An Experimental Investigation on Brick by Partial Replacement of Clay with Copper Slag and Sculpture Waste

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  • Authors : N. Atthi Kumaran, V. Kaviya, B. Nivetha, K. Swathi, Shilpa Joy
  • Paper ID : IJERTCONV7IS06057
  • Volume & Issue : ETEDM
  • Published (First Online): 18-05-2019
  • ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
  • Publisher Name : IJERT
  • License: Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

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An Experimental Investigation on Brick by Partial Replacement of Clay with Copper Slag and Sculpture Waste

N. Atthi Kumaran1

1Head of The Department, Department of Civil Engineering.

  1. Kaviya2, B. Nivetha2, K. Swathi2, Shilpa Joy2

    2 students , Department of civil engineering.

    Nandha College of Technology, Perundurai, Erode- 638052.

    Abstract – In this experimental investigation is about the partial replacement of clay in brick with copper slag and sculpture waste. The Partial replacement of copper slag and sculpture waste in different percentage such as 0 to 5%.When copper slag is introduced as a replacement material, it reduces the environmental pollution. The Plaster of paris is a hard white substance made by the addition of water to powdered and partly dehydrated gypsum. Since it reduces the production of waste .The experiments are conducted for variation in properties i.e, compressive strength, water absorption, hardness and soundness. The effects of those wastes (copper slag and plaster of paris) on the bricks properties as physical, mechanical properties will be reviewed. This reviewed approach on bricks making from waste is useful to provide potential and sustainable solution.

    1. INTRODUCTION

      Now a days, most of the developed countries face the problems of storage and disposal of waste products. For this reason, recycling and reuse of these waste products prevents environmental pollution.

      Copper slag is a by -product obtained during the melting and refining of copper .In current situation 24.6 million tonnes of copper slag is generated around the world.

      Gypsum is heated at 128ºc, resulting in powdery substance commonly known as plaster of paris. Over the years, million tonnes of waste plaster of paris were generated and disposed in land fill was dumped directly into the environment without any disposal.

      Out of the total construction cost, the cost of building materials is about 70% in developing countries like India. Therefore, the utilization of industrial waste helps in reducing the waste generated as a result of rapid industrialization and also helps in reducing the construction cost.

        1. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

          This study involves the addition of copper slag and sculpture waste with clay bricks.

          • To investigate the compressive strength of bricks.

            • To investigate the physical properties of bricks.

            • Comparison of result with conventional bricks based on their performance.

        2. NEED FOR THE STUDY

          More land is being used for getting clay for making brick. When copper slag and plaster of paris is used as a partial replacement, the use of clay is reduced. A new combination of brick manufacturing is obtained. When plaster of paris and copper slag are gives a very fine finishing and good appearance for the brick. High strength can be obtained, so it can be used for main elements of a structure. No dumping of waste and it is used as replacement in clay bricks, concrete.

        3. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

      • The use of combination of clay with copper slag and sculpture waste in bricks would be more efficient as well as environment friendly.

      • To minimize the water pollution.

      • Disposal problems at the disposing sites, and this have been changed in to useful resource and used in the brick making.

      • The cost and other properties of the bricks are equalized to the normal bricks.

      • Construction industries will build a new thrust by this research work.

    2. MATERIALS USED

      • Clay

      • Copper slag

      • Sculpture waste

      • Water

          1. CLAY:

            Clay is a fine grained natural rock or soil that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Clay soil consist soil particles having size between 0.001-0.01mm.

            PROPERTIES:

            Specific gravity

            2.26

            Fineness modulus

            5.23

            Plastic limit

            21.16%

            Liquid limit

            33.14%

          2. COPPER SLAG

            Copper slag is used in the brick one of the alternative materials. It is the waste product of copper from smelting process. It including excellent soundness characteristics,good abrasion resistance and good stability.

            PROPERTIES:

            Water is a transparent, odourless, and nearly colourless chemical substance that is the main constituent of earths streams, lakes and the fluids of most living organisms. The water used for mixing of brick and should be potable drinking water having pH 6 to 8.

    3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON BRICKS 3.1WATER ABSORPTION TEST

      The water absorption of bricks is not related directly to the porosity of the bricks. Some of pores may be through pores which permit air to escape and allow free passage of water in absorption test. The test is done by immersing the brick in water for 24 hours.

      % of water absorption = ((W1-W2) / W2 ) × 100

      Where,

      W1 = Dry weight of brick W2 = Wet weight of brick

      Weight of brick

      Mix- 1

      Mix-2

      Mix-3

      Mix-4

      Mix-5

      Mix- 6

      Initial weight

      2.990

      2.850

      2.986

      2.890

      2.990

      2.810

      Final weight

      3.220

      3.110

      3.240

      3.220

      3.340

      3.200

      Water absorption ratio

      7.6%

      8.3%

      8.17%

      11.4%

      11.7%

      12.18

      %

      WATER ABSORPTION RESULT

      Specific gravity

      3.42

      Fineness modulus

      3.29

      Moisture content

      0.13%

      Percentage of voids

      34%

      Water absorption

      0.18%

      Specific gravity

      3.42

      Fineness modulus

      3.29

      Moisture content

      0.13%

      Percentage of voids

      34%

      Water absorption

      0.18%

        1. SCULPTURE WASTE

      Plaster of paris is non-combustible and non- flammable .Low chemical reactivity but can act an oxidizing agent under extreme conditions. The powder is mixed with water it re-forms into a paste and eventually hardens into a solid. The plaster of paris has a property of setting into a hard in about half an hour after wetting with water

      14.00%

      WATER ABSORPTION RATIO

      WATER ABSORPTION RATIO

      12.00%

      10.00%

      8.00%

      6.00%

      4.00%

      2.00%

        1. %

          MIX-1 MIX-2 MIX-3 MIX-4 MIX-5 MIX-6

          SAMPLE

          2.4 WATER

          3.2 COMPRESSION STRENGTH TEST

          The aim of the experiment test is to determine the maximum load carrying capacity of specimens.

