Analysis of Distribution of Nitrate in Ground Water of Osian Region of Jodhpur District

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Analysis of Distribution of Nitrate in Ground Water of Osian Region of Jodhpur District

Dr. Sangita Purohit

Department of Chemistry

Vyas Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jodhpur sangitapurohitharsh@gmail.com

AbstractA chemical analysis of the ground water of Osian Region of Jodhpur district has been carried out to examine the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes. Forty one water samples of the region were collected during pre- monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in the month of June and November 2013 respectively and Nitrate concentration of the samples was determined to assess the quality of water in the area. Concentration of nitrate was recorded 7.5 mg/L to 137.5 mg/L in pre monsoon and 5.0 mg/L to 125.0 mg/L in post monsoon season. The results were compared with standards prescribed by Indian government IS:10500, and the relative distribution of nitrate in the region is shown through a pie chart. This analysis can be useful for carrying out remedial measures for high nitrate concentration, region.

Key words: Water quality, Nitrate, Osian region, physico- chemical analysis.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Water is essential to sustain life, but it also serves as the commonest route of transmission of a number of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization says that every year more than 3.4 million people die as a result of water related diseases, making it the leading cause of disease and death around the world [4]. The safe drinking water is defined as water with microbial, chemical and physical characteristics that meet guidelines of national standards, e.g. IS 10500 [3]. The quality of water is reflected through various physical, chemical and biological conditions, which are eventually influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Some of the water quality parameters like Ammonia, Lead, Arsenic, Nitrate etc may cause adverse effects on human health. Higher content of Phosphate, Nitrate, Ammonia and Iron are undesirable. In this work analysis is carried out for Nitrate component in the water.

    Nitrogen is a major constituent of the earth's atmosphere; It is an essential element for the life of plants and animals.

    It occurs in many different gaseous forms such as elemental nitrogen, nitrate and ammonia. Atmospheric nitrogen reacts with rainwater naturally, and results in the formation of nitrate and ammonium ions. While nitrate is a common nitrogenous compound due to natural processes of the nitrogen cycle.

    Nitrate is formed by biochemical activities of micro organisms or added in chemically synthesized form in lithosphere or biosphere and enters in hydrosphere, all the environmental processes are interconnected. Due to high solubility of nitrate in water and slow retention by soil particles makes it the major component of ground water in areas of high nitrate formations.

    Low level of nitrogen (in form of nitrate) is common in ground water and surface water. However elevated form of nitrate is caused by human activities such as increasing use of fertilizers and manure in agriculture, decayed vegetables, animal feedlots, municipal waste water and sludge disposal to land ,industrial discharge, organic waste is generated by Indian population and N- fixation from atmosphere by bacteria and lightening[1].

    Nitrate is colorless, odorless and tasteless compound. According to Indian standard (IS 10500), its permissible limit is 45 mg/L [2]. It enters the human body through the use of groundwater for drinking and causes a number of health disorders namely methemoglobinemia or blue baby syndrome, gastric cancer, goitre, hypertension, etc., when present in high concentration in drinking water. The presence of nitrate in water not only effects the human health but also animals.

    In this paper a chemical study seasonal variation of Nitrate compound of the ground water of Osian region of Jodhpur district has been carried out. To analyze, 41 water samples were collected during pre- monsoon and post- monsoon seasons in the month of June and November 2013 respectively and Nitrate concentration of the samples was determined to assess the quality of water in the area, so that remedial measures could be work out for high nitrate concentration.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

    To analyze the distribution of Nitrate, 41 water samples were collected in sterilized plastic bottles from the different pockets of Osian region; the locality of samples collected is shown in TABLE-1. The concentrations of Nitrate in collected samples were examined through Phenoldisulphonic Acid (PDA) method. The principle of this method is that, Nitrate reacts with Phenol disulphonic acid to produce nitro derivatives that in alkaline solution

    rearranges its structure to form yellow colored compound with characteristics that follows Beers law[2]. Then the concentration of NO3- is determined using visual method, by comparing color of the processed sample with color obtained by of standard (known concentration) solutions. Sample wise Nitrate concentration calculated through PDA method is shown in Table- 2, and the visual representation of seasonal variation in Nitrate concentration is shown in fig-1.

  3. RESULT & DISCUSSION

    It is observed that different agencies have developed standards for various uses for water. All these standards take in to account the effect on human health, vegetation as well as on quality of life consideration etc. However the standard differs in terms of maximum allowable concentration and accepted level. Hence it was felt that a common classification scheme, is necessary to know water quality status in terms of various important indicator parameters. Giving due consideration to all classification schemes, a general classification, as excellent, acceptable, slightly polluted and heavily polluted water is proposed, where in

    • Excellent Water quality is pristine.

    • Acceptable — Needs only disinfections.

    • Slightly polluted — It requires filtration and disinfections.

    • Polluted — It requires special / auxiliary treatment and disinfections.

    • Heavily polluted –Water cannot be used for any purpose directly i.e. drastic treatment is required.

    Water is contaminated, as the earth crust is loaded heavily with salts. Nitrate level is found 5 mg/L to 137. 5 mg/L. From the table -4 it is clear that 14 samples in pre and 19 samples in post monsoon fall in the category I , 11 samples in pre and 13 samples in post monsoon fall in the in category 2 , 11 samples in pre and 5 samples in post monsoon fall in the in category 3, 3 samples in pre and 3 samples in post monsoon fall in the in category 4, 2 samples in pre and 1 sample in post monsoon fall in the in category 5, as shown in Table-3.

