 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 19
 Authors : Dr. Sandeep Mathur , Dr. Anjali Mathur , Nitesh Agarwal
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV3IS23012
 Volume & Issue : NCETRASECT – 2015 (Volume 3 – Issue 23)
 Published (First Online): 24042018
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
An Analysis of Variation in Lossless Image Compression using FMM & Threshold Value 10
Dr. Sandeep Mathur1
Department of Mathematics
Jodhpur Institute of Engineering & Technology
Jodhpur, India
Dr. Anjali Mathur2
Department of Mathematics
Jodhpur Institute of Engineering & Technology
Jodhpur, India
Abstract A digital image store its color information in digits format in digital devices. This information store in pixel matrix. Image compression process reduce required storage size of image

r. t to digital device or communication system. Image compression process use two technique to compress image lossless image compression & lossy image compression. Images that provide numerical, secure & financial information compressed using lossless image compression because we required original data back after decompression process. Lossless image compression uses some entropy encoding techniques like RLE, Huffman encoding, LZW encoding etc. Present papers deals with lossless image compression using RLE as entropy encoding, & compare this lossless image compression with some modification by FMM (Five Module Method) & by Threshold value 10. RLE give best compression ratio when image pixel matrix has repeated sequence of pixels. To make repeated sequence in pixel matrix in this paper two method used FMM & TH=10. These method modify pixel original matrix & make repeated sequence in this matrix before RLE to get a good compression ratio.
Key Words: FMM, RLE, MSE, PSNR, TH=10.

INTRODUCTION
There are numerous applications of image processing, such as satellite imaging, medical imaging and video where the image size or image stream size is too large and require a large amount of storage space or high bandwidth for communication in its original form. Every storage device & communication bandwidth cannot satisfy this requirement hence image compression techniques are used in such type of applications where image size is too large to store in digital device & too large for communication purpose. Image compression plays a very important role in application like televideoconferencing, remote sensing, document & medical imaging and facsimile transmission, which depends on the efficient manipulation, storage & transmission of binary, gray scale or color images.
Nitesh Agarwal3
Department of Computer Science Jodhpur Institute of Engineering & Technology
Jodhpur, India
Image compression techniques can be classified into two categories lossless image compression & lossy image compression. Images that provide numerical, Secure & financial information compressed using lossless image compression because we required original data back after decompression process. But other images like multimedia images can be compressed using lossy image compression because the human eye is very tolerant of approximation error in an image. Hence we may decide to exploit this tolerance to produce increased compression, at the expense of image quality by reducing some pixel data or information. Lossless image compression use some entropy encoding techniques like Run Length Encoding (RLE), Huffman Encoding, LZW (Lempel Ziv Welch) Encoding, and Area Encoding. This paper deals with RLE as a entropy encoding in lossless image compression. RLE entropy encoding give good compression ratio when image have repeated pixel value sequentially but all the image not have such type of repeated pattern hence present paper use FMM (Five Module Method) & Threshold value before RLE to make repeated sequence.

Lossless Image Compression
In lossless compression, every single bit of data that was
originally in the file remains after the file is uncompressed. All of the information is completely restored. This is generally the technique of choice for text or spreadsheet files, where losing words or financial data could pose a problem. Process of lossless image compression is shown in fig 1 [11].
Image
Entropy Encoding
Image
Entropy Encoding
Channel
Image
Image
Entropy Decoding
Fig 1: Lossless Image Compression Process

