Agricultural Waste Materials as Potential Adsorbent for Treating Industrial Wastewater

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  • Authors : N. Balasubramaniam, A. Gokul, M. Kothapeta Anand, V. Nishanth, M. Saravanan
  • Paper ID : IJERTCONV7IS06059
  • Volume & Issue : ETEDM
  • Published (First Online): 18-05-2019
  • ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
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Agricultural Waste Materials as Potential Adsorbent for Treating Industrial Wastewater

1

N. Balasubramaniam

2

A. Gokul, 2M. Kothapeta Anand, 2V. Nishanth, 2M. Saravanan,

1

Assistant Professor,

2PG Students, Department of civil Engineering , Nandha College of Technology, Erode-638052, Anna university,

Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract:- The textile industry generates huge amounts of wastewater which must be treated effectively in a bid to prevent water scarcity through re-use. In this chapter, the use of bio adsorbents from agricultural waste which included corn stalks, SbaggaSe and saw dust were used as bio adsorption carriers for textile water.

Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

Keywords: Agro waste, bio adsorbents

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Dyes are widely used in industries such as textiles, rubber, plastics, printing, leather, cosmetics, etc., to color their products. As a result, they generate a considerable amount of colored wastewater. There are more than 10,000 commercially available dyes with over 791000 tonnes of dye stuff produced annually.Among various industries, textile industry ranks first in usage of dyes for coloration of fiber. The total dye consumption of the textile industry worldwide is in excess of 107 kg/year and an estimated 90 % of this ends up on fabrics. Consequently, 1,000 tones/year or more of dyes are discharged into waste streams by the textile industry worldwide (Marc1996).Discharge of dye-bearing wastewater into natural streams and rivers poses severe problems to the aquatic life, food web and causes damage to the aesthetic nature of the environment. Hence, these pose a serious threat to human health and water quality, thereby becoming a matter of vital concern.

    Agricultural waste materials have little or no economic value and often pose a disposal problem. The

    utilization of agricultural waste is of great significance (Geopaul1980). A number of agricultural waste materials are being studied for the removal of different dyes from aqueous solutions at different operating conditions. Agricultural waste includes curcuma longa leaves powder (Namasivayam and Kavitha2002), Saccharum Officinarum leaves (Rajeswari et al. 2001), Cocos Lucifer shell (omatayo sarafadeen amuda et al. 2006), rice husk (Malik 2003), straw (Kannan and Sundaram2001), Saw dust (Banat et al. 2003a), oil palm trunk fiber (Hameed and El-Khaiary2008a), durian (Durio zibethinusMurray) peel (Hameed and Hakimi2008), guava (Psidium guajava) leaf powder (Ponnusami et al. 2008), almond shell (Ardejani et al. 2008), pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel (Hameed et al. 2008a), broad bean peel (Hameed and El-Khaiary 2008b), peanut hull (Tanyildizi 2011),Citrullus lanatusrind (Bharathi and Ramesp012).

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW

    They reviewed that an activated carbon was developed from coconut shell fibres, characterized and used for the removal of methylene blue (basic) and methyl orange (acidic) dyes from wastewater successfully. Adsorption studies were carried out at different temperatures, particle size, pH, and adsorbent doses. It was concluded that methylene blue adsorption occurs through a film diffusion mechanism at low as well as athigher concentrations, while methyl orange adsorption occurs through film diffusion at low concentration and particle diffusion at high concentrations.

  3. MATERIAL PROPERTIES

    1. CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES POWDER

      Properties

      Values (%)

      Crude protein

      6.47

      Crude fat

      2.7

      Moisture content

      13.2

      Crude fibre

      4.80

      NFE

      69.05

      Ash

      3.49

      (Table 1. properties of curcuma longa leaves powder)

    2. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM LEAVES POWDER

      Properties

      Values (%)

      Silicon dioxide

      78.34

      Dialuminium

      8.55

      Ferric oxide

      3.61

      Calcium oxide

      2.15

      Sodium oxide

      0.12

      Potassium oxide

      3.46

      Manganese oxide

      0.13

      Titanium oxide

      0.50

      (Table 2. Properties of saccharum officinarum leaves Powder)

