An Experimental Study on Partial Replacement f Cement by Aluminium Dross in Concrete

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

An Experimental Study on Partial Replacement f Cement by Aluminium Dross in Concrete

,

,

Amar Gote1 Aakash Gavhane2, Dattatray Shinge3, Suraj Babar4, Prof. Mayur Tanpure5

Under Graduation Student, Department of Civil Engineering DYPSOET Pune,Maharashtra india1 Professor, Division of Civil Engineering, DYPSOET Pune, Maharashtra, India5

Abstract: The objective of this project is to study the replacement of aluminium dross in cement concrete. As all we know aluminium is one of the widely used construction material in the world,and during the aluminium production,the huge amount of waste is produced. The main advantage of using the aluminium dross in the concrete over the conventional concrete is the reduction in the quantity of raw materials. The result of this study indicates that aluminium deoss can be used as an ingredient in the range of certain limits to improve the corrosion resistivity of concrete. Aluminium dross have been used to replace cement by 5%,10%and 15%by its weight. Then using this concrete, concrete cubes are casted. The casted cubes are tested for compressive strength for 7days ,15days and 28days.

Keywords: Aluminium dross,Cement concrete,Waste management, etc.

INTRODUCTION

Aluminium is one of the widely used construction material in the world, and during the aluminium production, the huge amount of waste is produced. For instance,in Qatar, Qatalum 635.000 millions tons aluminium ingots and billets, annually and this production causes approximately 350illion tons of dross which is sent to the neighbouring countries for Re-extraction and recycling of the remaining aluminium. Aluminium dross mainly consists of metal, salts oxides, and other non metallic substance. Normally aluminium dross is divided into two parts are black and white whil;e the black aluminium dross contents low metal with high amount of oxides, salts and granular-like in form similar to stand.The white aluminium deoss has very high amount of oxides and salts nd forms large blocks.Aluminium deoss is mainly produced from the meling of aluminium scrap such as used beverage containers, aluminium sliding, casting and the treating of the melt with salt flux.

This aluminium dross is toxic and hazardous waste for the environment and so the safe disposal of the aluminium dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturing companies because its improper and careless disposal affects the eco- system, surface and the ground water. When these dross particles are allowed to escape into the atmosphere, inhalation can cause health such as

  1. Alzeheimers Disease

  2. Silicosis

  3. Bronchitis

Fig.1:

White dross in lumps form with high aluminium content

Fig.2: Black dross

Fig.3 Chemical composition of aluminium dross `

Mg

Al

Si

Mn

Fe

Cu

Zn

0,00

90,28

5,93

0,34

1,10

1,82

0,53

It is is envisaged that the process of recovery of useful metallic and non metallic residue will add to the cost of operation and will demand the application of a new technology of an existing one which may not be without a cost.However the conversion of the dross to refactory material will add value to the dross and convert waste to usable form.

PEOPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Cement

OPC 53 Grade cement is required to conform to BIS specification IS:12269-1987 with a designed strength for 28 days being a minimum of 53 MPa or 530 kg/sqcm.53 Grade OPC provides high strength and durability to structures because of its optimum particle size distribution and superior crystallized structure. Being a high strength cement, it provides numerous advantages wherever concrete for special high strength application is required, such as in the construction of skyscrapers, bridges, flyovers, chimneys, runways, concrete roads and other heavy load bearing structures. Not only is this grade of cement stronger than other grades / types, it is also more durable. Further, by substituting lower grade cement with OPC 53, overall

savings can be obtained through reduced quantity of cement that would be required to be used.

      1. Aggregates

        1. Coarse Aggregates

          Aggregates which are greater than 4.75 mm and retained in 4.75 mm I.S. sieve is considered as coarse aggregates. In the present study locally available crushed stone aggregate of size 20 mm and 10 mm has been used. The aggregates have been tested as per IS: 2386-1963(Part – 1&3) IS: 383-2016. Physical properties of coarse aggregate are tabulated below in Table.

          Physical properties of coarse aggregate of 10mm are tabulated below in Table 1 – (A & B)

          Sr. no

          Name of the test

          Resu lt

          Unit

          Requi rmen ts

          Test method

          1

          Specific gravity

          1.99

          IS 2386 P: 3 -1963

          2

          Water absorption

          1.00

          %

          IS 2386 P: 3 -1963

          3

          Dry loose Bulk density

          1.68

          Kg/l it

          IS 2386 P: 3 -1963

          4

          Aggregate Impact Value

          %

          Max 45%-

          Non- weari ng surfac e Max 30%-

          Weari ng surfac e

          IS 2386 P: 4 -1963

          5

          Aggregate Crushing value

          %

          Max 45%-

          Non- weari ng surfac e Max 30%-

          Weari ng surfac e

          IS 2386 P: 4 -1963

          6

          Flakiness Index (FI)

