# Analysis of A Tall Building with Shear Wall of RCC and Steel Plate

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#### Analysis of A Tall Building with Shear Wall of RCC and Steel Plate

Ashish Kumar Gupta [1], Dr. Saleem Akhtar [2], Dr. Aslam Hussain [3] [1] Student of ME Structural Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering

[2] Prof. Department of Civil Engineering

[3] Assistant Prof. Department of Civil Engineering University Institute Of Technology,

Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, (M.P.)

Absrtract:- Tall Structures are most influenced by lateral forces in seismic prone areas. The most significant basis to be considered in the design of the tall structures is to oppose lateral forces which can cause instability and sudden failure of the structure. In this manner it is necessitated that structure ought to have enough lateral stability to oppose lateral forces and to control the lateral displacement of the building. The shear wall is one of the most generally utilized lateral loads opposing System in elevated structures Shear wall has high in-plane stiffness and quality which can be utilized to all the while opposing enormous horizontal loads and support gravity loads. The incorporation of the Shear wall has turned out to be inescapable in multi-storeys working to oppose lateral forces. It is exceptionally important to decide the successful, effective and ideal location of the shear wall. In this paper, seismic analysis has been done on G+ 10 storeys building in Zone IV. The analysis has been done considering shear wall of RCC and steel plate. Parameters like axial load, displacement, Overturning moment, stiffness etc. are determined for different location of shear wall.

1. INTRODUCTION

The basic role of all kinds of structural systems utilized in a building type structures is to support gravity loads. The most widely recognized loads resulting from the impact of gravity are dead load, live load and snow load. Other than these vertical loads, buildings are likewise exposed to lateral loads brought about by the wind, impact load or seismic tremors. Following are the various structural systems:

1. Structural frame systems: the structural system comprises of frames. Floor slabs, beams, and columns are the essential components of the structural system. Such frames can carry gravity loads while giving satisfactory stiffness.

2. Structural wall systems: in this kind of structures, all the vertical members are made of structural walls, generally called shear walls.

3. Shear wallframe systems (double systems): the system comprises of reinforced Concrete frames interacting with reinforced concrete shear walls.

Shear wall is a structural part in a reinforced concrete framed structure to oppose lateral forces, for example, wind forces. Shear walls are commonly utilized in tall structures subject to the lateral breeze and seismic forces. In reinforced concrete framed structures the impact of wind forces increase as the height of the structure increases.

1. LITERATURE REVIEW

 Author name Name of Journal Title name Research finding Peter Timler et al. (1998)1 The Structural Design of Tall Buildings, 1998Volume-7, PP. 233249 Experimental and analytical studies of steel plate shear walls as applied to the design of tall buildings In this study, three variations of a steel framed office building were used as case studies. Competitive reinforced concrete designs were also performed for economic comparisons. Astaneh-Asl (2001)2 SEAONC Seminar, November 2001, San Francisco. PP. 1-18 Seismic Behaviour and Design of Steel Shear Walls Seismic design of steel shear walls including provisions onhow to establish strength of the wall as well as provisions on detailing to ensure sufficient ductility are made. Burcu Burak (2013)3 Journal of Structural Engineering 2013, Volume-139, PP. 1928-1937. Effect of shear wall area to floor area ratio on the seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete buildings The results obtained from the nonlinear time history analyses including roof drift, inter story drift, and the base shear responses are evaluated to obtain the effect of shear wall area to floor area ratio on the seismic performance of RC buildings that have no torsional irregularities.
 Sumit Pawah (2014)4 International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (IJETAE), 2014,PP. 244- 252 steel plate shear wall – a lateral load resisting system Provision of part shear walls in zone V is not enough to keep maximum displacements within permissible limits, whether it is a beam slab framed structure or framed structure with flat slabs with drop. R.Resmi and S.Yamini Roja (2016)6 International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2016, ISSN NO.0973-4562 Vol. 11 No.3 ,PP. 369-370 A review on performance of shear wall Shear wall provided along the periphery of the structure is found to be more effective.
2. OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENT STUDY

1. To prepare 3D model of a tall building for detailed analysis.

2. To perform analysis of a tall building without shear wall.

3. To perform analysis of the tall building using RCC shear wall.

4. To perform analysis of the tall building using steel plate shear wall.

5. To compare the results of analysis of the tall building with and without shear walls.

6. To draw suitable conclusion from the above analysis.

3. SCOPE OF STUDY

The accuracy and the ability of the proposed structure are tested by static lateral load analysis in shear wall-frame system. In order to check the validity of the proposed models are executed on taken into consideration structural systems, in which shear walls are modelled via wall factors of ETABS [2015]. This analysis of lateral load resisting members in a building will assist us to increase the stability of structure against displacement and to decreases bending moment in vertical members (column).

