Analysis and Design of CMOS Cascode LNA for UWB Applications with Gain Enhancement and Out- Band Rejection Capability

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV1IS5244

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Analysis and Design of CMOS Cascode LNA for UWB Applications with Gain Enhancement and Out- Band Rejection Capability

R.S.Sai Ram

M.Tech (VLSISD) Student, Swarnandhra College of Engineering & Technology, Narsapur, Andhra Pradeh, India.


Principal & Professor (Dept of ECE)

Swarnandhra Institute of Engineering and Technology, Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India

P.Lakshmi Sarojini Professor & HOD, Dept of ECE,

Swarnandhra College of Engineeing and Technology, Narsapur, Andhra Pradeh,India


A 3.1 to 4.8 GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) with gain enhanced and out-band rejection property for Ultra Wide Band (UWB) applications using 0.18 µm CMOS technology is designed and presented. The UWB transmitter and receiver systems signal powers suffers from close narrowband interferers such as the IEEE 802.11 a/b/g wireless local area network, and the 1.8-GHz digital cellular service/global system for mobile communications because of Federal Communications Commissions stringent power- emission limitations. Therefore, we proposed a wideband input network with out-band rejection capability UWB LNA using LC network. It uses a CMOS Cascode stage with 0.18 µm technology. An additional inductor inserted between the Cascode stages to enhance power gain. We have achieved A power gain of 13.2 dB, 3.9 dB of minimum noise figure with 1.9 mW power dissipation for the core LNA.

Index TermsComplementary metaloxide semiconductor (CMOS), low-noise amplifier (LNA), out-band rejection, ultra wideband (UWB).

1. Introduction


realize high data rate in the short-range wireless transmission, which are suitable for integration in various consumer electronics such as PCs, cellular phones, digital cameras, and PDAs. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). A February 14, 2002 FCC Report and Order authorized the unlicensed use of UWB in the frequency range from

3.1 to 10.6 GHz. The FCC power spectral density emission limit for UWB transmitters is -41.3 dBm/MHz But the minimum received power in the UWB channel is 47 and 67 dB, in the worst case, lower than those of the wireless local area network (WLAN) interferer powers at 5.2 and 2.4 GHz, respectively [1]. In addition, a tone is measured at

1.87 GHz in a smart phone currently on the market, and the power level is 35 dB higher than the UWB signal [2]. All of these interferers, as shown in Fig.1, have a harmful effect on the received UWB signal. A larger attenuation in the front-end can also relax the baseband filter achieving an implementation with the smaller group-delay variations and lower dc power consumption [5].Recently, a design of multiple-stop band filters is presented for the suppression of interfering signals such as global system for mobile communications (GSM), WLAN, and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WIMAX) in UWB applications [3]. The coupled resonator stop band filter sections with bent resonators were adopted

in order to more effectively suppress harmonics and the maximum rejection is about 25 dB at 1.8 GHz

.However, this prototype of the filter, which was fabricated on the basis of the standard printed circuit board (PCB) process, will increase the entire UWB system area. Moreover, the multiple receivers with equal-gain combining were employed to eliminate the narrowband interferers received in the two paths and combined out-of- phase to cancel each other by selecting the optimal local oscillator (LO) phase [4]. A maximum 28-dB attenuation of the interferers was measured, but it is unavoidable to increase the systems complexity.

On the other hand, the topologies utilized for wideband amplifiers generally include the distributed configuration [8], [9], resistive shunt-feedback

structure [10][12], common-gate termination [13] [15], and LC input network [16], [17]. The distributed amplifiers are attractive for their ultra-wide bandwidth. However, the major drawbacks are the large area and high dc power consumption, which make them unsuitable for many applications. The resistive shunt-feedback and common-gate amplifiers can provide good impedance matching and moderate gain while dissipating small amounts of dc power, but without the out-band rejection capability. Recently, a new topology of the broad band amplifier for out-bands rejection, which adopted a notch filter circuit with negative-resistance cell embedded, has been reported in [18] and [19]. Inevitably, the extra notch filter circuit made of inductors and cross- coupled transistors will occupy additional chip area and dc power simultaneously.

