 Open Access
 Authors : Genesia C Tavares , Noah Dias
 Paper ID : IJERTV11IS070225
 Volume & Issue : Volume 11, Issue 07 (July 2022)
 Published (First Online): 30072022
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Analysis and Design of A Zero Voltage Transition DcDc Boost Converter
Genesia C Tavares
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department Goa college of Engineering, Farmagudi,
Ponda, Goa 403401
Noah Dias
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department Goa college of Engineering, Farmagudi,
Ponda, Goa 403401
Abstract In the last few years, there is an enormous growth in Renewable energy sources. During the extraction of electric power from renewable sources, dcdc converters play a very significant role. This paper, proposes a boost converter wherein the switching of the main switch is done under Zero Voltage Transition. Here the proposed converter is modeled for a load of 250W. The auxiliary circuit which aids in the soft switching resonates for a small portion of the switching cycle of the converter and enables the soft transition of the switch from ON state to OFF state and vice versa. This will thus help in improving the converter efficiency by reducing the losses that occur due to hard transition of the switches. The converter is modeled in MATLAB simulink.
KeywordsBoost converter, Auxilliary circuit, Zero voltage switching, Zero current switching.

INTRODUCTION
The conduction losses are very low in conventional hard switching converters, but the efficiency is low due to high switching losses [1] [2]. Thus, in order to make the switching transitions at either zerovoltage condition or zero current condition the technique of soft switching is introduced, so that the main portion of losses can also be reduced and the efficiency of the converters can be highly improved [2].
In Power Electronic converters, switching in any case when the converter is ON, the power losses are zero. During the OFF state the current will not pass through the switch hence there will not be any power losses. Whenever the switch goes from ON state to OFF state and OFF state to ON state power losses will occur if we do not have any way to reduce either the current or voltage to zero [1]. This happens in hardswitching converters and power losses will occur if there will be a voltage applied across and a current flowing through the switch. When the switching device turns ON or OFF, the voltage and current are huge and it will result in high losses. [2]
The power losses that occur when switching are the product of the voltage appearing across the terminals of the switch and the current which flows through the switch. The entire loss is the product of energy lost and the switching frequency. These losses are referred to as switching losses.

SOFT SWITCHING TECHNIQUES

Methods of Soft Switching
There are two methods for soft switching techniques to attain zero losses switching where either the voltage or current through the device is made zero during switching.

Zero current switching (ZCS)
Zero Current Switching is achieved with a switch having an inductor and a blocking diode in series [2]. The switch turns ON under ZCS as the rate of increase of current after the voltage turns zero is controlled by the inductor. The inductor does not allow sudden change in current, and hence it rises linearly. When a negative voltage appears across the combination of inductor and switch with a resonant circuit, the current flowing through the switch is automatically reduced to zero which turns OFF the switch under zero current switching.

Zero voltage switching (ZVS)
A switch which operates at ZVS will have an antiparallel diode and a capacitor across it [2]. During turn OFF since the current goes to zero, the capacitor controls the rate of voltage increase taking place across the switch. Since the capacitor does not allow sudden changes in voltage, it will rise linearly. The turn OFF characteristics of the switch is controlled by a capacitor. This capacitor reduces the voltage rise as current flow reduces to zero.


Proposed SoftSwitching Boost Converter configuration
The zerovoltage DCDC boost converter diagram is described in fig 1. It is basically a boost converter with a diode D1, input inductor Lin, main switch S1 and output capacitor Co with a load Rld. This circuit also contains additional circuit called the auxiliary circuit that will resonate for a small portion of time. This circuit consists of an inductor Lr, capacitor Cr, diodes D2 to D5 and a capacitor Cb which will feed the resonant energy to the load. The capacitance Cs is the parasitic capacitance of the switch S1 and not any external capacitance.
Zero Voltage Transition works on the principle that the auxiliary circuit will carry a current much higher than of the input current [1][4][5], but for a small period of the switching cycle so as to attain the soft switching in the converter. The main switch is perfectly turned on under ZVS and near ZCS by ZVT with a parallel resonance, the main switch is perfectly turned off under ZCS and ZVS by ZCT with a serial
resonance. The auxiliary switch is turned on with near ZCS [5].
Zero Voltage Transition converters have higher efficiency unlike the hardswitching converters due to the decreased switching loss.
This circuit reduces the conduction losses of all the switches; main and the auxiliary ones and also all the diodes. This can be done using a capacitor which will control the turnoff characteristics of the main switch, whose resonant energy will be dissipated into the load [1]. The capacitor Cb is the feedforward capacitor that controls the turnoff of the main switch. The energy retained by this capacitor will be discharged fully to the load through the diodes D1 or D3. The rms current of the auxiliary circuit is considerably decreased hence the conduction power losses will be reduced too.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the proposed ZVT DCDC Boost Converter
Fig. 2. Waveforms of the different modes of the DCDC Boost converter