2. METHODOLOGY

Table 1. Description of member used

200mm (steel plate shear wall)

 RCC Frame Steel Frame Design data of building Dimension Dimension Plan dimension 25m*25m 25m*25m No. of bay x-direction No. of bay Y-direction 5 Bay5 Bay 5 Bay5 Bay No. of storey G+10 G+10 Typical storey height 3000mm 3000mm Bottom storey height 3000mm 3000mm Size of column 800*800(auto selected) ISHB400-2(auto selected) Size of beam 200*600(auto selected) ISHB400-2(auto selected) Thickness of slab 200mm 200mm Thickness of shear wall 200mm (concrete Shear wall)

Table 2. Material property

 Material Concrete Frame Steel Frame Concrete M-30 Steel HYSD500 HYSD500 Shear Wall M-30 HYSD500
1. STEPS FOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

1. We choose Indian code for design.

#### Etabs>file>new model>use built -in setting with>set (display unit, steel design code, concrete code section database)

2. Selection of Grid Plan. No. of Grid Lines in X and Y-Direction are 5. Spacing in X and Y-Direction is 5m. No. Of Storeys in Building are 10. Height of typical Storey and Bottom Storey is 3m.

3. Selection of grid dimensions and defining the material properties of the building section.

#### Define>Material Properties>Add New Material>Material Properties Data

4. Defining material properties and section properties of the building section.

#### Define>sectional properties>frame section>frame properties>add new properties >choose concrete>frame section properties data

5. Defining the slab properties of the building section.

#### Define>sectional properties>slabs properties>slabs properties data

6. Selection of beam and column section from toolbar, draw the building frame section.

#### Quick draw beam>properties of beam section>select beam properties> draw the beam>Quick draw column>properties of column section>select column properties>draw the column>Quick draw slab>properties of slabs>select the slabs properties>draw the slab

7. Drawing the wall of the building.

#### Quick Draw wall> properties of wall section>select wall properties> draw the wall

8. Designing the shear wall.

#### Wall of the building>assign>shell>pier label>choose>P1>apply>select wall of building>assign>shell>spandrel label>choose S1>select wall of building>assign>shell>wall auto mesh option>shell assignment wall auto mesh option>advanced modify/auto mesh rectangular>select wall of building>assigning the load

1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING FOR ANALYSIS The following eight models are taken for analysis purpose:

Model 1: In this model, no shear wall has been provided at the concrete frame building.

Model 2: In this model, the Concrete Shear wall has been provided at the corners of the buildings.

Model 3: In this model, the Concrete shear wall has been provided at the corner of the R.C.C building in the tubular form throughout ten storeys.

Model 4: In this model, the concrete shear wall has been provided at the middle (tubular form) and at the corners of the R.C.C building throughout ten storeys.

Model 5: In this model, no shear wall has been provided at steel frame building.

Model 6: In this model, the steel plate shear wall has been provided at the corner of the steel building.

Model 7: In this model, the steel plate shear wall has been provided at the corner of the building in the tubular form.

Model 8: In this model, the steel plate shear wall has been provided at the middle (tubular form) and corner of the building.

Plan Elevation Plan Elevation MODEL-1 MODEL-2

Plan Elevation Plan Elevation MODEL-3 MODEL-4

Plan Elevation Plan Elevation MODEL-5 MODEL-6

Plan Elevation Plan Elevation MODEL-7 MODEL-8

Figure1. Various models taken for analysis purpose

2. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Structural analysis is done for all the eight models. Parameters obtained through analysis include maximum storey deflection, maximum storey drift, storey shear, overturning moments generated while applying earthquake load on the structure. Results are shown below in tabular and graphical form.

1. MAXIMUM STOREY DISPLACEMENT

The values of maximum storey displacement, as mentioned in IS 1893(part 1): 2002, for various models are given below.