Five Module Method (FMM)
In most of images, there is a common feature which is the
After the FMM pixel matrix contain a good no of repeated pixel as shown in table 2. This repeated pixel helps the RLE to compress pixel matrix.
RLE
RLE
neighboring pixels are correlated. Therefore, finding a less correlated representation of image is one of the most important tasks. One of the basic concepts in compression is the reduction of redundancy and Irrelevancy. This can be done by removing duplication from the image. Sometime, Human Visual System (HVS) cannot notice some parts of the signal,
i.e. omitting these parts will not be noticed by the receiver. This is called as Irrelevancy. FMM read each pixel value row by row & divide each pixel value by 5 & add or subtract the reminder from original pixel to get repeated pixel values. The basic idea in FMM is to check the whole pixels metrics and transform each pixel into a number divisible by 5 according to the following conditions.
Image
FMM
Image with Some Pixel modification
Image with Some Pixel modification
Fig 2: Image Compression Using
FMM FMM algorithm
Inverse RLE
Inverse RLE
Channel
if A(i,j) Mod 5 = 4 A(i,j)=A(i,j)+1
else if A(i,j) Mod 5 = 3
A(i,j)=A(i,j)+2
else if A(i,j) Mod 5 = 2
A(i,j)=A(i,j)2
else if A(i,j) Mod 5 = 1
A(i,j)=A(i,j)1
For ex.
Input: Pixel matrix of input image. Output: Transformed Pixel Matrix.
{ w = width of pixel matrix; h
= height of pixel matrix;
pixel[h][w] = pixel matrix of original image; for(i=0; i<h; i++)
{ for(j=0; j<w; j++)
{ if pixel(i,j) Mod 5 = 4 pixel(i,j)=pixel(i,j)+1
else if pixel(i,j) Mod 5 = 3
pixel(i,j)=pixel(i,j)+2 else if pixel(i,j) Mod 5 = 2
pixel(i,j)=pixel(i,j)2 else if pixel(i,j) Mod 5 = 1
pixel(i,j)=pixel(i,j)1
121
122
122
123
124
125
105
110
130
132
132
131
134
135
133
220
221
222
222
223
224
225
205
300
425
426
427
500
501
502
501
905
521
522
522
523
524
525
555
660
630
632
632
631
634
635
633
633
851
852
852
963
964
965
205
300
425
426
427
500
501
502
501
905
121
122
122
123
124
125
105
110
130
132
132
131
134
135
133
220
221
222
222
223
224
225
205
300
425
426
427
500
501
502
501
905
521
522
522
523
524
525
555
660
630
632
632
631
634
635
633
633
851
852
852
963
964
965
205
300
425
426
427
500
501
502
501
905
Table 1: Input Pixel matrix
Table 1 shows a 2D pixel matrix but this matrix cannot be compressed using RLE because pixel value not repeated sequentially. FMM method convert this matrix so that it can be compressed using RLE
120
120
120
125
125
125
105
110
130
130
130
130
135
135
135
220
220
220
220
225
225
225
205
300
425
425
425
500
500
500
500
905
520
520
520
525
525
525
555
660
630
630
630
630
635
635
635
635
850
850
850
965
965
965
205
300
425
425
425
500
500
500
500
905
Table 2: Transformed Pixel matrix
}
}
}[5].