Modes of operation of the above converter.
We shall look at the circuit operation for one complete switching cycle, which is divided into seven parts. Each of these parts is explained with its equivalent circuit for that particular interval.
In the beginning the diode D1 supplies the output current and the circuit acts as a simple PWM boost converter. Under this condition circuit is shown in fig 3
Fig. 3. Schematic of circuit in simple Boost mode
Mode 1[t0t1]:
At t0 switch S2 is turned ON with Zero Current Transition due to the presence of auxiliary resonant inductor which is connected serially to it. The current will start to move slowly from the diode D1. The resonant inductor present will decrease the turnoff current rate through D1 that turns off under ZCS. Now the auxiliary current flowing through the inductor equals to the input current. The circuit for this interval is explained in fig 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic of circuit for Mode 1
Mode 2[t1t2]:
The auxiliary circuit current will keep on increasing here. The input current supplied shall be assumed to be constant since the input inductance will not allow sudden change in the current. Hence the capacitance Cs of the main switch S1 will start to discharge into the auxiliary circuit to supply for the increased portion of the auxiliary current. In this interval the capacitance discharges completely. The equivalent circuit for this mode is explained in fig 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic of circuit for Mode 2
Mode 3[t2t3]:
After t2 the diode present in the main switch which is connected in antiparallel to it starts conducting, which will make the voltage blocked y switch S1 to be zero. This is the Zero Voltage period during which the switch S1 must be supplied with the trigger. End of this interval the current carried by the auxiliary circuit equals the input supply current and the main switch is in a condition to start conduction. The equivalent circuit of the converter for this mode is explained in fig 6.
Mode 6[t5t6]:
During the start of this interval, the auxiliary current will turn zero and the resonant cycle shall end here. The circuit will run as an equivalent PWM boost converter during its charging state. The equivalent circuit of the converter in this interval is explained in fig 9.
Fig. 9. Schematic of circuit for Mode 6
Mode 4[t3t4]:
Fig. 6. Schematic of circuit for Mode 3
Mode 7[t6t7]:
At t6 during this interval S1 is turnedoff. The feed forward capacitor Cb will cause for the slow voltage rise across S1. Voltage across the capacitor Cb will reverse bias the diode D1 and hence it will not conduct. The energy present in the
The auxiliary current stops the input supply current and the
remaining of the input supply current starts flowing through the switch S1. During the end of this interval the current in the auxiliary circuit becomes zero. The equivalent circuit of the converter for this mode is explained in fig 7
capacitor Cb during the cycle discharges through the diode D3 and when this voltage will be zero the diode D1 s tarts conducting and the next switching cycle gets started. The equivalent circuit of the converter for this mode is explained in fig 10.
Mode 5[t4t5]:
Fig. 7. Schematic of circuit for Mode 4
Fig. 10. Schematic of circuit for Mode 7


CONVERTER DESIGN
The direction of current flow in the auxiliary circuit changes
and the negative portion of the resonant cycle will start during this interval. Diode D4 in series with the switch makes the branch unidirectional and will not allow the switch S2 to conduct and this current passes through the diode D5 resulting in a Zero Voltage turnoff condition for S2. The current from the diode D2 will pass to the capacitor Cb hence charging it. The equivalent circuit for this interval is explained in fig 8.
Fig. 8. Schematic of circuit for Mode 5
Design specifications:
The specifications for the design of the converter are given in Table I for a load of 250W.
Sr NO
Parameter
Specification
Value
1
Output power
Pout
250W
2
Output voltage
Vout
400V
3
Input voltage
Vin
90265V
4
Switching frequency
Fsw
100kHz
5
Output voltage ripple
Vrp
1%
6
Input current peak ripple
Irpp
20%
Table I
Find Rload:
out out
RLoad=V 2/ P = 640 ; (1)
For a conventional boost converter:
Vout /Vin= 1/(1D) (2)
Hence D = 33.75%
Let Dmain = 30% and Daux= 3.75%
Output Capacitor:
The peak charging current of the capacitor is:
= = = (3)
The voltage ripple across C0 is:
= (4)
= = (5)
= 207
Input Inductor:
The maximum peakpeak ripple current is
= . =x 20% = 0.827A (6)
The maximum peak input current with ripple is
= + =4.135 + (7)
= 4.55A
The duty ratio of the converter when maximum current occurs is
Resonant Capacitor:
Assume Zr=0.21 pu
= = (11)
= * = 0.21 x 107.469 = 22.568 (12) = 11nF
Auxiliary capacitor Cb:
For proper design we select the curve K=3
K = =3 (13)
= = 3.66nF (14)

SIMULATION DETAILS

Design parameters of the Boost converter
Sr NO
Parameter
Specification
Value
1
Resonant inductor
Lr
6ÂµH
2
Resonant capacitor
Cr
11nF
3
Feedforward capacitor
Cb
3.66nF
4
Boost inductor
Lin
1050ÂµH
5
Output capacitor
Co
470nF
6
Input voltage
Vin
265V
7
Switching frequency
Fsw
100kHz
The converter circuit is simulated in MATLAB Simulink for a switching frequency of 100kHz, with the design parameters in Table II.
= 1= 1 – = 0.682 (8)
The input inductor value is calculated as follows
= = (9)
= 1050ÂµH
Resonant Inductor:
Assuming the value of =30ns
= = (10)
= 5.8ÂµH 6ÂµH
Table II

PWM Signals of the main and auxiliary switch
For zerovoltage switching, delay is required in the PWM signal of the main switch, during which the auxiliary switch is turned ON [11]. The PWM signals of both switches is shown in fig 11.
Fig 11. PWM signals S1 and S2

Simulink Circuit
Below fig 12 is the circuit design in MATLAB Simulink wherein the output voltage of 400V is obtained for 265V
input.
Fig 12. Simulation circuit

Simulation results

Output Voltage = 400V

Auxiliary Inductor Current

Auxiliary Capacitor Voltage

Feed Forward Capacitor Voltage

Main Switch S1 Voltage

Main Switch S1 Current

ZVS ON of Main Switch S1

ZCS ON of S2

CONCLUSION
In this paper a DCDC Boost converter with soft switching techniques is designed and analyzed. The proposed converter decreases the switching losses and increases the efficiency of the converter. The converter uses an auxiliary resonant circuit in order to achieve ZVS. The detailed design and analysis are discussed. MATLAB Simulink is used to verify the operation and performance of the proposed converter.
REFERENCES
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