    Visual representation of relative Nitrate distribution in study region in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon is shown in Fig-2 and Fig-3, respectively.

    Present study shows that presence of high nitrate contents in the ground water of Osian Region. The source which do not have alternate water sources should be provided with treatment plants to eliminate the problem.

    ETRASCT' 14 Conference Proceedings

  4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Present study shows that, Nitrate contents in some of

    the pockets of Osian region is high. These sources must be marked as not suitable for drinking. However the polluted water may be used for irrigation after treatment plants to eliminate or minimize the problem.

  5. REFERENCES

  1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1979).Methods for Chemical Analysis of water and wastes, Method 353.3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

  2. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; APHA, AWWA and WEF, 21st Edition, 2005.

  3. Indian Standard Specifications For Drinking Water IS: 10500.

  4. Voice of America News, October 29, 2009.

Fig 1: Seasonal Variation in Concentration of Nitrate Different

samples of Osian

Fig 2: Nitrate Distribution in Pre-Monsoon

Fig 3: Nitrate Distribution in Post-Monsoon

S.

No.

Source

Typ e

S.

No.

Source

Typ e

1

Ujaliya,

Ow

22

Mathaniya,

Mathaina

Ow

2

Oochiyara panchatat

samiti,Osian

Ow

23

Nirmal bera,

Mathaina

Ow

3

Ghatinav,Osian

Tw

24

Navoda bera,

Mathaina

Ow

4

Devka bera,Osian

Ow

25

Premsukh ji

Daga ka bera, Mathaina

Ow

5

Sirmandi (Birjaram singada),Osian

Tw

26

Water supply, Mathaina

Ow

6

Simardha baba ki

samadhi,Osian

Tw

27

Padla bera,

Mathaina

Ow

7

Vidhyalaya,Osian

Ow

28

Rathoron ka bera Gumansingh,

Mathaina

Ow

8

Pashu mela

maidan,Osian

Tw

29

Kotchala bera,

Mathaina

Ow

9

Shri sachiyaya mat athiti grah,Osian

Tw

30

Kotchala bera nanakram,

Mathaina

Ow

10

Mataji mandir road

,Osian

Hp

31

Nawada bera,

Mathaina

Ow

11

Simardha baba ki samadhi,forest

dept,Osian

Tw

32

Padla bera, Mathaina

Ow

12

Ashok kumar mali

,Geeta dham road, Tiwari

Ow

33

Gopji gahlot, Mathaina

Ow

13

Jagdish mali ,Geeta

dham road Tiwari

Ow

34

Bhurji solanki,

Mathaina

Ow

14

Sohan sankhla Tiwari

Ow

35

Manaram ji Tak, Mathaina

Ow

15

Sanwar ram ji mali

Tiwari

Ow

36

Sumrapal tak,

Mathaina

Ow

16

Pepa ram ji mali,geeta dham

road Tiwari

Ow

37

Chandraram ji parihar,

Mathaina

Ow

17

Pukhraj cOwdhry

Tiwari

Ow

38

Kanwal ji gahlot,

Mathaina

Ow

18

Sunil kumar siyol, Geeta dham road

Tiwari

Ow

39

Jagraj tak, Mathaina

Ow

19

Phed ,Bijariya

bawari road Tiwari

Tw

40

Kailash ji daga,

Mathaina

Ow

20

Mohanramji mali

Tiwari

Ow

41

Daga ka bera,

Mathaina

Ow

21

Handpump Tiwari

Hp

Notations:

Ow:Open Well; Tw:Tubewell; Hp:Hand Pump

TABLE- 1: WATER SAMPLES WERE COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT POCKETS OF OSIAN REGION

TABLE – 2: NITRATE CONCENTRATIONEITNRPARESCMTO'N1S4OCOoNnAfeNrDenPcOeSPTroceedings

MONSOON SEASON

Sam ple no.

Nitrate concentration

(mg/L)

Sample no.

Nitrate concentration

(mg/L)

Pre- monso on

Post – monso on

Pre- mons oon

Post

mon soon

1

100.0

75.0

22

125.0

100.

0

2

60.0

55.0

23

50.0

45.0

3

25.0

20.0

24

100.0

75.0

4

45.0

40.0

25

60.0

50.0

5

25.0

20.0

26

45.0

35.0

6

60.0

55.0

27

40.0

35.0

7

137.5

125.0

28

50.0

45.0

8

25.0

20.0

29

25.0

20.0

9

40.0

35.0

30

60.0

30.0

10

20.0

17.5

31

30.0

25.0

11

75.0

20.0

32

10.0

7.5

12

50.0

40.0

33

10.0

7.5

13

60.0

50.0

34

7.5

5.0

14

50.0

45.0

35

7.5

5.0

15

30.0

25.0

36

7.5

5.0

16

60.0

55.0

37

10.0

7.5

17

45.0

40.0

38

12.5

7.5

18

50.0

40.0

39

10.0

7.5

19

12.5

7.5

40

10.0

5.0

20

15.0

10.0

41

10.0

7.5

21

15.0

12.5

Table-3 DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE

Class of water

NO3

(mg/L

)

Pre-Monsoon

Post- Mons oon

Excellent

<=20

14

19

Acceptabl

e

45

11.0

13.0

Slightly

polluted

60

11.0

5.0

Polluted

100

3.0

3.0

Highly

polluted

>100

2.0

1.0

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