhi Technological University

New Delhi, India

Abstract The light from the sun is a renewable enerygy source that is not tainted by nature and noise. It can easily compensate for the energy taken from non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and inland gasoline. Performance of solar cells have undergone a large number of developmental steps from one generation to the next. Silicon-based solar cells were first generation solar cells grown in Si Wafers, especially single crystals. Continous development in thin films, dye is sensitiveto solar cells and living solar cells improve ell erfrmne. Develment is bsilly hmered by its st nd effiieny. V ell is seilized semindutr dide tht nverts visible light int diret urrent (D). Sme V ells n ls nvert infrred r ultrvilet (UV) rditin int D eletriity. htvlti ells re n integrl rt f slr-eletri energy systems. In this er dee nlysis f htvlti ell is dne, fusing n V funtinlity, wrking, envirnmentl imt nd verll htvlti system nfigurtin

Keywords-Photovoltaic system, Solar cell, PV Array, PV module

  1. INTRODUCTION

    When light shines n htvlti (V) ell ls lled slr ell tht light my be refleted, bsrbed, r ss right thrugh the ell. The V ell is msed f semindutr mteril; the semi mens tht it n ndut eletriity better thn n insultr but nt s well s gd ndutr like metl. There re severl different semindutr mterils used in V ells. When the semindutr is exsed t light, it bsrbs the lights energy nd trnsfers it t negtively hrged rtiles in the mteril lled eletrns. This extr energy llws the eletrns t flw thrugh the mteril s n eletril urrent. This urrent is extrted thrugh ndutive metl ntts the grid-like lines n slr ells nd n then be used t wer yur hme nd the rest f the eletri grid. The effiieny f V ell is simly the munt f eletril wer ming ut f the ell mred t the energy frm the light shining n it, whih indites hw effetive the ell is t nverting energy frm ne frm t the ther. The munt f eletriity rdued frm V ells deends n the hrteristis (suh s intensity nd wvelengths) f the light vilble nd multile erfrmne ttributes f the ell. n imrtnt rerty f V semindutrs is the bndg, whih indites wht wvelengths f light the mteril n bsrb nd nvert t eletril energy. If the semindutrs bndg mthes the wvelengths f light shining n the V ell, then tht ell n effiiently mke use f ll the vilble energy.

  2. FUNCTIONALITY

    When light shines n htvlti (V) ell ls lled slr ell tht light my be refleted, bsrbed, r ss right thrugh the ell. The V ell is msed f semindutr mteril; the semi mens tht it n ndut eletriity better thn n insultr but nt s well s gd ndutr like metl. There re severl different semindutr mterils used in V ells. When the semindutr is exsed t light, it bsrbs the lights energy nd trnsfers it t negtively hrged rtiles in the mteril lled eletrns. This extr energy llws the eletrns t flw thrugh the mteril s n eletril urrent. This urrent is extrted thrugh ndutive metl ntts the grid-like lines n slr ells nd n then be used t wer yur hme nd the rest f the eletri grid. The effiieny f V ell is simly the munt f eletril wer ming ut f the ell mred t the energy frm the light shining n it, whih indites hw effetive the ell is t nverting energy frm ne frm t the ther. The munt f eletriity rdued frm V ells deends n the hrteristis (suh s intensity nd wvelengths) f the light vilble nd multile erfrmne ttributes f the ell. n imrtnt rerty f V semindutrs is the bndg, whih indites wht wvelengths f light the mteril n bsrb nd nvert t eletril energy. If the semindutrs bndg mthes the wvelengths f light shining n the V ell, then tht ell n effiiently mke use f ll the vilble energy.

  3. WORKING OF PV CELL

    V ell is semindutr dide whse n juntin is exsed t light. htvlti ells mde f severl tyes f semindutrs using different mnufturing resses. The mn rystlline nd lyrystlline silin ells re the nly fund t mmeril sle t the resent time. Silin htvlti ells re msed f thin lyer f bulk Si r thin Si film nneted t eletri terminls. ne f the sides f the Si lyer is ded t frm the n juntin. thin metlli grid is led n the Sun- fing surfe f the semindutr. Fig. 1 rughly illustrtes the hysil struture f htvlti ell. The inidene f light n the ell genertes hrge rriers tht riginte n eletri urrent if the ell is shrt iruited. hrges re generted when the energy f the inident htn is suffiient t deth the vlent eletrns f the semindutrthis henmenn deends n the semindutr mteril nd n the wvelength f the inident light.