          %

          Max 40%

          (Com bine Flakin ess & Elong ation )

          IS 2386 P: 1 -1963

          7

          Elongation index (EI)

          %

          IS 2386 P: 1 -1963

          Sr. no

          Name of the test

          Resu lt

          Unit

          Requi rmen ts

          Test method

          1

          Specific gravity

          1.99

          IS 2386 P: 3 -1963

          2

          Water absorption

          1.00

          %

          IS 2386 P: 3 -1963

          3

          Dry loose Bulk density

          1.68

          Kg/l it

          IS 2386 P: 3 -1963

          4

          Aggregate Impact Value

          %

          Max 45%-

          Non- weari ng surfac e Max 30%-

          Weari ng surfac e

          IS 2386 P: 4 -1963

          5

          Aggregate Crushing value

          %

          Max 45%-

          Non- weari ng surfac e Max 30%-

          Weari ng surfac e

          IS 2386 P: 4 -1963

          6

          Flakiness Index (FI)

          %

          Max 40%

          (Com bine Flakin ess & Elong ation )

          IS 2386 P: 1 -1963

          7

          Elongation index (EI)

          %

          IS 2386 P: 1 -1963

          Table 1 (A) – Physical Properties of Coarse Aggregate (10mm)

          Sr. no

          Seive Size mm

          Percent passing

          %

          Percentage passing as per IS -383 : 2016

          10 mm

          12.5 mm

          20 mm

          20

          mm

          Single size

          Single size

          Single size

          Grade

          1

          40

          100

          100

          2

          25

          3

          20

          85-100

          90-

          100

          4

          16

          100

          5

          12.5

          100

          85-100

          6

          10

          85-80

          0-45

          0-20

          25-55

          7

          4.75

          0-20

          0-10

          0-5

          0-10

          8

          2.36

          0-5

          Sr. no

          Seive Size mm

          Percent passing

          %

          Percentage passing as per IS -383 : 2016

          10 mm

          12.5 mm

          20 mm

          20

          mm

          Single size

          Single size

          Single size

          Grade

          1

          40

          100

          100

          2

          25

          3

          20

          85-100

          90-

          100

          4

          16

          100

          5

          12.5

          100

          85-100

          6

          10

          85-80

          0-45

          0-20

          25-55

          7

          4.75

          0-20

          0-10

          0-5

          0-10

          8

          2.36

          0-5

          Table 1 (B) – Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate (10mm)

          Physical properties of coarse aggregate of 20mm are tabulated below in Table 2 – (A&B)

          Table 2 (A) – Physical Properties of Coarse Aggregate (20mm)

          Sr

          . N

          o

          Name Of The Test

          Resu lt

          Unit

          Requirements

          Test Method

          1

          Specific gravity

          2.02

          IS2386 P: 3

          -1963

          2

          Water Absorption

          0.43

          %

          IS2386 P: 3

          -1963

          3

          Dry Loose Bulk Density (DLBO)

          1.66

          Kg/li t

          IS2386 P: 3

          -1963

          4

          Aggregate Impact Value

          %

          Max 45%-Non- wearing surface Max 30%-wearing

          surface

          IS2386 P: 4

          -1963

          5

          Aggregate crushing value

          %

          Max 45%-Non- wearing surface Max 30%-wearing

          surface

          IS2386 P: 4

          -1963

          6

          Flakiness index

          %

          Max 40% (Combine Flakiness & Elongation )

          IS2386 P: 1

          -1963

          7

          Elongation index

          %

          IS2386 P: 1

          -1963

          Table 2 (B) – Sieve Analysis Of Coarse Aggregate (20mm)

          Sr.no

          Sieve Size

          Percen t Passin g

          Percentage Passing as per IS 383

          : 2016

          10mm

          12.5m

          m

          20mm

          20mm

          mm

          %

          Single Size

          Singl es Size

          Single Size

          Single Size

          1

          40

          100

          100

          2

          25

          3

          20

          85-100

          90-100

          4

          16

          100

          5

          12.5

          100

          85-

          100

          6

          10

          85-100

          0-45

          0-20

          25-55

          7

          4.75

          0-20

          0-10

          0-5

          0-10

          8

          2.36

          0-5

          Fine Aggregates

          1. Crushed Sand

Aggregate most of which passes through 4.75 mm IS sieve is known as fine aggregate. Fine aggregate shall consist of natural sand, crushed stone sand. It shall be hard, durable, chemically inert, cleaned free from adherent coatings, organic matter etc. and shall not contain any appreciable amount of clay balls or pellets and harmful impurities e.g. iron pyrites, alkalies, salts, coal, similar laminated materials in such form or in such quantities as to cause corrosion of metal or affect adversely the hardening, the strength, the durability or the appearance of mortar, plaster or concrete. The sum of the percentages of all deleterious material shall not exceed 5%. Fine aggregate must be checked for organic impurities such as decayed vegetation humps, coal dust etc.

