An Experimental Study on Translucent Concrete

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An Experimental Study on Translucent Concrete

Syed Azam

M.Tech. final year student, In Geo-Informatics, KSRSAC

Bangalore, India.

Zaheer Abbas A

M.Tech. final year student,

In Construction Technology, NCET Bangalore, India

Mohammed Imran Madhu Kumar C A

Assistant professor Assistant professor

Brindavan College of engineering Brindavan College of engineering Bangalore, India Bangalore, India

Abstract- In the present research work, the compressive strength of cubes for 7days, 14days, and 28days were made with two different percentages of fibre that is 0.3% and 0.6%. In the existing study, both concrete and mortar blocks were prepared of size 100mm X 100mm X 100mm in order to study the behavior of light transmission index in both the samples. To proceed with the further study different configurations of fibres are used to substantiate the effective usage of optical fibres. The existing study is also an attempt to know the strength and durability parameters of Translucent concrete. The following tests conducted in order to study strength and durability parameters are Compressive strength test, Acid resistant test, Sulphate resistant test and Light transmissibility test to understand the transmissibility index.

Keywords Optical fibre, Acid resistant test, Sulphate resistant test, Light transmissibility test, Transmissibility index

  1. INTRODUCTION

    At present, green structures are greatly focusing on saving energy with indoor thermal systems. However, in area of illumination field, there is little research offering relevant solution. Translucent concrete is new technique different from normal concrete. Translucent concrete allow more light and less weight compared to normal concrete. The use of sunlight instead of using electrical energy is main purpose of translucent concrete, so as to reduce the load on non- renewable sources and result it into the energy saving. Research shows that addition of 0.25% of optical fibres increases compressive strength approximately around 23% and tensile strength approximately around 80% [1]. Similar research also shows that for obtaining translucent concrete mixture of polycarbonate and epoxy matrices can be used. The content of the component is: epoxy matrix from 0% to 90%, and the polycarbonate matrix from 0% to 10%, colloidal silica sol from 0.5% to 5%, fibreglass from 0% to 10%, silica from 0.5% to 10%, diethylenetriamine (DETA). The ratio of the polymer matrices and the mortar is at least 1.5:1. The different percentage of components used, yielded a very good light transmissibility properties and as well as the concrete does not lose the strength parameter when compared to regular concrete and also it has very vital property for the aesthetical point of view [2]. Researchs published also shows that the compressive strength of light transmitting concrete with 10% replacement of cement by silica fume has been increased by 17.13% than that of conventional

    concrete. It is observed that the split tensile strength of concrete with 10% replacement of cement by silica fume increased by 13.61% compared to CC and 8.26% for 15% replacement [3].

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

    Materials

    The strength of Translucent concrete incorporated with optical fibres is to study in determining the mechanism of strength and durability of concrete. The making of translucent concrete incorporated with optical fibres consisting of five types of raw material, namely OPC (ordinary Portland cement), fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, water, and optical fibres. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) of grade 53 was used throughout the study. The fine aggregates have been used as a filler material for the present study with specific gravity of 2.53 and coarse aggregate of 2.35 specific gravity. The maximum size of coarse aggregates used were 6mm. Potable water has been used for casting concrete specimens. The commonly available diameters of optical fibres are 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm,

    0.75 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm. In this project the optical fibre of diameter 1mm are used.

  3. METHODOLOGY

    Fig 1: Methodology

    We use M25 grade concrete as per IS10262:2009 and mortar ratio of 1:4. Different configurations of optical fibres used in cubes are as shown in the figure below.