Fig 2(a) shows Direct Sequence (DS) UWB spectrum. In this paper, we have proposed a 3.1 to

4.8 GHz UWB low-noise amplifiers (LNA) for DS UWB lower band applications with out-of-band suppression by using the CMOS technology. In this UWB LNA, a new wideband input impedance- matching network, which is based on the LC structure with focus on the improvement of out-of-band rejection capability, is presented. By suitably introducing two additional capacitors in the traditional LC input network, two transmission zeros at 1.8 and 8.5 GHz are generated to achieve the out- band rejection property without suffering from deterioration of the in-band performance. A Cascode configuration with source degeneration input stage is used as a core LNA. An intermediate inductor inserted between Cascode stages to improve the power gain and to reduce power dissipation without effecting the other parameters .Sections II present the

Fig. 1. UWB Spectrum and interferences

Fig. 2. Dual Band (DB) UWB Spectrum

UWBLNA design approach. The circuit implementation and simulated results are illustrated in Section III, followed by a conclusion in Section

IV. In this study, the circuit simulation is performed via Agilents Advanced Design System (ADS) software with BSIM3 CMOS model

  1. LNA Design Approach

    The 3.1 to 4.8 GHz CMOS UWB LNA

    proposed here adopts a source-degenerated Cascode configuration, as shown in Fig. 3. An LC input network for wideband operation is utilized with two new capacitors and for increasing the higher and lower out-band rejections, respectively. The load inductor in series with the resistor helps to enhance the gain flatness. The buffer transistor with a purely resistive load is employed for testing purposes. An additional inductor is inserted between the Cascode stages to enhance the overall gain.

    A. Power Gain

    The overall gain of the LNA without an additional inductor Lc is given by [22] ( Lc considered to be shorted)



    is the 50- source resistance, Ct = Cgs1 +Ca and CL is the total capacitance between the drain of the transistor M2 and ground. S11 is the reflection coefficient at the input port. From (1), it is seen that extra transmission zeros (i.e.,S21 = 0 ) can be created when the following conditions are satisfied:

    In which means that the input impedance of the LNA is short circuit, and it occurs as the impedance ZR, i.e., the impedance of the L1C1tank in series with the capacitor CRL is equal to zero, where

    By using (2), (4), and (5), the locations of transmission zeros can be predicted as

    The overall gain of the circuit is increased by inserting an additional inductor in between the Cascode stages as shown in the fig 3. Complete schematic of proposed LNA.

    With an additional inductor Lc between the Cascode stages, the increased value of the voltage gain is proportional to the inductance value of additional inductor Lc

    Fig. 3. Complete circuit diagram of proposedUWB LNA.

    C. Out-Band Rejection capability.

    The above ratiocination reveals that the additional capacitors and will bring about two transmission zeros to ameliorate the out-band performance. However, the out-band rejection characteristics are restricted by the series resistance of the on-chip inductor. As seen from (6), the higher and lower out-band transmission zeros are associated with the inductors and and L1 , respectively. These component values influence not only the zeros frequencies, but also the out-band suppression levels,. The higher frequency out-band elimination efficiency is mainly determined by the impedance of the LgCRH tank at the resonant frequency (i.e., the larger impedance, the superior out-band suppression). Therefore, the first step is to assign a larger to arrive at larger resonant impedance [20, Ch. 14]. In addition, a preferable power gain in the target frequency range can be procured contemporaneously by using a larger value of Lg. The impedance of input LC circuit produces one series and one parallel resonance from which the lower transmission zero can be created. It is expectable that a smaller impedance at the series resonant frequency will accomplish the superior out-band elimination efficiency.

    From the above discussion, it should be taken into account punctiliously by choosing appropriate values of and to achieve the tradeoff between the input match and out-band rejection performances. It is interesting to see the influence of the input network on the LNAs NF. After a

    straightforward derivation following the procedure in [21],

    The NF of the circuit shown in Fig. 3 can be obtained as



    40 m4



    30 nf(2)=2.487

    Obviously, the proposed UWB LNA will produce double-peak maxima in noise factor at the two transmission zeros. Consequently, it must be cautious to prevent from worsening the noise property in the desired frequency range when designing the locations of the zeros. Fig. 5 shows the simulation result of the NF the total circuit. In this Cascode LNA the dominant noise contributor is the active gain stage. The out-band rejection input network has a minor influence on the total NF as long as the designed transmission zeros are not too close to the in-band. To reduce the noise contribution from the active gain stage, the width of the transistor will be chosen for optimum noise property. The additional inductor between the Cascode stages is chosen to optimize the total noise figure.