          Compression strength of brick is tested with different percentage of matrials. After casting the bricks compression strength is calculated for compression testing machine.

          absorbing moisture. To find out the presence of alkalis in bricks this test is performed.

          • In this test a brick immersed in fresh water for 24

      Where,

      Compression strength fc = (P/A) N/mm2

      hours and then it taken out from water are allowed to

      fc = Compression stress N/mm2

      P = Load at which specimen fails in Newton (N) A = Area of the specimen in mm2

      sample

      Size mm

      Area mm2

      Load N

      Compression strength N/mm2

      Compression strength N/mm2

      Mix 1

      215×100

      21500

      110000

      5.11

      5.11

      100000

      4.65

      120000

      5.58

      Mix 2

      215×100

      21500

      120000

      5.58

      5.56

      110000

      5.11

      130000

      6.0

      Mix 3

      215×100

      21500

      110000

      5.11

      5.42

      120000

      5.58

      120000

      5.58

      Mix 4

      215×100

      21500

      160000

      7.44

      7.02

      150000

      7.00

      140000

      6.51

      Mix 5

      215×100

      21500

      140000

      6.51

      6.49

      130000

      6.00

      150000

      6.97

      Mix 6

      215×100

      21500

      130000

      6.00

      6.52

      150000

      6.97

      140000

      6.51

      COMPRESSION STRENGTH GRAPH

      dry state.

      • If the whitish layer is not visible on surface it proofs that absence of alkalis in brick.

      • If the whitish layer visible about 10% of brick surface then the presence of alkalis in brick.

        Sample

        Effects

        Mix 1

        Nil

        Mix 2

        Nil

        Mix 3

        Nil

        Mix 4

        Slight

        Mix 5

        Slight

        Mix 6

        Moderate

        3.4 SOUNDNESS TEST

      • Two bricks are taken one in each hand and they are struck with each other lightly.

      • The bricks should not break and clear ringing sound be produced.

        COMPRESSION STRENGTH

        N/mm

        COMPRESSION STRENGTH

        N/mm

        8

        7

        6

        5

        4

        3

        2

        1

        0

        MIX-1 MIX-2 MIX-3 MIX-4 MIX-5 MIX-6

        SAMPLE

          1. EFFLORESCENCE TEST

            • The presence of alkalis in bricks is harmful and they form a gray or white layer on brick surface by

          1. SIZE AND SHAPE TEST

            • In this test should be of standard size and it should be truly rectangular with sharp edges.

      • For this purpose, 20 bricks of standard size are selected at random and they are stacked lengthwise, along the width and along the height.

      • Size of brick = 215mm×100mm×70mm

        1. HARDNESS TEST

      In this test a scratch is made on the brick surface with the help of a finger nail. If no impression is left on the surface, the brick is are sufficiently hard.

    4. CONCLUSION

      • The color, shape and size were found to be satisfactory.

      • The brick gives metallic sound when banged with other brick.

      • The compression strength was also found to be satisfactory.

      • Use of environment waste products like copper slag and sculpture waste helps to keep our environment safe and clean which will also be helpful for aquatic life.

      • The brick did not absorb more than 20% of water by dry weight.

      • The brick with less mix ratio better compression result as compared to conventional brick.

    5. REFERENCE

  • IS-1077 1973 Common Burnt Clay Building Bricks – Specification

  • IS 3495-1992 Methods of tests of burnt clay building Bricks: Part 1

  • IS: 3945 (Part-III) 1976 Method of tests of burnt clay building brick .Part III, determination of efflorescence (Second Revision). Indian Standard BRICK WORKS- CODE OF PRACTICE IS 22121991.

  • Keerthinarayana S. and Srinivasan R. (2010), Study on Strength and Durability of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate using Crushed Spent Fire Bricks Journal of construction and building materials vol-1, pp. 18-23.

  • Acosta, A., I. Iglasias, M. Aineto, M. Romero, J.MA. Rincon, 2002. Utilization of IGCC slag and clay sterilse in soft mud brick (by pressing) for using in building bricks manufacturing. Journal of Waste Management, 22: 887- 889.

  • Badr El-Din Ezzat Hegazy, Hanan Ahmed Fouad and Ahmed Mohammed Hassanain, 2012. Incorporation of water sludge, silica fume, and rice husk ash in brick making. Journal of Advances in Environmental Research, 1: 83-96.

  • British Standards BS3921: 1985. Specifications for clay brick. United kingdom.

  • Raut, S.P., R.V. Ralegaonkar, S.A. Mandavgane, 2011. Development of sustainable construction material using industrial and agricultural solid waste: A review of waste- create bricks. Journal of Construction and Building Material, 25: 4037-4043.

  • Raut.S.P. et al., Utilization of recycle paper mill residue and rice husk ash in production of light weight bricks, Archives Of Civil And Mechanical Engineering. 13 (2013): 269275.

  • Nithiya.R. Et al., Experimental investigation on bricks by using various waste materials, International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology. 6(2016).

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