    3. PROPERTIES OF COCOS NUCIFERA SHELL POWDER

      Properties

      Values

      Aluminium oxide,Al2 O3

      24.12

      Calcium oxide,CaO

      4.98

      Ferric oxide,Fe2O3

      15.48

      Pottasium oxide,K2O

      0.83

      Magnesium oxide,MgO

      1.89

      Sodium oxide,Na2O

      0.95

      Silicon dioxide,SiO2

      37.97

      Manganese oxide,MnO

      0.81

      Loss of ignition

      11.94

      Phosphorous pentoxide

      0.32

      Sulpher trioxide

      0.71

      Properties

      Values

      Aluminium oxide,Al2 O3

      24.12

      Calcium oxide,CaO

      4.98

      Ferric oxide,Fe2O3

      15.48

      Pottasium oxide,K2O

      0.83

      Magnesium oxide,MgO

      1.89

      Sodium oxide,Na2O

      0.95

      Silicon dioxide,SiO2

      37.97

      Manganese oxide,MnO

      0.81

      Loss of ignition

      11.94

      Phosphorous pentoxide

      0.32

      Sulpher trioxide

      0.71

      (Table 3. Properties of cocos nucifera shell powder)

    4. PROPERTIES OF RICE HUSK POWDER

      Properties

      Values

      Aluminum oxideAl2O3

      0.36

      Calcium oxide, CaO

      0.74

      Ferric oxide,Fe2O3

      0.28

      Potassium oxide,K2O

      2.51

      Magnesium oxide,MgO

      0.76

      Sodium oxide,Na2O

      0.20

      Silicon dioxide,SiO2

      84.7

      Chloride,CL

      0.18

      Phosphorous pentoxide,P2O5

      0.62

      (Table 4. Properties of rice husk powder)

    5. PROPERTIES OF SAW DUST POWDER (POWDERY WOOD WASTE)

      concentration in a solution and defined as the negative log of H+ ions concentration in water and wastewater.

      Properties

      Values (%)

      Carbon

      60.8

      Nitrogen

      0.9

      Hydrogen

      5.2

      ligin

      5-10

      Oxygen

      33.8

      Properties

      Values (%)

      Carbon

      60.8

      Nitrogen

      0.9

      Hydrogen

      5.2

      ligin

      5-10

      Oxygen

      33.8

      12 10.24

      7.54

      7.8

      7.54

      7.8

      10

      8

      6

      4

      2

      0

      pH

      DRINKING WATER

      UNTREATED WATER

      TREATED WATER

      (Table 5. Properties of saw dust powder)

  4. COMPARISONS BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF WATER

    Chart 5.1 Ph Value of Different Types of Water

      1. CHLORIDE CONTENT

        The amount of chloride present in water can be easily determined by titrating the given water sample with silver nitrate solution. The end of titration is indicated by formation of red silver chromate from excess Silver nitrate. The results are expressed in mg/l of chloride (Cl- with a molecular weight of35.453 g/mol)

        .

        S.no

        Properties

        Drinking Water

        Untreated

        Waste Water

        1

        pH

        7.54

        10.27

        2

        Conductivity (µmho)

        359

        591

        3

        Chlorides (mg/l)

        64.97

        335.97

        4

        Total Hardness (mg/l)

        710

        1210

        5

        Calcium Hardness (mg/l)

        96.1

        380.25

        6

        Total Acidity (mg/l)

        115

        350

        7

        Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg/l)

        480

        736

        S.no

        Properties

        Drinking Water

        Untreated

        Waste Water

        1

        pH

        7.54

        10.27

        2

        Conductivity (µmho)

        359

        591

        3

        Chlorides (mg/l)

        64.97

        335.97

        4

        Total Hardness (mg/l)

        710

        1210

        5

        Calcium Hardness (mg/l)

        96.1

        380.25

        6

        Total Acidity (mg/l)

        115

        350

        7

        Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg/l)

        480

        736

        400

        300

        200

        100

        0

        64.97

        335.97

        160

        DRINKING WATER

        UNTREATED WATER

        TREATED WATER

        Chlorides (mg/l)

        .

        Chart 5.2 Chlorides Value of Different Types of Water

        (Table 6. Types of water and properties)

  5. RESULT

The various tests are conducted for treated industrial water. They are,

    1. CONDUCTIVITY

      . Conductivity (G), the inverse of resistivity (R) is determined from the voltage and current values according to Ohms law. i.e., R=V/I then, G=1/R=I/V. The meter converts the probe measurement to micro mhos per centimetre and displays the result for the user.