Table 3. Maximum storey displacement (mm)

 Storey Model1 Model2 Model3 Model4 Model5 Model6 Model7 Model8 Storey10 25.95 25.816 25.239 21.24 13.005 9.959 8.949 7.738 Storey9 24.827 24.713 24.155 20.179 11.68 8.884 7.938 7.227 Storey8 23.058 22.966 22.437 18.682 10.161 7.7 6.838 6.484 Storey7 20.773 20.701 20.213 16.737 8.566 6.476 5.715 5.605 Storey6 18.102 18.05 17.613 14.407 6.954 5.243 4.597 4.667 Storey5 15.162 15.126 14.75 11.786 5.367 4.036 3.516 3.725 Storey4 12.051 12.029 11.721 8.98 3.862 2.897 2.507 2.819 Storey3 8.852 8.841 8.606 6.115 2.496 1.87 1.608 1.974 Storey2 5.632 5.63 5.473 3.373 1.337 1.007 0.858 1.202 Storey1 2.577 2.478 2.399 1.092 0.468 0.356 0.301 0.509 Base 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

MAX. STOREY DISPLACEMENT

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20

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Model1

Model2 Model3 Model4 Model5 Model6 Model7 Model8

MAX. STOREY DISPLACEMENT

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20

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Model1

Model2 Model3 Model4 Model5 Model6 Model7 Model8

STOREY

STOREY

DISPLACE MENT (mm)

DISPLACE MENT (mm)

Figure 1. Maximum Storey Displacement at different storeys for various models

Comparing all the models, it has been found that the highest displacement value occurred at the 10th storey in model-1 & lowest value in model-8. The value of displacement increases with height, There is abrupt reduction in the values of displacement, as shown in the table 3 due to the replacement of concrete shear wall with the steel plate shear wall (SPSW).

2. MAXIMUM STOREY DRIFT

The values of maximum storey drift obtained for various models after analysis, as per IS 1893(part 1): 2002, are given in table 5 and shown graphically in figure 3.

Table 4. Maximum storey drifts (mm)

 Storey Model1 Model2 Model3 Model4 Model5 Model6 Model7 Model8 Storey10 0.000356 0.000479 0.000352 0.000374 0.000367 0.000362 0.000391 0.000360 Storey9 0.000499 0.000507 0.000367 0.000395 0.000583 0.000573 0.000595 0.000378 Storey8 0.000649 0.000532 0.000374 0.000408 0.000755 0.000741 0.000762 0.000393 Storey7 0.000777 0.000538 0.000372 0.000411 0.000884 0.000867 0.00089 0.000400 Storey6 0.000874 0.000529 0.00036 0.000412 0.000975 0.000954 0.00098 0.000402 Storey5 0.000935 0.000502 0.000337 0.000415 0.001032 0.00101 0.001037 0.000406 Storey4 0.000956 0.000455 0.0003 0.000342 0.001070 0.001038 0.001066 0.000362 Storey3 0.000915 0.000389 0.00025 0.000289 0.001063 0.001045 0.001073 0.000287 Storey2 0.000762 0.000301 0.000191 0.000223 0.001051 0.001025 0.001054 0.000231 Storey1 0.000364 0.000156 0.0001 0.000119 0.000826 0.0008 0.000859 0.00017 Base 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

STOREY DRIFT VALUE

STOREY DRIFT VALUE

0.0015

0.001

0.0005

0

STOREY DRIFT VALUE

STOREY

Model 1 Model2 Model3 Model4 Model5 Model6 Model7 Model8

Figure 3. Maximum Storey Drift at different storeys for various models

The highest values of drift occurred at 3rd storey in model-7 and the lowest value at the 1st storey in model-3.

3. STOREY SHEARS

The values of maximum storey shear obtained for various models, as per IS 1893(part1): 2002, are given in table 5 and shown graphically figure 4.

Table 5. Storey shear (KN)

 Storey Location MODEL1 MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8 Storey10 Top 679.712 1216.1166 1280.79 1206.65 314.68 348.432 381.77 330.241 Bottom 679.712 1216.1166 1280.79 1206.65 314.68 348.432 381.77 330.241 Storey9 Top 1330.53 2428.4462 2594.65 2436.34 570.691 655.902 740.816 609.864 Bottom 1330.53 2428.4462 2594.65 2436.34 570.691 655.902 740.816 609.864 Storey8 Top 1844.76 3386.3363 3632.77 3407.94 772.972 898.841 1024.51 830.8 Bottom 1844.76 3386.3363 3632.77 3407.94 772.972 898.841 1024.51 830.8 Storey7 Top 2238.46 4119.7209 4427.58 4151.83 927.843 1084.84 1241.71 999.954 Bottom 2238.46 4119.7209 4427.58 4151.83 927.843 1084.84 1241.71 999.954 Storey6 Top 2527.71 4658.534 5011.52 4698.35 1041.63 1221.49 1401.28 1124.23 Bottom 2527.71 4658.534 5011.52 4698.35 1041.63 1221.49 1401.28 1124.23 Storey5 Top 2728.58 5032.7099 5417.03 5077.89 1120.64 1316.39 1512.1 1210.53 Bottom 2728.58 5032.7099 5417.03 5077.89 1120.64 1316.39 1512.1 1210.53 Storey4 Top 2857.14 5272.1824 5676.56 5320.79 1171.21 1377.13 1583.02 1265.77 Bottom 2857.14 5272.1824 5676.56 5320.79 1171.21 1377.13 1583.02 1265.77 Storey3 Top 2929.45 5406.8857 5822.54 5457.42 1199.66 1411.29 1622.92 1296.84 Bottom 2929.45 5406.8857 5822.54 5457.42 1199.66 1411.29 1622.92 1296.84 Storey2 Top 2961.59 5466.7538 5887.43 5518.15 1212.3 1426.47 1640.65 1310.65 Bottom 2961.59 5466.7538 5887.43 5518.15 1212.3 1426.47 1640.65 1310.65 Storey1 Top 2969.63 5481.7208 5903.65 5533.33 1215.46 1430.27 1645.08 1314.1 Bottom 2969.63 5481.7208 5903.65 5533.33 1215.46 1430.27 1645.08 1314.1 Base Top 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bottom 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

STOREY SHEAR DISTRIBUTION

DIAGRAM

STOREY SHEAR DISTRIBUTION

DIAGRAM

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5000

0

10000

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Story1St0oryS9toryS8toryS7toryS6toryS5toryS4toryS3toryS2tory1Base

STOREY

Story1St0oryS9toryS8toryS7toryS6toryS5toryS4toryS3toryS2tory1Base

STOREY

MODEL1

MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8

MODEL1

MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8

STOREY SHEAR (KN)

STOREY SHEAR (KN)

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Top

Figure 4. Storey Shear at different storeys for various models

The highest value of storey shear at the 1st storey in model-3 and the lowest value at the 10th storey in model-5.

4. OVERTURNING MOMENTS

The values of maximum overturning moments obtained for various models, as per IS 1893(part 1): 2002, are given table 6 and shown graphically figure 5.

OVERTURNING MOMENT

(KN)

OVERTURNING MOMENT

(KN)

Table 6. Overturning moments (KN-m)

 Storey MODEL1 MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8 Storey10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Storey9 2039.14 3648.35 3842.36 3619.9418 944.039 1045.3 1145.31 990.724 Storey8 6030.73 10933.7 11626.3 10928.9472 2656.11 3013 3367.76 2820.31 Storey7 11565 21092.7 22524.6 21152.7682 4975.03 5709.52 6441.28 5312.71 Storey6 18280.4 33451.9 35807.3 33608.245 7758.55 8964.05 10166.4 8312.58 Storey5 25863.5 47427.5 50841.9 47703.3057 10883.4 12628.5 14370.3 11685.3 Storey4 34049.3 62525.6 67093 62936.9662 14245.4 16577.7 18906.6 15316.9 Storey3 42620.7 78342.1 84122.7 78899.3307 17759 20709.1 23655.6 19114.2 Storey2 51409 94562.8 101590 95271.5911 21358 24943 28524.4 23004.7 Storey1 60293.8 110963 119253 111826 24994.9 29222.4 33446.3 26936.6 Base 69202.7 127408 136964 128426 28641.2 33513.2 38381.5 30878.9

OVERTURNING MOMENT

DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM

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MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8

OVERTURNING MOMENT

DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM

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50000

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MODEL1

MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8

STOREY

STOREY

Figure 5. Overturning Moment at different storeys for various models

Comparison of the models, the value of highest overturning moment is at the base in model-3 while the lowest value at the base in model-5. The value of maximum overturning moment decreases with increase in height.