  2. Implementation and simulation

    The proposed out-band rejection UWB LNA is designed and simulated using Agilent Advanced Design System with 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The


    10 m4


    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    freq, GHz

    Fig. 5. Noise Figure of LNA








    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    freq, GHz

    Fig. 6. Input Reflection Coefficient (S11) of LNA



    dB(S(2,1)) (H)











    m1 freq=3.700GHz dB(S(2,1))=13.200


    2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    freq, GHz

    UWB LNA shown in Figure 3. The width of the transistor M1 (145 µm)is optimized with the 1.9 mw power dissipation with good noise property. The comparisons are shown in the table.1.The size of the Cascode transistor M2 (300 µm) is selected to be as large as possible to reduce its voltage headroom requirement, which is conductive to low voltage operations. In addition, the design of the input match and out band rejection characteristics are optimized with the proper selection of the input LC filter component values. In

    Fig.4. Power gain (S21) of LNA


    LNA performance comparisions





    BW [GHz]









    Out band Rejection


    0.18 µm CMOS


    3 ~ 6






    0.18 µm CMOS


    0.04 ~ 7






    0.18 µm CMOS


    2.8 ~ 7.2






    0.18 µm CMOS


    3 ~ 4.8






    0.18 µm CMOS


    3 ~ 4.8





    15 dB @ 2.4 GHz

    19 dB @ 5.3 GHz


    0.13 µm CMOS







    6 dB @ 2.4 GHz

    44 dB @ 5.2 GHz


    0.18 µm CMOS


    3 ~ 4.8





    13 dB @ 2.4 GHz

    20 dB @ 5.8 GHz


    0.18 µm CMOS


    2.8 ~ 6.2





    25 dB @ 1.8 GHz

    32 dB @ 8.5 GHz

    This proposal

    0.18 µm CMOS


    2.9 ~ 4.9






    42 dB @ 1.8 GHz

    66 dB @ 8.5 GHz

    this study, the component values of the input network are L1 = 1.8 nH, Lg =2.0 nH,C1 = 0.91 pF, CRL =

    3.3pF,CRH = 17 pF, Ca =0.025 pF and additional inductor Lc = 1.5 nH. The load consists of an inductor LL in series with RL to achieve flat gain over the whole band width. The value of Ro is set as 50 to achieve output match for testing purposes.

    The LNA drew a 2.1-mA dc core current from the 0.9-V supply voltage and complete LNA drew a 6.9-mA shown in table.2 .The simulated power gain of LNA shown in Fig. 4. The peak gain is

    13.2 dB at 3.7 GHz with a 3-dB and width of 2GHz from 2.9 to 4.9 GHz and the minimum value of the noise figure is 3.9 dB .the input reflection coefficient (S11) is less than -4dB in the operation Bandwidth shown in the figure. 6. The simulated out band rejection obtained 42 dB at 1.8 GHz and 66 dB at 8.5 GHz. From the peak power gain Shown in the Fig. 4.

  3. Conclusion

In this paper, we proposed a UWB LNA configuration with out-band rejection ability and demonstrated the simulated results using the 0.18 µm CMOS process. Extra transmission zeros are created by the use of an LC input network with additional caacitors and for improving the higher and lower out-band performances. Finally we have achieved gain enhancement and low power dissipation with an additional inductor between the Cascode stages.


  1. S. Lo, I. Sever, S.-P. Ma, P. Jang, A. Zou, C. Arnott, K. Ghatak, A. Schwartz, L. Huynh, V. T. Phan, and T. Nguyen, A dual-antenna phased-array UWB transceiver in 0.18-µm CMOS, IEEE J. Solid- State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 27762786, Dec. 2006.

  2. T. W. Fischer, B. Kelleci, K. Shi, A. I. Karsilayan, and

    E. Serpedin An analog approach to suppressing in- band narrow-band interference in UWB receivers, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 941950, May 2007.

  3. K. Rambabu, M. Y.-W. Chia, K. M. Chan, and J. Bornemann, Design of multiple-stopband filters for interference suppression in UWB applications, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 8, pp 3333 3338, Aug. 2006.

  4. I. Sever, S. Lo, S.-P. Ma, P. Jang, A. Zou, C. Arnott,

    K. Ghatak, A. Schwartz, L. Huynh, and T. Nguyen, A dual-antenna phase-array ultra-wideband CMOS transceiver, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 102110, Aug. 2006.

  5. A. Valdes-Garcia, C. Mishra, F. Bahmani, J. Silva- Martinez, and E. Sánchez-Sinencio, An 11-band 3

    10 GHz receiver in SiGe BiCMOS for multiband OFDM UWB communication, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 935948, Apr. 2007.

  6. A. Bevilacqua, A. Maniero, A. Gerosa, and A. Neviani, An integrated solution for suppressing WLAN signals in UWB receivers, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1617 1625,Aug. 2007.

  7. A. Vallese, A. Bevilacqua, C. Sandner, M. Tiebout, A. Gerosa, and A. Neviani, Analysis and design of an integrated notch filter for the rejection of interference

    in UWB systems, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 331343, Feb. 2009.

  8. X. Guan and C. Nguyen, Low-power-consumption and high-gain CMOS distributed amplifiers using cascade of inductively coupled common-source gain cells for UWB systems, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 32783283, Aug. 2006.