      800

      1. Ph

      2. Conductivity

      3. Chloride content measurement

      4. Total acidity

      5. Calcium hardness

      6. COD

600

400

200

0

359

591

370

DRINKING WATER

UNTREATED WATER

TREATED WATER

5.1. pH

The term pH refers to the measure of hydrogen ion

Conductivity (mg/l)

Chart 5.3 Conductivity Value of Different Types of Water

5.4. TOTAL HARDNESS

The hardness of good quality water should not exceed 250mg/l measured as calcium carbonate equivalents. Waters softer than 30 to 50 mg/l may be corrosive to piping depending on pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen.

5.7. COD

COD determines the quantity of oxygen required to oxidize the organic matter in water or waste water sample, under specific conditions of oxidizing agent, temperature, and time.

1500

1000

500

0

710

1210

856

DRINKING WATER

UNTREATED WATER

TREATED WATER

800

600

400

200

0

736

616

480

DRINKING WATER

UNTREATED WATER

TREATED WATER

Total Hardness (mg/l) COD (mg/l)

Chart 5.4 Total Hardness Value of Different Types of Water

5.5. CALCIUM HARDNESS

Chart 5.7 COD Value of Different Types of Water

6.CONCLUSION

Application of agricultural waste bio adsorbents in

400

300

200

100

0

380.25

154

96.1

DRINKING WATER

UNTREATED WATER

TREATED WATER

textile wastewater treatment presents an alternative, cheap and easy technology. As from the above results, the coconut shell powder is one of the best Agro waste among all other Agro waste used which reduces the concentration to a maximum of 480mg/l with a addition of 20g of Agro waste at the end of treatment period of 9 days. It is also clear that increase in the addition of Agro waste 20g decreases the concentration of waste water.

Calcium Hardness (mg/l)

Chart 5.5 Calcium Hardness Value of Different Types of Water

5.6. TOTAL ACIDITY

The volume of standard alkali required to titrate a specific volume of the sample to pH 8.3 is called phenolphthalein acidity (Total Acidity). The volume of standard alkali required to titrate a specific volume of the water sample (wastewater and highly polluted water) to pH 3.7 is called methyl orange acidity (Mineral Acidity).

REFERENCE

  1. Abhishek Niranjan, Shweta Singh, Manjul Dhiman & S. K.Tewari (2013),Biochemical Composition of Curcuma Longa L. Accessions,46:7, 1069-1083.

  2. Adrianus van Haandel, Mario T. Kato, Paula F. F. Cavalcanti1 & Lourdinha Florencio (2006), Anaerobic reactor design concepts for the treatment of domestic wastewater, Environmental Science and Bio/Technology (2006) 5:2138.

  3. Amit Bhatnagara, Mika Sillanpaab (2010), Utilization of Agro-Industrial and Municipal Waste Materials as Potential Adsorbents for Water Treatment, Chemical Engineering Journal 157

    (2010) 277296.

    400

    300

    200

    100

    0

    350

    252

    115

    DRINKING WATER

    UNTREATED WATER

    TREATED WATER

  4. Anthony F. Stricklandand Warren S. Perkins (1995), Decolourization of Continuous Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation, May 1995Nol. 27, No. 5.

  5. Manu B and Sanjeev Chaudhari (2001), Anaerobic decolourization of simulated textile wastewater contains Azo dyes, Bio resurce technology 82

    Total Acidity (mg/l)

    Chart 5.6 Total Acidity Value of Different Types of

    (2002) 225-231.

    Water

  6. Pearce C.I, Lloyd J.R, Guthrie J.T(2003), The removal of colour from textile wastewater using whole bacterial cells,Dyes and Pigments 58 (2003) 179196.

  7. Rajkumar D, Jong Guk Kim (2006), Oxidation of Various Reactive Dyes With in Situ Electro- Generated Active Chlorine for Textile Dyeing Industry Wastewater Treatment, Journal of Hazardous Materials B136 (2006) 203212.

  8. Daniela Suteu, Carmen Zaharia1, Augustin Muresan, Rodica Muresan, Alina Popescu (2009), Using Of Industrial Waste Materials for Textile Wastewater Treatment, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal September/October 2009, Vol. 8, No.5, 1097- 1102.

  9. Guohua Chen (2003), Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment, Separation and Purification Technology 38 (2004) 1141.

  10. Jinping Jia, Ji Yang, Jun Lia, Wenghua Wang and Zijian Wang (1998) Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater With ACF Electrodes, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 881±884.

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