    Fig 2: Different Configurations

    Table 1: Test properties of different materials

    Sl. No Materials Test Result / Values
    1 Cement Fineness Of Cement 5%
    Normal Consistency 32%
    Specific Gravity 3.16
    Initial Setting Time 95 mins
    Final Setting Time 630 mins
    2 Fine Aggregates Specific Gravity 2.53
    Sieve Analysis Zone I Table 4 of IS 383 (1970)
    3 Coarse Aggregates Specific Gravity 2.35
    Water Absorption 0.50%
    Sieve Analysis Zone I Table 4 of IS 383 (1970)
  4. MIX DESIGN CALCULATIONS:

    The mix proportioning was done using IS 10262:2009, as per this method proportions of materials required for 1m3 of concrete is 1:1.87:2.57 and W/C ratio- 0.5. The proportion used for preparation of mortar cube is 1:4.

  5. MECHANICAL AND DURABILITY TESTS
    1. Compressive Strength Test of Concrete:

      For cube test the size of the cubes used was 10cm×10cm×10cm. These specimens are tested by compression testing machine after 7, 14 & 28 days of curing. Load should be applied gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till the specimens fails Load at the failure divided by area of specimen gives the compressive strength of concrete.

    2. Acid Resistance Test:

      The acid resistance test was conducted on 100 mm size cubes specimen after curing for a period of 28 days. Then the specimen cubes were weighed and immersed in water diluted with 2N, 10% by weight of HCl acid for 8 weeks. In this process the specimen cubes were subjected to alternate drying and wetting for every 2 days.

    3. Sulphate Resistance Test:

      The effect of sulphate attack results in chemical break down in components of cement paste. In this study the sulphate resistance test was conducted on 100 mm size cube specimens after curing for a period of 28 days. Then the specimen cubes were weighed and immersed in water diluted with 5% by weight of MgSO4 for 8 weeks.

    4. Light Transmissibility Test:

    Transmissibility of the bulb of 9 Watts kept at a certain distance was found to be 3800 Lux. Then, the transmissibility values were obtained by placing translucent concrete samples.

    % Transmissibility= Transmissibility through concrete * 100

    Transmissibility through air

    Therefore Light intensity is noted in terms of lumecs.

    Fig 3: Testing of Concrete Fig 4: Testing Concrete block block Parameters along with HCL

    Fig 5: Testing Concrete block Fig 6: Light Intensity Test Of all parameters along with MgSo4

    Table 2: Compressive Strength of Conventional Concrete

    Compressive Strength Of Conventional Concrete
    Categories Sl no Particulas No of days of curing Compressive Strength (N\mm2)
    Concrete 1 Normal 7 18.40
    2 14 21.80
    3 28 26.70
    Mortar 4 Normal 7 43.10
    5 14 53.25
    6 28 63.40

    Table 3: Compressive Strength of Translucent Concrete for

    Compressive Strength of Translucent Concrete For 0.3 % POF
    Categories Sl no Particulars ( Strads * Location) No of days of Curing Compressive Strength (N\mm2)
    Concrete 1 1st parameter (10*4) 7 17.60
    2 14 22.30
    3 28 26.70
    4 2nd parameter (5*8) 7 18.70
    5 14 23.45
    6 28 27.20
    7 3rd parameter (4*12) 7 16.70
    8 14 21.80
    9 28 27.40
    10 4th parameter (1*49) 7 17.30
    11 14 23.80
    12 28 25.60
    Mortar 13 1st parameter (10*4) 7 28.45
    14 14 35.50
    15 28 49.50
    16 2nd parameter (5*8) 7 21.20
    17 14 37.40
    18 28 53.50
    19 3rd parameter (4*12) 7 26.80
    20 14 34.60
    21 28 54.15
    22 4th parameter (1*49) 7 28.30
    23 14 37.45
    24 28 55.60
    Compressive Strength of Translucent Concrete For 0.3 % POF
    Categories Sl no Particulars ( Strads * Location) No of days of Curing Compressive Strength (N\mm2)
    Concrete 1 1st parameter (10*4) 7 17.60
    2 14 22.30
    3 28 26.70
    4 2nd parameter (5*8) 7 18.70
    5 14 23.45
    6 28 27.20
    7 3rd parameter (4*12) 7 16.70
    8 14 21.80
    9 28 27.40
    10 4th parameter (1*49) 7 17.30
    11 14 23.80
    12 28 25.60
    Mortar 13 1st parameter (10*4) 7 28.45
    14 14 35.50
    15 28 49.50
    16 2nd parameter (5*8) 7 21.20
    17 14 37.40
    18 28 53.50
    19 3rd parameter (4*12) 7 26.80
    20 14 34.60
    21 28 54.15
    22 4th parameter (1*49) 7 28.30
    23 14 37.45
    24 28 55.60

     

    0.3 % POF

    Table 4: Compressive Strength of Translucent Concrete for 0.6% POF

    Compressive Strength of Translucent Concrete For 0.6 % POF
    Categories Sl no Particulars ( Strads * Location) No of days of curing Compressive strength (N\mm2)
    Concrete 1 1st parameter (20*4) 7 16.70
    2 14 22.30
    3 28 26.75
    4 2nd parameter (10*8) 7 17.85
    5 14 23.70
    6 28 27.15
    7 3rd parameter (7*12) 7 15.40
    8 14 21.50
    9 28 26.65
    10 4th parameter (1*81) 7 15.85
    11 14 22.35
    12 28 26.45

    Compressive Strength of 0.3% Mortar Cubes

    60

    Compressive Strength of 0.3% Mortar Cubes

    60

     

    4*12

    4*12

     

    50

    10*4

    50

    10*4

    40

    30

    20

    7 Days

    14 Days

    28 Days

    40

    30

    20

    7 Days

    14 Days

    28 Days

    10

    0

    No of Days

    10

    0

    No of Days

    5*8

    5*8

     

    1*49

    1*49

     

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    Compression Strength N/mm2

    Compression Strength N/mm2

     

    Fig 8: Compressive Strength for 0.3% Mortar Cubes

    Compressive Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

    Compressive Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

     

    30

    20*4

    10*8

    7*12

    1*81

    30

    20*4

    10*8

    7*12

    1*81

    25

    20

    15

    10

    7 Days

    14 Days

    28 days

    25

    20

    15

    10

    7 Days

    14 Days

    28 days

    5

    0

    No of days

    5

    0

    No of days

    Fig 9: Compressive Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

    Mortar 13 1st parameter (20*4) 7 27.70
    14 14 38.50
    15 28 54.10
    16 2nd parameter (10*8) 7 39.50
    17 14 46.32
    18 28 55.40
    19 3rd parameter (7*12) 7 35.40
    20 14 40.20
    21 28 56.15
    22 4th parameter (1*81) 7 39.20
    23 14 41.45
    24 28 53.10
    Mortar 13 1st parameter (20*4) 7 27.70
    14 14 38.50
    15 28 54.10
    16 2nd parameter (10*8) 7 39.50
    17 14 46.32
    18 28 55.40
    19 3rd parameter (7*12) 7 35.40
    20 14 40.20
    21 28 56.15
    22 4th parameter (1*81) 7 39.20
    23 14 41.45
    24 28 53.10

     

    Compressive Strength for 0.3% Concrete Cubes

    30 4*12

    Compressive Strength for 0.6% Mortar Cubes

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    60 20*4 10*8 7*12 1*81

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    10*4 5*8

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    No of days

    1*49

    7 Days

    14 Days

    28 Days

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    No of days

    7 Days

    14 Days

    28 Days

    Fig 7: Compressive Strength for 0.3% Concrete Cubes

    Fig 10: Compressive Strength of 0.6% Mortar Cubes

    Table 5: Acid Attack (Hydrochloric Acid-HCl) for Conventional and Translucent concrete and mortar

    Loss in Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

    40

    Loss in Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

    40

     

    35

    35

     

    20*4

    20*4

     

    7*12 1*81

    7*12 1*81

     

    30 10*8

    25

    20

    15

    30 10*8

    25

    20

    15

     

    7 Days

    28 Days

    7 Days

    28 Days

     

