 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 2824
 Authors : Jayanna Kanchikere
 Paper ID : IJERTV1IS9213
 Volume & Issue : Volume 01, Issue 09 (November 2012)
 Published (First Online): 29112012
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Aerodynamic Factors Affecting Wind Turbine Power Generation
Jayanna Kanchikere*
* Lecturer in Electrical Section, Higher College of Technology, PB 74, PC 133, Muscat, Sultanate of OMAN.
Abstract
The potential of wind energy in this power starved county is the brightest one among all others, owing to its free availability even at various remote places. In this paper, a matlab model is developed to study the aerodynamic factors that affect the wind turbine power generation and this simulink model is valid for wide range of wind turbines. It is tested for vestas Type V27, V39 and V52 wind turbines. The study observes that the operational parameters has a direct effect on the generated power which will lead the designer to focus on priority factor that should be considered for optimizing the new generation wind turbines.
Keywords: wind Energy; wind turbine; Aerodynamic factors; Gearbox.

Introduction
For all renewable energy sources in India, Wind Electric Generation (WEG) is the largest in terms of installed capacity. India holds a wind energy potential of more than 45000MW, out of which 14000MW is technically feasible now but India secures fourth position globally with a capacity of 8698MW(2007 08). Poor performance of WEGs installed will have serious negative impact on new developments.
Wind turbines are classified on the basis of their axis in which the turbine rotates into horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines are considered more commonly because of their ability to collect maximum amount of wind energy for the particular time of day and season. Wind turbines coupled with generators convert wind energy to electrical energy. All vestas RRB turbines are equipped with microprocessorcontrolled optimal pitch regulation ensuring continuous and optimal adjustment of the angles of the blades in relation to the prevailing wind, thus generating maximum power. The energy conversion for modern wind turbines will be of fixed speed & variable speed. In Fixed speed machines, the generator is directly connected to the main supply grid. The frequency of the grid determines the rotational speed of the turbine rotor, which in turn is converted into the generator rotational speed through gear box. The generator speed depends on the number of pole pairs and the frequency of the grid. In variable speed machines the generator is connected to the grid by an electronic inverting system or the generator excitation windings are fed by an external frequency from an inverter. The rotor will operate with variable speed adjusted to the actual wind speed situation.

Proposed mathematical model
The wind turbine component rotor consists of blades for converting wind energy to an intermediate low speed rotational energy. The generator component consists of electric generator, control electronics & gear box for converting the low speed rotational energy to electrical energy.

Wind stream Power
The kinetic energy in air of an object of mass m moving with speed is equal to:
E = Â½ m 2 (1)
The power in the moving air (assuming constant wind velocity) is equal to:
Pwind = dE / dt = Â½ m v2 (2)
Where m is the mass flow rate per second. When the air passes across an area A (e.g. the area swept by the rotor blades), the power in the air can be calculated as( Mukund, R. 1999)
Pwind = Â½ Av3 (3)
Where is the air density. Air density varies with air pressure and temperature in accordance with the gas law:
= P/ RT (4)
Where, Density of air in kg/m3 T Temperature
R gas constant
The pressure and temperature varies with the wind turbine location. Some publishers give formula for air density as a function of the turbine elevation above sea level H:
= 0 1.194 x 10 4 H (5)
Where 0 = 1.225 kg/m3 is the air density at sea level at temperature T = 288 K.

Mechanical Power Extracted from the Wind
The air energy cannot be transferred into mechanical energy with 100% conversion efficiency by any energy converter. The power extracted from the air stream by any energy converter will be less than the wind power Pwind also because the power achieved by the energy converter Pww can be computed as the difference between the power in the moving air before and after the converter.
The extracted mechanical power from the air stream by the energy converter is equal to: Pww = Cp Pwind = Cp Â½ Av3 = 16/27. Pwind (6)
Where the coefficient Cp < 1; Actual maximum power coefficients can be between 0.15 to 0.593 for different rotor designs & is defining as the ratio of the mechanical power extracted by the converter to the power in the air stream is called the power coefficient (Betzs factor.). The coefficient is equal to Cp = Pww
/ Pwind.
The power coefficient of real converters Cp achieves lower values than that computed above because of various aerodynamic losses that depend on the rotor construction. The rotor power coefficient is usually given as a function of two parameters: the tipspeed ratio and the blade pitch angle . The blade pitch angle is defined as the angle between the plane of rotation and the blade crosssection chord and the tip speed ratio is defined as
= u / v = R / v (7)
Where u = tangential velocity of blade tip
= angular velocity of rotor R = rotor radius
Summing up the above, it can be seen that the mechanical power Pww extracted from the wind converter and the torque ww for the given rotor and for the given wind velocity v, rotor angular velocity and the blade pitch angle can be computed as
Pww = Cp (, ) Pwind = Cp (, ) Â½ Av3 (8)
ww = Pww / = C (, ) Â½ Av2 R (9)
The rotor power and torque coefficients in these models can be utilized in the form of lookup tables or in the form of a function. Often, for a given blade, the characteristics of the drag Cd and the lift C1 ratios as functions of the blade pitch angle are available. In such a case, the rotor power coefficient Cp can be defined as a function of these quantities. Such a function which is defined as
Cp (, ) = 16/27[1 – C1/ N] 2 [e ( C2/1.29) (Cd / C1) ] (10)
Where,
N – Number of blades,
Cd / C1 – average dragtolift ratio of blade airfoil, C1, C2 – coefficients