Table 3 (A) – Physical Properties Of Crushed Sand

Table 3 (B) – Sieve Analysis Of Crushed Sand

Sr. no

Siev e Size (m

m)

Perce nt Passin g

(%)

Percentage Passing as per IS 383 : 2016

Gradin g zone I

Grading zone II

Gradin g zone III

Grading zone IV

1

10

100

100

100

100

2

4.75

90-100

90-100

90-100

95-100

p>3

2.36

60-95

75-100

85-100

95-100

4

1.18

30-70

55-90

75-100

90-100

5

600

u

15-34

35-59

60-79

80-100

6

300

u

5-20

8-30

12-40

15-50

7

150

u

0-10

0-10

0-10

0-15

Aluminium Dross

Aluminium dross is a by-product of aluminium production. It represents a residue from primary and secondary aluminium production. Today much energy is consumed to recover the aluminium from dross, energy could be saved if the dross was diverted and utilized as an engineering material. There are two forms of aluminium white dross and black dross. White dross is formed during the primary aluminium process while black dross is formed during the secondary refining process, which uses relatively large amounts of chloride salt fixes. Subsequently the dross is processed in rotary to recover the aluminium and the resultant salt cake is sent to landfill.

There is much merit if the aluminium dross that is formed could be used as an engineering product for specific applications. The driving force to use an industrial waste such as aluminium dross and to use it as an engineering material is not only an issue environmental, but also an economic one.

Sr

.

no

Name of test

Result

Unit

Requirements

Test Method

1

Specific gravity

2.64

IS 2386 P:3 – 1963

2

Water Absorption

3.12

%

IS 2386 P:3 – 1963

3

Dry Loose Bulk Density

1.91

Kg/lit

IS 2386 P:3 – 1963

4

Bulking

%

IS 2386 P:3-1963

5

Fineness Modulus

IS 2386 P:1 – 1963

7

Matreial finer than 75

%

Max 3%- uncrushed (Natural) Max 15%-

Crushed

IS 2386 P:1 – 1963

Sr

.

no

Name of test

Result

Unit

Requirements

Test Method

1

Specific gravity

2.64

IS 2386 P:3 – 1963

2

Water Absorption

3.12

%

IS 2386 P:3 – 1963

3

Dry Loose Bulk Density

1.91

Kg/lit

IS 2386 P:3 – 1963

4

Bulking

%

IS 2386 P:3-1963

5

Fineness Modulus

IS 2386 P:1 – 1963

7

Matreial finer than 75

%

Max 3%- uncrushed (Natural) Max 15%-

Crushed

IS 2386 P:1 – 1963

Table 4 – Chemical Properties Of Aluminium Dross

Element

Composition n%

SiO2

7.1

CaO

20.94

Na2O

0.36

Al2O3

63.84

Fe2O3

0.32

MgO

0.45

MnO

0.73

MIX PROPORTION

Cement = 350 kg.

Fine aggregate = 896 kg.

Chemical admixture = 7 kg.

Water cement ratio = 0.4

C : FA : CA = 1 : 2.56 : 3.26

CONCLUSION

Diverse modern waste materials are utilized as fractional substitution of cement at various levels delivered concrete with high quality and satisfactory supporting review concrete. Curing conditions accepted in this examination delivered critical changes in the properties of cements particularly those containing diverse substitution levels.

The compressive test of concrete reductions with expanding aluminum dross content when differ with the conventional cement. High volume aluminum dross substitution isn't proper on account of its high water absorption limit. Curing impact on the quality pick up of aluminum dross included cement concern to be additionally considered.

REFERENCES

  1. Assis.Prof.B.Lucheva, Assoc.Prof .Dr. R.Petkov and Assis.Prof.Tz.Tzonev, Method For Aluminum Dross Utilization. BMC-2003-Ohrid, R. Macedonia

  2. R. Vijayalakshmi 1, R.Rajeswari 2 Characteristic Study On Behavior Of Lightweight Conrete Using Aluminium Dross And Aluminium Powder. P-Issn: 2395-0072 Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018

  3. E.M.M. Ewais a,*, N.M. Khalil b, M.S. Amin c, Y.M.Z. Ahmed a, M.A. Barakat d Utilization of aluminum sludge and aluminum slag (dross) for the manufacture of calcium aluminate cement. Ceramics International 35 (2009) 33813388 Concrete mix proportioning as per IS 10262:2009.

  4. M.C. Shinzato *, R. Hypolito, Solid waste from aluminum recycling process: characterization and reuse of its economically valuable constituents. Waste Management 25 (2005) 3746.

  5. F. Puertas*, M.T. Blanco-Varela, T. Vazquez, Behavior of cement mortars containing an industrial waste from aluminium refining Stability in Ca(OH) solutions. Cement and Concrete Research 29 (1999) 16731680.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *