Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication
- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 13
- Authors : Shabnam Bohra, Bharti Chouhan Nakul Audeechya
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV2IS10030
- Volume & Issue : NCETECE – 2014 (Volume 2 – Issue 10)
- Published (First Online): 30-07-2018
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
ADVANCEMENT IN GLONASS
ADVANCEMENT IN GLONASS
B.Tech., Electronics & Communication Engineering
Shrinathji Institute of Technology & Engineering
ech., Electronics & Communication Engineering
Shrinathji Institute of Technology & Engineering
ech., VLSIDesign Institute of technology & Management
Nathdwara, India Nathdwara, India Bhilwara, India Shabnam.email@example.com Bhartichouhan1993@gmail.com Nakul.audeechya2gmail.com
Abstract – Glonass is most advancement technique and supply different to GPS. It's the satellite wont to cowl solely Russian territory. Satellite navigation technology is speedily increasing. The modernization in rate, full deployments of GLONASS when 1008 can facilitate the event of recent applications, therefore gap new markets. Its time to arrange for this new commodity: omnipresent provision of reliable and correct positioning and temporal arrangement services has already begun to remodel our societies. The GLONASS satellites transfer the signal in CDMA format, creating them compatible with different systems, like GPS, Europes stargazer and Chinas Bei Dou (also called Compass). At present, GLONASS conjointly transfers FDMA signals.
Index TermsRehabilitated, Constellation, Exaggerated
GLONASS descriptor for Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System could be a space-based satellite navigation system operated by the Russian part Defence Forces. It provides different an alternate to world Positioning System (GPS) and is that the solely alternative system operative with world coverage and of comparable exactitude. Development of GLONASS began within the land in 1976. Starting on 12 October 1982, various rockets launch other satellites to the system till the constellation was completed in 1995. Throughout the 2000s, below Vladimir Putin's presidency, the restoration of the system was created a high government priority and funding was well enlarged. GLONASS is that the costliest program of the Russian Federal area Agency, overwhelming a 3rd of its budget in 2010. By 2010, GLONASS had achieved 100% coverage of Russia's territory and in October 2011, the complete orbital constellation of twenty four satellites was rehabilitated, facultative full world coverage. Within the middle of Seventies the event of Glonass world navigation system was started. Operation tests began with launch of the primary Glonass satellite in October, 1982. The institution of the system was administrated in 2 stages. The experimental system consisting of four satellites was established in 1984- 85, and it absolutely was supported the verification of principal choices that are elementary for Glonass system. On the second stage in 1990-91 the system of 10-12 satellites was established.
This example provides the operation tests of Glonass system make sure the high level of its potency. The performances of Glonass system area unit is based on the performances of the GPS. However once Selective
accessibility regime is place into operation Glonass system over performs GPS system during this side. Russian Ministry of Defence and Russian house Agency guarantee the retention of system major performances for twelve years. Its designed to produce fast, high exactitude location and speed info to users throughout most of the planet. Its deployed in nearly circular orbits at associate altitude of 19,100 metric linear units by nucleon boosters. GLONASS point accuracies (95% confidence) area unit claimed to be a hundred m on the surface of the planet, a hundred and fifty m in altitude, and fifteen cm/s in rate. GLONASS may be a dual-use system. A completely operational constellation with international coverage consists of twenty four satellites, whereas eighteen satellites area unit necessary for covering the territory of Russia. To induce a grip fix the receiver should be within the vary of a minimum of four satellites. The GLONASS satellites' styles have undergone many upgrades, with the newest version being GLONASS-K.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GPS AND GLONASS Wherever Times is such that, the actual fact that
GLONASS performances are worse than those of GPS are as a result of many factors, as well as the performances of the on-board atomic clocks, the quantity of satellites within the constellation and therefore the proven fact that ground phase watching and management was restricted to the Russian territory. The essential distinction between Glonass and GPS are as-
The elemental distinction between the GLONASS and GPS navigators is the signal itself and its structure.
GPS system uses code-division channeling in its system however GLONASS can use frequency division channeling.
The structure of the signal additionally differs.
Additionally the satellites motion is delineate victimization basically completely different mathematical models. In GLONASS differential model of motion is employed. And GPS uses a model supported osculating components in its OS.
GLONASS time and GPS time aren't a similar. (There is s being AN problems in its operating manner)
GLONASS uses unique geocentric information(PZ-90).
BASIC PRINCIPLE AND TECHNIQUES
Its regulation is same because the operating of GPS. Therefore glonass has large utility that gives users with
positioning, navigation, and temporal arrangement services. This technique consists of 3 sections: the house segment, the management section, and therefore the user section. Military house Forces of the Russian Ministry of Defence develops, maintains, and operates the house and management segments.