  9. P. Heydari, Design and analysis of a performance- optimized CMOS UWB distributed LNA, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 18921905, Sep. 2007.

  10. Y. Park, C.-H. Lee, J. D. Cressler, and J. Laskar, The analysis ofUWB SiGe HBT LNA for its noise, linearity, and minimum group delay variation, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1687 1697, Apr. 2006.

  11. P. Z. Rao, Y. C. Cheng, C. P. Liang, and S. J. Chung, Cascode feedback amplifier combined with resonant matching for UWB system, in Proc. Progr. Electromagn. Res. Symp., Mar. 2007, pp. 10401043.

  12. J. Lee and J. D. Cressler, Analysis and design of an ultra-wideband low-noise amplifier using resistive feedback in SiGe HBT technology, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 12621268, Mar. 2006.

  13. G. Cusmai, M. Brandolini, P. Rossi, and F. Svelto, A 0.18-µm CMOS selective receiver front-end for UWB applications, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 17641771, Aug. 2006.

  14. Y. Lu, K. S. Yeo, A. Cabuk, J. Ma, M. A. Do, and Z. Lu, A novel CMOS low-noise amplifier design for 3.1- to 10.6-GHz ultra-wideband wireless receivers, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 16831692, Aug. 2006.

  15. X. Li, S. Shekhar, and D. J. Allstot, Gm-boosted common-gate LNA and differential Colpitts VCO/QVCO in 0.18-m CMOS, IEEE J.Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 26092619, Dec. 2005.

  16. A. Bevilacqua and A. M. Niknejad, An ultrawideband CMOS lownoise amplifier for 3.1 10.6-GHz wireless receivers, IEEE J. Solid- State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 22592268, Dec. 2004.

  17. A. Ismail and A. A. Abidi, A 310-GHz low-noise amplifier with wideband LC-ladder matching network, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 22692277, Dec. 2004.

  18. A. Bevilacqua, A. Vallese, C. Sandner, M. Tiebout,

    1. Gerosa, and A. Neviani, A 0.13-µm CMOS LNA with integrated balun and notch filter for 3 to 5 GHz UWB receivers, in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuit Conf. Tech. Dig., Feb. 2007, pp. 420421.

  19. Y. Gao, Y. J. Zheng, and B. L. Ooi, 0.18-µm CMOS dual-band UWB LNA with interference rejection, Electron. Lett. vol. 43, no. 20, pp. 10961098, Sep. 2007.

  20. B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

  21. D. K. Shaeffer and T. H. Lee, A 1.5-V, 1.5-GHz CMOS low noise amplifier, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 745759, May 1997.

  22. Ching-Piao Liang, Pei-Zong Rao, Tian-Jian Huang, and Shyh-Jong Chung, Analysis and Design of Two Low-Power Ultra-Wideband CMOS Low-Noise Amplifiers With Out-Band Rejection, IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, vol. 58, no. 2, february 2010.pp.277-286

  23. C.-P. Chang and H.-R. Chuang, 0.18-µm 36 GHz CMOS broad-band LNA for UWB radio, Electron. Lett., vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 696698, Jun. 2005.

  24. F. Zhang and P. R. Kinget, Low-power programmable gain CMOS distributed LNA, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 6, pp 13331343, Jun. 2006.

  25. Y.-J. E. Chen and Y.-I. Huan, Development of integrated broad-band CMOS low noise amplifiers, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 21202127, Oct. 2007.

  26. M. l. Jeong, J. N. Lee, and C. S. Lee, Design of UWB switched gain controlled LNA using 0.18-µm CMOS, Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 477478, Mar. 2008.

  27. S.-K. Tang, K.-P. Pun, C.-S. Choy, C.-F. Chan, and K.

N. Leung, A fully differential band-selective low-noise amplifier for MB-OFDM UWB receivers, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, vol. 55,no. 7, pp. 653657, Jul. 2008.

R.S.Sai Ram received M.Sc. degree in Electronics from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. He is currently pursuing M.Tech in Very Large Scale Integrated Systems Design (VLSISD) from JNTUK, Kakinada, India. His research interests includes Analog IC design, RF Microwave circuits and Mixed signal VLSI.

Dr. Tenneti Madhu obtained his from University of Madras, M.Tech from REC, Kurukshetra in 1994 and Ph.D from Osmania University in 2004. His research interests include GPS Data Analysis, Image Processing, Nano Technology and VLSI design.

P.Lakshmi Sarojini received M.Tech degree in DSCE from JNTU, Hyderabad. She worked in DRDO as a scientist and presently working as a professor and Head, Dept of ECE, Swarnandhra College of Engineering and Technology Narsapur. Her area of research includes IC design, Mixed signal VLSI and programming digital systems.

Leave a Reply