5. Storey Stiffness

The values of maximum storey stiffness obtained for various models, as per IS 1893(part 1): 2002, are given table 7 and shown graphically figure 6.

Table 7. Storey Stiffness (KN/m)

 Storey MODEL1 MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8 Storey10 322178.9 329596.1 332595.012 647128.9 639558.3 881041.3 1101660 1245556 Storey9 375357.8 393139.1 419925.28 1020658 890550 1603579 2067826 2372875 Storey8 389595.4 421260.3 454527.297 1243490 948562.8 2138608 2797246 3253574 Storey7 396738.9 436274 472419.336 1435918 960919.7 2568590 3383377 3982339 Storey6 401333.7 446609.7 484843.069 1627437 964577.7 2952517 3912037 4655721 Storey5 405097.2 455624.9 495518.152 1839425 972456.2 3360201 4477972 5388334 Storey4 408927.5 465284.8 506519.868 2095096 996908.1 3883161 5206674 6338711 Storey3 413826.9 477508 519658.077 2426784 1067743 4682063 6325502 7798968 Storey2 425504.1 496227.2 538402.522 2899211 1297464 6198207 8385944 10513960 Storey1 555872.2 611972.5 651917.075 4352119 2731866 12227370 16045927 20206529 Base 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

STOREY STIFFNESS DISTRIBUTION

DIAGRAM

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MODEL1

MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8

STOREY STIFFNESS DISTRIBUTION

DIAGRAM

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20000000

15000000

10000000

5000000

0

MODEL1

MODEL2 MODEL3 MODEL4 MODEL5 MODEL6 MODEL7 MODEL8

STOREY

STOREY

STOREY STIFFNESS (KN/m)

STOREY STIFFNESS (KN/m)

Figure 6. Storey stiffness at different storeys for various models

Comparison of the models, the value of highest storey stiffness is at the first storey in model-8 while the least value at the storey first in model-1. The value of maximum storey stiffness decreases with increase in height.

3. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Total 8-Models of the building were analysed. Model 1 to Model 4 consisted of concrete frame while Model-5 to Model-8 were of steel frame. Model-1 of concrete frame and Model-5 of steel frame were provided with no shear wall. Models 2 to 4 of concrete frame were provided with shear walls on different locations. Shear walls were provided in the models 6 to 8 of steel frame, on the same locations as for models 2 to 4. The various concrete and steel frame models 1 to 8 were analysed and compared for various parameters through linear static analysis method considering seismic effect.

It has been observed that the values of storey displacement in concrete shear wall are more than steel plate shear walls (SPSW) while the values of storey stiffness in steel plate shear wall are more than concrete shear wall. When compared all 8-models for the best location in the building, the steel plate shear wall (SPSW) provided at the middle (tubular form) and corner of the building has been found the best. It has been concluded that steel plate shear wall system is comparatively more suitable than concrete shear wall system in a building.

4. REFERENCES

1. Peter Timler, Carlos E.Ventura and Reza Anjam (1998), Experimental and analytical studies of steel plate shear walls as applied to the design of tall buildings, The Structural Design of Tall Buildings, 1998, Volume-7, PP. 233249.

2. Astaneh-Asl (2001) Seismic Behaviour and Design of Steel Shear Walls, SEAONC Seminar, November 2001, San Francisco. PP. 1-18.

3. Burcu Burak (2013), Effect of shear wall area to floor area ratio on the seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete buildings Journal of Structural Engineering, 2013, Volume-139, PP. 1928-1937.

4. Sumit Pawah (2014), Steel plate shear wall – a lateral load resisting system International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering IJETAE,2014, PP. 244- 252

5. Chandra Shekar and Raj Shekar (2015), Analysis and design of multi storied building by using Etabs software International journal of scientific research, 2015, Volume-4, ISSN No. 2277-8179.

6. R.Resmi and S.Yamini Roja (2016), A review on performance of shear wall International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2016, Volume-11, ISSN NO. 0973-4562, PP. 369-370.