TH (Threshold) value Method
TH value method take pixel value from 2D pixel matrix row by row. TH value method uses two node 1st node store the 1st pixel & 2nd node move forward row by row in pixel matrix. TH value method take pixel difference between pixel value store in these two node & repeat the pixel value store in node 1 until difference between these two nodes are not greater than threshold value 10. Once a difference greater than 10 occurs node 1 store that pixel & node 2 traverse pixel one by one from neighboring pixel of pixel store in node 1 & same process is follow until complete pixel matrix not traversed. For example
201
200
205
210
301
300
305
310
406
404
407
406
506
504
507
506
602
601
600
602
702
701
700
702
828
829
830
832
928
929
930
932
301
305
302
303
105
104
100
102
655
654
653
650
651
652
657
658
702
705
704
702
701
801
805
809
105
105
105
105
105
106
112
111
Table 3: Pixel matrix of input image
Pixel Value
Repetition
Pixel Value
Repetition
Pixel Value
Repetition
120
3
205
1
630
4
125
3
300
1
635
4
105
1
425
3
850
3
110
1
500
4
965
3
130
4
905
1
205
1
135
3
520
3
300
1
220
1
525
3
425
3
220
3
555
1
500
4
225
3
660
1
905
1
Pixel Value
Repetition
Pixel Value
Repetition
Pixel Value
Repetition
120
3
205
1
630
4
125
3
300
1
635
4
105
1
425
3
850
3
110
1
500
4
965
3
130
4
905
1
205
1
135
3
520
3
300
1
220
1
525
3
425
3
220
3
555
1
500
4
225
3
660
1
905
1
Table 3 metrics cannot be compressed by RLE
201
201
201
201
301
301
301
301
406
406
406
406
506
506
506
506
602
602
602
602
702
702
702
702
828
828
828
828
928
928
928
928
301
301
301
301
105
10
105
105
655
655
655
655
655
655
655
655
702
702
702
702
702
801
801
801
105
105
105
105
105
105
112
112
Table 4: Pixel matrix of After TH value = 10
After the TH value method pixel matrix contain a good no of repeated pixel as shown in table 2. This repeated pixel helps the RLE to compress pixel matrix.
Image TH value=10 RLE Channel
Image with Some Pixel modification Inverse
Table 5: Compressed Data after RLE for Table 2
Table 5 required less storage space as compare to table 1. Table 1 require total 64 values to store but table 3 require only 54 values to store [5].
Pixel Value
Repetition
Pixel Value
Repetition
201
4
301
4
301
4
105
4
406
4
655
8
506
4
702
5
602
4
801
3
702
4
105
6
828
4
112
2
928
4
Pixel Value
Repetition
Pixel Value
Repetition
201
4
301
4
301
4
105
4
406
4
655
8
506
4
702
5
602
4
801
3
702
4
105
6
828
4
112
2
928
4
Compression Ratio (CR) = 64/54 = 1.19 Table 4 by RLE compressed as
RLE
Fig 3: Image Compression Using TH value=10
TH value = 10 algorithm
Input: Pixel matrix of input image. Output: Modified Pixel Matrix.
{ w = width of pixel matrix; h = height of pixel matrix;
pixel[h][w] = pixel matrix of original image; for(i=0; i<h; i++)
{ j=0;
tmp=pixel[i][j]; for(j=0; j<w; j++)
{ if( (difference between tmp & pixel[i][j]) > 10 ) pixel[i][j] = tmp;
else tmp=pixel[i][j];
}}} [1].
THV method used in such type of image where modifying some pixel data does not cause any big problem.
1.1.2 RLE (Run Length Encoding)
This is a very simple compression technique method used for compressing sequential data. Many digital image consist pixel values that are repeats sequentially for such type of image RLE is useful. In TH value method, & in FMM RLE receive sequential data from pixel matrix modified by TH value method & FMM, & store pixel value that repeats & no of time that pixel value repeat sequentially. For example table 2 by RLE compressed as
Table 6: Compressed Data after RLE for Table 4
Table 6 required less storage space as compare to table 3. Table 3 require total 64 values to store but table 6 require only 30 values to store [5].
Compression Ratio (CR) = 64/30 = 2.13


MAIN RESULTS & OUTPUTS

Implementation of lossless Image Compression using RLE Steps involved in this implementation

Create pixel matrix of the image.

Use RLE as entropy encoding on pixel matrix

Store matrix obtain by RLE method in to secondary storage.

To get required image read encoded matrix from secondary storage & apply entropy decoding (Run Length Decoding) on that encoded matrix.

Using this decoded matrix make pixel matrix & then using this pixel matrix to obtain required image.

Now find Compression Ratio by following formula
CR 1
CR 1
Original Im age size Output Im age size
Input image
Compressed size
CR
Size=768 KB Lena.bmp
552
7.46
Size=768 KB Baboon.bmp
624
3.44
Size=768 KB Zelda.bmp
504
7.46
Size=768 KB House.bmp
344
10.68
Size=768 KB Pappers_grey.bmp
424
7.46
Input image
Compressed size
CR
Size=768 KB Lena.bmp
552
7.46
Size=768 KB Baboon.bmp
624
3.44
Size=768 KB Zelda.bmp
504
7.46
Size=768 KB House.bmp
344
10.68
Size=768 KB Pappers_grey.bmp
424
7.46


Implementation of Image Compression using FMM & RLE
Steps involved in this implementation

Create pixel matrix of the image.