    Fig. 1: Structure of a PV cell

    Bsilly, the htvlti henmenn my be desribed s the bsrtin f slr rditin, the Genertin nd trnsrt f free rriers t the n juntin, nd the lletin f these eletri hrges t the terminls f the V devie. Genertin rte f eletri rriers deends n the inident light flux nd the ity f bsrtin f the semindutr. The ity f bsrtin deends minly n the semindutr bnd g, n the refletne f the ell surfe (tht deends n the she nd tretment f the surfe), n the intrinsi nentrtin f rriers f the semindutr, n the eletrni mbility, n the rembintin rte, n the temerture, nd n severl ther ftrs. The slr rditin is msed f htns f different energies. htns with energies lwer thn the bnd g f the htvlti ell re useless nd generte n vltge r eletri urrent. htns with energy suerir t the bnd g generte eletriity, but nly the energy rresnding t the bnd g is used the reminder f energy is dissited s het in the bdy f the V ell. Semindutrs with lwer bnd gs my tke dvntge r lrger rditin setrum, but the generted vltges re lwer. Si is nt the nly, nd rbbly nt the

    best, semindutr mteril fr V ells, but it is the nly ne whse fbritin ress is enmilly fesible in lrge sle. ther mterils n hieve better nversin effiieny, but t higher nd mmerilly unfesible sts. In rtil system, ne V ell will nt be ble t rvid suffiient energy. Thus, severl ells re grued tgether t frm V mdule, nd severl mdules re grued tgether t frm V rry. This mbintin f ells is wht llws fr lrger erentge f slr wer t be bsrbed due t lrger re f V ells, nd thus mre urrent nd vltge t be rdued t the utut. he slr V rry r mdule used hs t be refully designed t rdue the right munt f wer t hrge the bttery nd ls hs t be designed t dhere t the hrging hrteristis f the bttery s muh s ssible s s t minimize lsses. Belw eitmizes the frmtin f the V mdule nd rry frm the V ell.

    Fig 2: PV module and array formation from PV cells

    PV MODULE

    The slr mdule is nrmlly nneted in series suffiient number f slr ells t rvide required stndrd utut vltge nd wer. ne slr mdule n be rted frm 3 wtts t 300 wtts. tully single slr V ell genertes very tiny munt tht is rund 0.1 wtt t 2 wtts. But it is nt rtil t use suh lw wer unit s the building blk f system. S required numbers f suh ells re mbined tgether t frm rtil mmerilly vilble slr unit whih is knwn s slr mdule r V mdule. When needs higher vltge, nnet V ell in series nd if ld demnd high urrent then nnet V ell in rllel V rry is simly n internnetin f severl htvlti mdules in seril nd/ r rllel.

    PV ARRAY

    The wer generted by individul mdules my nt be suffiient t meet the requirement f trding litins, s

    the mdules re seured in grid frm r s n rry t grtify the ld demnd.

  4. PV CELL AS CURRENT SOURCE

    slr ell n be mdeled s urrent sure whih is rllel t dide nd n equivlent resistne. The equivlent resistne is mrised f shunt (Rsh) nd Series resistne(Rser). The series resistne ftrs in ll the lsses due t the resistive semindutr mteril tht the ell is mde f, the resistne f the ntts, nd ther series lsses. The shunt resistne is due t llized shrts in the silin wfer tht is the rimry mteril f the ell.

    Figure 3: General circuit representation of a solar cell.

    Generlly, the series resistne is very smll, nd the shunt resistne is very lrge, mking these lsses lmst negligible. Un bservtin f the IV hrteristis f mmeril slr nel suh s the SQ150, it n be seen tht hnges in irrdine bring but signifint hnges in the nel shrt iruit urrent but brely ffet the en iruit vltge. In effet, the shrt iruit urrent is rximtely rrtinl t the irrdine. rses tht the urrent sure used in the slr ell mdel be ne tht is deendent n vltge; this vltge in turn is reresenttive f the irrdine nditin. Thus, the ells hrteristis n b mde t vry with irrdine in wy tht mimis the vritins in the IV rfile f rtil slr ell. slr nel n be nstruted ut f series nd rllel nnetins f the slr ell mdel given bve. But, keeing in mind tht the bjetive f the mdeling ress ws t simly btin system whse IV hrteristis re identil t tht f slr nel, nther methd ws used: It ws fund tht the en iruit vltge f the slr ell mdel is rughly rrtinl t the number f series-nneted dides tht re in rllel t the shrt-iruit urrent sure. Thus, by dding mre dides nd inresing the shrtiruit urrent, the hrteristis f the slr ell beme mre nd mre like tht f nel. htvlti nel is nstruted ut f severl ells in series nd rllel mbintins. This llws nel t utut n utilizble

    vltge nd urrent. The figure belw illustrtes the tyil urrent-Vltge (I-V) hrteristis f V nel.

    Figure 4: I-V characteristics of a PV panel

    The curve shows how the current supplied by a PV panel varies with its voltage. The point of maximum power occurs at the knee of the curve and is called the maximum power point (MPP). The maximum power is given by Pmpp = Vmpp x Impp

    Figure 5: PV output power characteristics

    In order for the PV panel to supply maximum power, it should supply a load of resistance (Rmpp): Rmpp = Vmpp / Impp If the load resistance as seen by the panel is below this value, the bias point would move to the left of the MPP, and to the right if the resistance is above this value.