    10

    5

    0

    10

    5

    0

     

    No of Days

    No of Days

     

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    Fig12: Loss in Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

    Loss in Strength for 0.3% Mortar Cubes

    Categories % of POF Sl no Particulars ( Strands

    *Location)

    Compressive strength (N\mm2) Weight loss (Kg)
    7

    Days

    28

    Days

    Concrete 0.30% 1 (10*4) 24.1 23.4 0.11
    2 (5*8) 23.3 22.65 0.16
    3 (4*12) 27 26.25 0.15
    4 (1*49) 28.55 27.35 0.1
    Normal 5 normal 32.6 30.45 0.15
    0.60% 6 (20*4) 31.9 29.68 0.01
    7 (10*8) 27.6 26.35 0.1
    8 (7*12) 33.8 31.25 0.05
    9 (1*81) 31.62 29.8 0.1
    Mortar 0.30% 10 (10*4) 52.2 51.45 0.1
    11 (5*8) 53.4 52.3 0.15
    12 (4*12) 53.15 52.16 0.08
    13 (1*49) 54.6 53.1 0.11
    Normal 14 Normal 53.8 52.4 0.15
    0.60% 15 (20*4) 46.78 45.32 0.05
    16 (10*8) 49.6 48.75 0.08
    17 (7*12) 48.4 48.1 0.16
    18 (1*81) 49.35 48.55 0.02
    Categories % of POF Sl no Particulars ( Strands

    *Location)

    Compressive strength (N\mm2) Weight loss (Kg)
    7

    Days

    28

    Days

    Concrete 0.30% 1 (10*4) 24.1 23.4 0.11
    2 (5*8) 23.3 22.65 0.16
    3 (4*12) 27 26.25 0.15
    4 (1*49) 28.55 27.35 0.1
    Normal 5 normal 32.6 30.45 0.15
    0.60% 6 (20*4) 31.9 29.68 0.01
    7 (10*8) 27.6 26.35 0.1
    8 (7*12) 33.8 31.25 0.05
    9 (1*81) 31.62 29.8 0.1
    Mortar 0.30% 10 (10*4) 52.2 51.45 0.1
    11 (5*8) 53.4 52.3 0.15
    12 (4*12) 53.15 52.16 0.08
    13 (1*49) 54.6 53.1 0.11
    Normal 14 Normal 53.8 52.4 0.15
    0.60% 15 (20*4) 46.78 45.32 0.05
    16 (10*8) 49.6 48.75 0.08
    17 (7*12) 48.4 48.1 0.16
    18 (1*81) 49.35 48.55 0.02

     

    55

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    54.5

    54

    53.5

    53

    52.5

    52

    51.5

    51

    50.5

    50

    49.5

    10*4

    5*8

    4*12

    1*49

    7 Days

    28 Days

    Loss in Strength for 0.3% Concrete Cubes

    Loss in Strength for 0.3% Concrete Cubes

     

    No of Days

    4*12 1*49

    4*12 1*49

     

    Fig13: Loss in Strength for 0.3% Mortar Cubes

    30

    30

     

    10*4

    10*4

     

    5*8

    5*8

     

    20

    15

    20

    15

     

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    Loss in Strength for 0.6% Mortar Cubes

    25

    25

     

    10

    5

    0

    10

    5

    0

     

    Fig11: Loss in Strength for 0.3% Concrete Cubes

    50

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    49

    48

    47 20*4

    46

    45

    44

    43

    10*8

    7 days

    28 Days

    7 days

    28 Days

     

    7*12

    1*81

    7 Days

    No of Days

    No of Days

     

    28 Days

    No of Days

    Fig14: Loss in Strength for 0.6% Mortar Cubes

    Table 6: Sulphate Attack (Magnesium Sulphate-MgSo4) Conventional and Translucent for concrete and mortar

    Loss in Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

    Loss in Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

     