Apply FMM method on pixel matrix & apply FMM algorithm.

Use RLE as entropy encoding on pixel matrix obtain from FMM algorithm.

Store matrix obtain by RLE method in to secondary storage.

To get required image read encoded matrix from secondary storage & apply entropy decoding (Run Length Decoding) on that encoded matrix.

Using this decoded matrix make pixel matrix & then using this pixel matrix make required image.
1 H 1 W 1
1 H 1 W 1

Now we Find MSE (Mean Squared Error), PSNR (Peak Signal To Noise Ratio) & CR (Compression Ration) to determine quality of image obtain by proposed method [5] –
MSE
[O(x, y)M (x, y)]2 2
H * W x 0 y 0
PSNR=20*log10 (MAX) – 10*log10 (MSE) (3)
CR can be calculated using eq. (1).
Where H=Height of Image, W= Width of Image, variable MAX shows max value of a pixel for example here image is 8 bit hence MAX=255,


Implementation of Image Compression using TH value = 10 & RLE
Steps involved in this implementation

Create pixel matrix of the image.

Apply TH value =10 method on pixel matrix & apply TH value = 10 algorithm.

Use RLE as entropy encoding on pixel matrix obtain from TH value = 10 algorithm.

Store matrix obtain by RLE method in to secondary storage.

To get required image read encoded matrix from secondary storage & apply entropy decoding (Run Length Decoding) on that encoded matrix.

Using this decoded matrix make pixel matrix & then using this pixel matrix make required image.

Now we Find MSE (Mean Squared Error), PSNR (Peak Signal To Noise Ratio) & CR (Compression Ration) to determine quality of image obtain by proposed method by eq. (2), (3) & (1) respectively.


Outputs

Lossless image compression with RLE only
Lossless Image Compression
Uncompressed Compressed ImageImage Size=768 KB Size=343 KB
Fig 4: Lossless Image compression using RLE
Table 7: Compression Ratio

Image Compression Using FMM & RLE
Input image
Compressed image
MSE
PSNR
CR
Size=768 KB Lena.bmp
Size=296 KB
5.99
40.36
2.59
Size=768 KB Baboon.bmp
Size=432 KB
5.99
40.36
1.78
Size=768 KB Zelda.bmp
Size=280 KB
5.99
40.36
2.74
Size=768 KB House.bmp
Size=176 KB
4.49
41.60
4.36
Size=768 KB Pappers_grey. bmp
Size=296 KB
5.83
40.47
2.59
Table 8: MSE, PSNR & CR value of image after FMM &
RLE

Image Compression Using TH value=10 & RLE
Input image
Compressed image
MSE
PSNR
CR
Size=768 KB Lena.bmp
Size=87.9 KB
20.95
34.92
8.73
Size=768 KB Baboon.bmp
Size=319 KB
15.31
36.28
2.41
Size=768 KB Zelda.bmp
Size=71.9 KB
22.61
34.56
10.68
Size=768 KB House.bmp
Size=63.9 KB
16.56
35.94
12.01
Size=768 KB Pappers_grey. bmp
Size=135 KB
21.05
34.90
5.69
Table 9: MSE, PSNR & CR value of image after TH value = 10 & RLE


CONCLUSION The result presented in this document shows that


The results shows that RLE gives compressed image
without any pixel loss but compression ratio of RLE is not good w.r.t FMM & TH value = 10 .

FMM give good compression ratio than RLE but its compression ratio not god w.r.t. TH value = 10.

By comparing Table 7, Table 8 & Table 9 it is clear TH value = 10 gives best compression ratio.

By comparing Table 7, Table 8 & Table 9 it is clear FMM gives best quality of compressed image because it gives least MSE & high PSNR but CR value less than TH value=10 method. Hence with respect to quality order of best method is RLE > FMM > TH value = 10 & with respect to CR the order of best method is TH value = 10 > FMM > RLE.

Both method can be used in lossy image compression before entropy encoding technique.
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