    Figure 6: Bias points for various load resistances

  5. ENVIRONEMENTAL IMPACTS OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

    POSITIVE

    1. Using less wter: Wter is ne f ur mst reius nturl resures. We live n the driest ntinent n the lnet, nd we run the risk f running ut f fresh wter in the future. Trditinl eletriity rdutin n use thusnds f litres f wter eh yer. Wter is used fr ling genertrs, ressing nd refining fuel nd trnsrting fuel thrugh ies. Generting wer thrugh slr nels, hwever, uses n wter whtsever. The ertin f slr htvlti ells desnt require wter t ll t generte eletriity, reduing the strin n this reius resure. The nly wter needed is rinwter t nturlly len the nels when they get bit grubby. Using less wter is benefit t the envirnment f generting slr energy.

    2. Reduing ir llutin: the ir we brethe n hel r hinder ur helth nd wellbeing. Eletriity genertin frm fssil fuels n generte hrmful rbn dixide nd methne gses tht lwer the qulity f the ir we brethe. Brething r qulity ir n dily bsis n hve dire nsequenes fr ur helth. ir llutin hs been linked t sthm nd llergies, brnhitis, neumni, hedhes, nxiety, hert ttks nd even sme ners. Using the sun t generte mre nd mre f ur wer mens less nd less hrmful emissins frm burning fssil fuels. Generting eletriity frm slr nels rdue n hrmful emissins, nd the mre hmes nd businesses tht rely n slr wer mens less txi emissins frm fssil fuels int ur ir.

    3. Hel t slw limte hnge: the relese f txi gses int the tmshere, suh s rbn dixide, methne nd nitrus xide, desnt just ntribute t ir llutin, but ls ntributes t the enhned greenhuse effet. While the greenhuse effet is nturl ress tht wrms the Erths surfe t liveble temerture, humn tivities, suh s the burning f fssil fuels, hve inresed the munt f greenhuse gses in ur tmshere. This hs led t the enhned greenhuse effet, whih is wrming ur erth fster thn ever befre. In reent yers, this hs been linked t number f tstrhi wether events, suh s flding, ylnes, strms, extreme het nd drught. Generting eletriity frm slr nels rdue n greenhuse gses whtsever, nd s n hel t redue the effet f limte hnge if used widely. With slr energy wering hme r business, there is n burning f fuel nd n emissins frm energy rdutin.

    4. Reduing yur husehlds rbn ftrint: Slr energy is ne f the lenest sures f energy, nd its n extremely effetive wy f yur husehld mre effiient nd sustinble. Slr nels dnt use ny wter t generte eletriity, they dnt relese hrmful gses int the envirnment, nd the sure f their energy is bundnt nd, best f ll, free. Using slr energy insted f the grid ls mens yu redue the need fr rbn dixide emitting energy t be rdued fr the grid n yur behlf fr energy users n minlnd ustrli, yu uld ffset nywhere between hlf t ne tnne f rbn dixide fr every megwtt- hur f slr energy yu use. With even smll system instlled n yur hme, yu n hel redue yur husehlds rbn ftrint nd ntribute ersnlly t the ustrlin Renewble Energy Trget.

    5. Reduing ur reline n fssil fuels: Slr energy sulies re mssive; if we uld hrness ll f the sunlight shining n the erth fr just ne hur, we uld use tht energy t wer the entire wrld fr whle yer. The sunshine used in slr energy rdutin is free, nd theres lts f it. n the ther hnd, fssil fuels re runing ut, nd fst. Reduing ur reline n these finite resures nd tking dvntge f n bundnt, free sure f energy, suh s sunlight, uld men lwer energy ries, redued greenhuse gs emissins nd strnger, mre stble energy future.

      NEGATIVE

      Slr energy systems ffer signifint envirnmentl benefits in mrisn t the nventinl energy sures, thus they gretly ntribute t the sustinble develment f humn tivities. t times hwever, the wide sle delyment f suh systems hs t fe tentil negtive envirnmentl imlitins. These ssible rblems my be strng brrier fr further dvnement f these systems in sme nsumers. The tentil envirnmentl imts ssited with slr wer n be lssified rding t numerus tegries,

      sme f whih re lnd use imts, elgil imts, imts t wter, ir nd sil, nd ther imts suh s sienmi nes, nd n vry gretly deending n the tehnlgy.