    33

    32

    31

    30

    29

    28

    27

    26

    25

    24

    10*8

    7*12

    1*81

    33

    32

    31

    30

    29

    28

    27

    26

    25

    24

    10*8

    7*12

    1*81

    20*4

    20*4

     

    7 Days

    28 Days

    7 Days

    28 Days

     

    No of Days

    No of Days

     

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    Fig 16: Loss in Strength for 0.6% Concrete Cubes

    Loss in Strength for 0.3% Mortar Cubes

    56

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    Categories % of POF Sl No Particulars ( Strads * Location) Compressive strength (N\mm2) Weigh t loss (Kg)
    7

    Day s

    28

    Day s

    Concrete 0.30% 1 (10*4) 26.5 24.2

    5

    0.11
    2 (5*8) 26.1 24.5 0.15
    3 (4*12) 25.5 24.1 0.18
    4 (1*49) 26.7 24.8 0.17
    Normal 5 Normal 26.1

    5

    25.1 0.14
    0.60% 6 (20*4) 27.2 26.8

    5

    0.11
    7 (10*8) 32.2 29.1

    9

    0.17
    8 (7*12) 31.1

    5

    29.6 0.18
    9 (1*81) 30 28.8

    5

    0.19
    Mortar 0.30% 10 (10*4) 52.7 51.3

    5

    0.1
    11 (5*8) 47.1 46.1 0.15
    12 (4*12) 49.3

    5

    49.1 0.12
    13 (1*49) 53.4

    6

    52.5

    8

    0.1
    Normal 14 Normal 54.1

    5

    53.1

    2

    0.19
    0.60% 15 (20*4) 54.1 53.3 0.18
    16 (10*8) 52.6

    5

    52.1

    5

    0.17
    17 (7*12) 54.7

    8

    53.2 0.19
    18 (1*81) 54.2 53.6

    6

    0.2
    Categories % of POF Sl No Particulars ( Strads * Location) Compressive strength (N\mm2) Weigh t loss (Kg)
    7

    Day s

    28

    Day s

    Concrete 0.30% 1 (10*4) 26.5 24.2

    5

    0.11
    2 (5*8) 26.1 24.5 0.15
    3 (4*12) 25.5 24.1 0.18
    4 (1*49) 26.7 24.8 0.17
    Normal 5 Normal 26.1

    5

    25.1 0.14
    0.60% 6 (20*4) 27.2 26.8

    5

    0.11
    7 (10*8) 32.2 29.1

    9

    0.17
    8 (7*12) 31.1

    5

    29.6 0.18
    9 (1*81) 30 28.8

    5

    0.19
    Mortar 0.30% 10 (10*4) 52.7 51.3

    5

    0.1
    11 (5*8) 47.1 46.1 0.15
    12 (4*12) 49.3

    5

    49.1 0.12
    13 (1*49) 53.4

    6

    52.5

    8

    0.1
    Normal 14 Normal 54.1

    5

    53.1

    2

    0.19
    0.60% 15 (20*4) 54.1 53.3 0.18
    16 (10*8) 52.6

    5

    52.1

    5

    0.17
    17 (7*12) 54.7

    8

    53.2 0.19
    18 (1*81) 54.2 53.6

    6

    0.2

     

    54 10*4

    52

    50

    48

    46

    44

    42

    5*8

    4*12

    1*49

    7 Days

    28 Days

    No of Days

    20*4

    20*4

     

    1*81

    1*81

     

    27

    27

     

    10*4

    10*4

     

    1*49

    1*49

     

    5*8

    5*8

     

    26

    26

     

    4*12

    4*12

     

    Fig 17: Loss in Strength for 0.3% Mortar Cubes

    Loss in Strength for 0.6% Mortar Cubes

    Loss in Strength for 0.6% Mortar Cubes

     

