- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 27
- Authors : Mr. K. M. Arunraja, Mr. S. Balaji, Mr. R. Kaviyan, Mr. S Prasanth
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV7IS06055
- Volume & Issue : ETEDM
- Published (First Online): 18-05-2019
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Analysis of Mechanical Behaviour of Dissimilar Metal Welding for Monel and Inconel
Mr. K. M. Arunraja1, Mr. S. Balaji2, Mr. R. Kaviyan3, Mr. S Prasanth4
1- Assistant Professor,
2, 3&4- Students
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hindusthan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India
Welding process can be performed on similar or dissimilar metals. Welding of dissimilar metals involves different types of metals with distinct chemical composition. The two dissimilar metals involve in welding process have different mechanical properties and microstructures which in turn may affect welding parameters like weld current, hold time, weld force etc. In our project we investigate about dissimilar metal welding of Monel and Inconel in various parameters and to evaluate the Mechanical (hardness, Tensile, Toughness) properties in welded materials.
The modern age demands fast production of structures. Welding is an efficient process where two materials whether of same or different composition are join together permanently. The cryogenic requirements for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are relatively high and the materials of construction for processing vessels and piping systems must demonstrate outstanding corrosion resistance and clean ability to ensure the purity and integrity of the drug product.
The project starts with chemical analysis of materials and preparation of Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) based on thermal and mechanical properties and compared with American Welding Society. In welding by controlling the parameters of thermal property mechanical deviations are reduced and so weld with fewer defects could be obtained and also the service life of material will be increased.
Methods of Welding
There are different methods of welding that are used to join dissimilar
metals such as explosive welding, cold welding, ultrasonic welding, diffusion welding, friction welding, electron beam welding, arc welding and resistance spot welding.
Dissimilar Metal Welding
In modern steel constructions it is extremely important to perform a durable dissimilar metal weld between carbon steel and stainless steel. When welding such dissimilar metal welds the choice of filler metal plays a vital role and usually has a composition differing from both of the parent metals.
Welding dissimilar metal welds faces many characteristic problems caused by structural changes and several constitutional changes can occur during welding. Changes in the dilution ratio of the parent metals are possible and affected by the welding conditions. During welding a stable manufacturing and good crack resistance is important. If the dilution between the filler metal and parent metals increases, the ferrite content will decrease in the case of welding carbon steel to stainless steel. If the amount of stainless steel diluted to the weld metal increases the structure can be fully austenitic and the risk of hot cracking increases significantly.
Selection of Materials Monel
Monel is a group of nickel alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon, and silicon. Stronger than pure nickel, Monel alloys are resistant to corrosion. They can be fabricated readily by hot- and cold-working, machining, and welding.
Fig 1. Monel
Monel Chemical Composition
Table 1.Monel chemical composition
Monel is a solid-solution binary alloy. As nickel and copper are mutually soluble in all proportions, it is a single phase alloy. Compared to steel, Monel is very difficult to machine as it work- hardens very quickly. It needs to be turned and worked at slow speeds and low feed rates. It is resistant to corrosion and acids, and some alloys can withstand a fire in pure oxygen. It is commonly used in applications with highly corrosive conditions
Uses of Monal
Oil production and refining
Inconel is a non-magnetic, corrosion and oxidation resistant, nickel based alloy. This alloy has high fatigue strength, exhibits excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Nickel and Chromium provide stabilizing effect from oxidizing environments. The nickel based alloys like Inconel also resist problems caused due to carbon migration.
Fig 2. Inconel
Inconel Chemical Composition
Table 2. Inconel chemical composition
For service at 1200Â°F and below- Hot finished, cold-finished, and annealed conditions (depending on requirements involved) are recommended.
For service above 1200Â°F- Either annealed or solution-treated material will give best service. The solution-treated
condition is recommended for components that require optimum resistance to creep or rupture.
Chemical processing Industries
Oil and gas industries.
Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials by causing coalescence in which heat is supplied either electrically or by mean of a gas torch, This is often done by melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld.
Tungsten inert-gas arc welding
Tungsten inert-gas arc welding (TIG) is a fusion welding method that was developed in the late 1930s. The TIG- method is characterized by its high quality weld metal deposits, great precision, superior surfaces and excellent strength. . In the TIG-method a non-consumable electrode of tungsten or tungsten alloy is used, in comparison to other common welding methods where the filler metal also is the electrode.
Fig 3. Tungsten Arc Welding
Produces a high quality and a low- distortion weld
Free of splatter that is associated with other methods
Can be used with or without filler metal
E 304 Corrosion resistant E 316 , 330 High and low
temperature strength E 410, 420 Abrasion resistant
E304-16 electrodes are used to weld stainless steel.
Welding procedure specifications
Gas : ARGON
Rod : ER304L (Filler Rod) Flow Rate : 4-6L/min
Current : 60-110A Speed : LOW SPEED
Class Diameter Range :1.6mm Voltage : 10-12V
Polarit : DCEN-Direct Current
Bead : Weaving Bead
Heat Input :Medium Heat Input
Mechanical Property Test Tensile Test
Tensile test is used to determine the tensile strength of the specimen, % elongation of length and % reduction of area. Tensile test is usually carried out in universal testing machine Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on specimen. Throughout the tests the control system and its associated software record the load and extension or compression of the specimen
A simple and economical way to characterize the mechanical properties and microstructure is by performing hardness measurements. By performing hardness
measurements the highest and lowest levels of hardness can be determined. In dissimilar metal welds the hardness level of parent metals and weld metal are determined. The most interesting part is where the transition from parent metal to weld metal takes place and in the root bead of the weld.
It is well understood that ductile and brittle are relative, and thus interchange between these two modes of fracture is achievable with ease. The term Ductile-to-Brittle transition (DBT) is used in relation to the temperature dependence of the measured impact energy absorption.
Advantages and Applications:
Non-ferrous metals with high strength and toughness
Higher creep stress and rupture properties when compared with 304
Ideal for high temperature services
Overcomes sensitization and inter granular corrosion concerns
Can be used in elevated temperature applications for boiler and pressure vessel application
Corrosion resistance, wear resistance
Aerospace aircraft gas turbines
Yield load (KN)
Yield strength (N/mm2)
Tensile load (KN)
Tensile strength (N/mm2)
Yield load (KN)
Yield strength (N/mm2)
Tensile load (KN)
Tensile strength (N/mm2)
Table 3. Tensile Test Thickness = 6mm Width = 30mm
Cross Sectional Area (CSA) = 180mm2
Initial Gauge Length (IGL) = 100mm Final Gauge Length (FGL) = 104.32mm
% Elongation= ((FGL-IGL)/IGL) Ã—100
Impression (Hardness Value in HRB)
Table 4. Hardness Test
Impact Test (Charpy Test):
Impact Values in Joules
Table 5. Impact Test
In raw materials before welding the Strength calculated and also Micro and chemical test is made to get the exact values of material composition. During Welding Strength will be decreased as because due to the change of properties and behaviour of materials. After Welding Heat treatment is to be carried out to maintain the strength of material. Finally Tensile, Toughness and Hardness test are tested.
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