      1. Lnd Use nd Elgil Imts: In the int f generting eletriity t utility-sle, slr energy filities neessitte lrge res fr lletin f energy. Due t this, the filities my interfere with existing lnd uses nd n imt the use f res suh s wilderness r reretinl management res. s energy systems my imt lnd thrugh mterils exlrtin, extrtin, mnufturing nd dissl, energy ftrints n beme inrementlly high. Thus, sme f the lnds my be utilised fr energy in suh wy tht returning t re-disturbed stte neessittes signifint energy inut r time, r bth, wheres ther uses re s drmti tht inurred hnges re irreversible.

      2. Imts t Sil, Wter nd ir Resures: The nstrutin f slr filities n vst res f lnd imses lering nd grding, resulting in sil mtin, ltertin f dringe hnnels nd inresed ersin. entrl twer systems require nsuming wter fr ling, whih is nern in rid settings, s n inrese in wter demnd my strin vilble wter resures s well s hemil sills frm the facilities whih my result in the ntmintin f the groundwater or the surface. s with the develment f ny lrge-sle industril fility, the nstrutin f slr energy wer lnts n se hzrds t ir qulity. Suh threts inlude the relese f sil-rried thgens nd results in n inrese in ir rtiulte mtter whih hs the effet f ntminting water reservoirs.

      3. Hevy Metls: Sme hve rgued tht the ltest tehnlgies intrdued n the mrket, nmely thin- film nels, re mnuftured using dngerus hevy metls, suh s dium Telluride. While it is true tht slr nel mnufturing uses these dngerus mteril, l nd il ls ntin the sme substsnes, whih re relesed with mbustin. Mrever, l wer lnts emit muh mre fthese

    txi substnes, lluting u t 300 times mre thn solar panel manufacturers.

  6. ECONOMICS OF A PV SYSTEM

    Sme imrtnt terms relted t htvlti system enmis re resented herein. The mst imrtnt V enmi rmeters re the ttl sts f instlling V system, eletriity rie, Feed-In triffs nd the energy ybk time – EBT. Investments int renewble energies, rtiulr int V nd wind tehnlgies re nther

    enmis relted re. The st f V system is mesured in rie-er-ek-wtt (/W r US$/W fr exmle). ek wtt is defined s the wer t stndrd test nditins (slr irrdine 1000 W/m2, M f 1.5 nd temerture 25°). htvlti system sts enmss bth mdule nd BS sts. Mdule sts tyilly reresents nly 40-60 % f ttl V system sts. Tyilly the st f instlling htvlti system hving wer f 10 kW ws but 70,000 /kW nd st f 100 kW ws but 60,000 /kW in 2020. rximtely but hlf f this investment wuld be fr the V mdules, nd the inverter, V rry surt strutures, eletril bling, equiment nd instlltin wuld unt fr the rest. lese nte tht BS nd instlltin sts n vry signifintly. Fr exmle: when sts fr site rertin, lying fundtin, system design nd engineering, ermitting, s well s ssembly nd instlltin lbur re higher, ttl instlltin sts re higher t. The life yle st (L) f V system my ls inlude sts fr site rertin, system design nd engineering, instlltin lbur, ermits nd ertin nd mintenne sts. htvlti systems hve n ntiited 25-yer lifetime. Fr the mst rt, the mmitment t renewble resures hs me frm individuls, big businesses nd untries. Besides slr energy, mnies suh s Ggle (GG) nd mzn (MZN) hve mmitted t using wind t wer mny filities. With big businesses, individuls nd untries ntinuing t trnsitin t renewble energy sures, dverse envirnmentl effets frm burning fssil fuels n hefully be mderted.

  7. CONCLUSION

    The sun is the mst lentiful energy sure fr the erth. ll wind, fssil fuel, hydr nd bimss energy hve their rigins in sunlight. Slr energy flls n the surfe f the erth t rte f 120 etwtts, (1 etwtt =1015wtt). This mens ll the slr energy reeived frm the sun in ne dys n stisfied the whle wrlds demnd fr mre thn 20 yers. We re ble t lulte the tentil fr eh renewble energy sure bsed n tdys tehnlgy. Future dvnes in tehnlgy will led t higher tentil fr eh energy sure. Hwever, the wrldwide demnd fr energy is exeted t kee inresing t 5 erent eh yer .lr energy is the nly hie tht n stisfy suh huge nd stedily inresing demnd. V ells re rven envirnmentlly benevlent wer sure whse ttrtive hrteristis will ntinue further htvlti reserh. Beuse urrent Dye sensitized slr systems re still ineffiient nd unmmn, they re nt yet st metitive with Silin-bsed genertrs, the effrts t inrese their tentil re grwing dy by dy. These slr devies re lw-st, sustinble nd esier t fbrite. s effiieny inreses, V tehnlgy will ttrt greter number f ele, due t lw st. Beuse the sun delivers ten thusnd times mre energy thn ele urrently nsume, htvlti imrvements will ne dy rele envirnmentlly unfriendly wer lnts with rven nd len energy sure.

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