Proposed Simulation model
Power from a given rotor would be controlled by quantities viz. air density , turbine swept area A, air velocity v and power coefficient Cp. The Matlab/Simulink model is developed to observe how these quantities affect the generated power from wind turbine. KoÃ§ak (2008) focused entirely on wind speed persistence during weather forecast, site selection for wind turbines and synthetic generation of the wind speed data. This model is valid for wide ranges of wind turbines. It is tested for V27, V39 and V52 turbines and compared the results. The specifications of wind turbines are given in Table 1. A Matlab/simulink model is shown in Fig.1and power output curves are shown in figure 26.
Table 1. The specifications of V27, V39 & V52 wind turbines (Vestas wind systems2000)
Details
Vestas Type V27
Vestas type V39
Vestas Type V52
Rated Power output
225 KW
500 KW
850 KW
Cutin wind speed
3.5 m/s
4 m/s
4 m/s
Rated wind speed
1 m/s
15 m/s
16 m/s
Cutout wind speed
25 m/s
25 m/s
25 m/s
Rotor Diameter
27m
39m
52m
Swept area
573 m2
1735 m2
2124 m2
Number of Blades
3
3
3
Power Regulation
Pitch
Pitch
Pitch/Optispeed
t
Clock
wind speed (m/s)
1 1
s s
6 v ^3
Wind speed (m/s)
Integrator
Integrator1
Gain
wind speed ^3
13.5
turbine radius m
Product1
pi Gain2
Product
0.5
Gain1
power power
power
powerpower
powe
r
output
1.225
power vs wind speed
air density (kg/m3)
Cp (power coeff)
Ramp1
Cp behavior
Power, Cp
Fig.1. Matlab/simulink model
vestas V27 with airdensity 1.225 kg/m3
4500
4000
3500
3000
power
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
5000 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
time
Fig2. Power Output curve for vestas V27 with air density 1.225 kg/m3
power output curve for V39 with air density 1.225 kg/m3
14000
12000
10000
8000
power
6000
4000
2000
0
2000
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
time
Fig3. Power Output curve for vestas V39 with air density 1.225 kg/m3
Power output of V52 with air density 1.225 kg/m3
16000
14000
12000
10000
Power
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2000
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
time
Fig4. Power Output curve for vestas V52 with air density 1.225 kg/m3
output of V27 with air density 1.172 kg/m3
4500
4000
3500
3000
power
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
500
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
time
Fig5. Power Output curve for vestas V27 with air density 1.172 kg/m3
output of V27 with air density 1.342kg/m3
5000
4000
3000
power
2000
1000
0
1000
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
time
Fig 6. Power Output curve for vestas V27 with air density 1.342 kg/m3

Results and Discussion
Wind turbines are optimized by considering swept area and wind speed in terms of local area conditions to extract maximum power. The output power of a wind turbine is directly proportional to cube of wind speed and swept area of its blades. The larger the diameter of its blades, the more power can be extracted from the wind. In this paper, power output of three Vestas wind turbines V27, V39 and V52 with different diameters 27m, 39m and 52m respectively with same air density 1.225 kg/m3 are compared in Fig. 2,3 &4. The power output of Vestas V52 type is greater than V39 and V27 types.
Khalfallah, M. and Koliub, M. 2007 shown that Wind speed has a significant effect on wind turbine performance. The power available in the wind is directly proportional to the cube of wind speed and swept area of blades. As swept area of blades increases, the available power also increases. The output of a wind turbine is also directly proportional to air density. As air density increases, the available power also increases. It can be observed from Fig.2, 5&6 for Vestas type V27 with different air densities.

Conclusion
Many factors have to be considered while manufacturing wind turbines i.e., turbine swept area, air density, wind speed and power coefficient as a function of pitch angle and blade tip speed. Air density has a significant effect on wind turbine performance. As air density increases, the available power also increases. The power output of wind turbine is directly related to swept area of blades. As swept area of blades increases, the output power also increases. The good exploitation of wind energy may enhance the renewable power generation capabilities and participate in generating at good costs.
References

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