    Loss in Strength for 0.3% Concrete Cubes

    55

    54.5

    54

    53.5

    53

    52.5

    52

    51.5

    51

    50.5

    7*12

    Loss in Strength for 0.3% Concrete Cubes

    55

    54.5

    54

    53.5

    53

    52.5

    52

    51.5

    51

    50.5

    7*12

    10*8

    10*8

     

    7 Days

    28 Days

    7 Days

    28 Days

     

    No of Days

    No of Days

     

    25

    24

    25

    24

     

    7 Days

    28 Days

    7 Days

    28 Days

     

    23

    22

    23

    22

     

    No of Days

    No of Days

     

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

    Compressive Strength N/mm2

     

    Fig 18: Loss in Strength for 0.6% Mortar Cubes

    Fig 15: Loss in Strength for 0.3% Concrete Cubes

    Table 7: Light Transmissibility Test (Using LUX Meter) for Translucent Concrete

    Categories % of POF Sl no Parameters Transmissi bility through Concrete in lux % of Transmissib ility passed in lux
    Concrete 0.30

    %

    1 (10*4) 425 11.18
    2 (5*8) 386 10.15
    3 (4*12) 382 10.05
    4 (1*49) 530 13.94
    0.60

    %

    5 (20*4) 950 25
    6 (10*8) 969 25.5
    7 (7*12) 923 24.28
    8 (1*81) 1000 26.31
    Mortar 0.30

    %

    1 (10*4) 436 11.47
    2 (5*8) 391 10.28
    3 (4*12) 396 10.42
    4 (1*49) 478 12.57
    0.60

    %

    5 (20*4) 940 24.73
    6 (10*8) 990 26.05
    7 (7*12) 903 23.76
    8 (1*81) 995 26.1

    in

    in

     

    Light Transmissibility through Concrete

    Fig 20: Light Transmissibility through Mortar

    Light Transmissibility through Mortar

    30

    24.73

    Light Transmissibility through Mortar

    30

    24.73

     

    26.05

    26.05

     

    26.1

    26.1

     

    25

    25

     

    23.76

    23.76

     

    20

    15

    20

    15

     

    11.47 10.28

    11.47 10.28

     

    10.42 12.57

    10.42 12.57

     

    10

    10

     

    0.30%

    0.60%

    0.30%

    0.60%

     

    5

    0

    5

    0

     

    1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Parameters

    1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Parameters

     

    % of Transmissibility in Lux

    % of Transmissibility in Lux

     

  6. CONCLUSION
    1. From the test results it is observed that difference configuration of fibres in terms of its pattern definitely have significant influence on light transmission ability.
    2. Experimental investigation reflects that with increase in percentages of optical fibres, light transmission ability through both concrete and mortar cubes are also increasing.
    3. Results depict that, when compared with different parameters of optical fibres in terms of its location, the ability of 4th parameter to transmit

      % of Transmissibility

      Lux

      % of Transmissibility

      Lux

       

      30 25 25.5 24.28 26.31

      25

      20

      15

      15

       

      13.94

      11.18 10.15 10.05

      10

      5

      0

      0.30%

      0.60%

      light proves to be 20% more efficient than rest of the parameters.

    4. When compared with concrete and mortar cubes, it is observed that light transmitting ability of mortar cubes are 10% more efficient than the concrete cubes.
    5. From the test results it is noted that, there is no compromise in terms of strength of concrete and mortar cubes even if the percentage of optical fibres is increased when compared to conventional

      1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Parameters

      Fig 19: Light Transmissibility through Concrete

      concrete.

    6. Durability results shows that, optical fibres used in concrete and mortar cubes offer better resistance against various chemical actions such as acid resistance test and sulphate resistance test without affecting light transmissibility index.
  7. REFERENCES
  1. Atish Kumar V and Suresh T (2015): Translucent Concrete, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013 1 ISSN 2250- 3153
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  3. Salmabanu uhar and Urvashi Khandelwal (2015): Research and Development of Plastic Optical Fibre Based Smart Translucent Concrete, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7293 72930F-2
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