The GLONASS space section consists of a constellation of satellites transmission radio signals to users. The Air Force manages the constellation to confirm the provision of a minimum of 24 GLONASS satellites, 95th of the time.
The GLONASS control section consists of a world network of ground facilities that track the satellites, monitor their transmissions, perform analyses, and send commands and knowledge to the constellation. This operational management section includes a master management station, associate degree alternate master management station, twelve command and management antennas, and sixteen watching sites. Its development has been lacking compared to the U.S. GPS system. To boost the case, the Russian government has
DEPLOYMENT IN GLONASS CONSTELLATION Beginning on 12 Oct 1982, various rocket launches
intercalary satellites to the system till the constellation was completed in 1995. Once completed, the GLONASS constellation was designed to supply 100 meters accuracy with its standard precision C/A signals, that square measure deliberately degraded, and 10-20 meter accuracy with its P
high-precision signals, originally accessible completely to the military. This brought the exactness of GLONASS on par with the yankee GPS system, that had achieved full operational capability year earlier. Once the complete complement was achieved in December 1995, there have been no additional launches till December 1999, attributable to financially troublesome amount.
numder of operational satellites in the constellation/p>
been actively promoting GLONASS for civilian use.
Ground Segment 6
15 new reference stations are extra, six of them outside the 3
Russian territory, being the primary one already placed in
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Antarctica. Also, the developments of each the GLONASS
chase capabilities furthermore because the steady increase
35 36 37 38 39 40 41
within the variety of GLONASS satellites, has had a positive influence on the accuracy of the GLONASS orbits and clocks.
GLONASS as a system "created to see positioning of civil aviation craft, navy transport and fishing-boats of the Soviet Union. From 1982 through Apr 1991, the Russia with success launched a complete of forty three GLONASS-related satellites and 5 take a look at satellites. Once the Russia disintegrated in 1991, twelve purposeful GLONASS satellites in 2 planes were operational; enough to permit restricted usage of the system (to cowl the complete territory of the country, eighteen satellites would are necessary.) The state took over management of the constellation and continuing its development. In 1993, the system, currently consisting of twelve satellites, was formally declared operational and in Gregorian calendar month 1995, the constellation was finally dropped at its optimum standing of twenty four operational satellites. This brought the preciseness of GLONASS on-par with the Yankee GPS system that had achieved full operational capability year earlier.
GLONASS satellites transmit direction radio signals on 2 frequency sub-bands (L1 ~ 1602 megahertz and L2 ~ 1246 MHz). By 2010, GLONASS reached full coverage in Russian territory and in 2011 full operational capability with the complete orbital constellation of 24 satellites. GLONASS had a 347 billion ruble (US$11.81) budget approved through 2020, by which era the system is regular to possess all satellites transmission each the new CDMA and inheritance FDMA signals.
Fig: 1 GLONASS deployment milestone
This above figure shows the deployment of GLONASS milestones in whicp8 satellites in constellation 2007, 24 satellites in constellation 2009.
GENERATION OF GLONASS
The tasks to create GLONASS AN integral element of the world GNSS infrastructure, providing worldwide service for all users, square measure difficult. At an equivalent time, the first goal of GLONASS as a dual-use system is to serve national security interests.
Over the 3 decades of development, the satellite styles have more matured varied enhancements, and it may be divided into 3 generations given as:
The first GLONASS (since 1982)
GLONASS-M (since 2003)
GLONASS-K (since 2011).
Original GLONASS (URAGAN)
The true initial generations of GLONASS (also known as Uragan) satellites was all 3-axis stable vehicles, usually deliberation 1,250 weight units and were equipped with a modest system to allow relocation at intervals the constellation. The look life was 3 years; but varied space vehicle exceeded this, with one late model lasting sixty eight months. The sole exception was once, on 2 launches, AN Etalon geodesic reflector satellite was substituted for a GLONASS satellite. URAGAN satellite options a three-axis
stabilization system that points it in nadir throughout the operational flight. 2 star arrays offer power offer. Aboard to metallic element clocks offer time accuracy to 1,000 nanoseconds. The primary generation GLONASS satellites were seven.8 m tall, had a dimension of seven.2 m, measured across their star panels, and a mass of 1,260 kg. The Uragan space vehicle for the GLONASS network was developed by NPO PM in Zheleznogorsk and, till the start of the 1990s; the satellites were mass made by PO Polyot in metropolis beneath oversight of NPO PM. However, NPO PM later can came back to the total development and producing of the Uragan-M space vehicle "on web site." The last Uragan space vehicle engineered by PO Polyot was launched in Dec 2005. The Uragan satellite options a three-axis stabilization system that points it in nadir throughout the operational flight. 2 star arrays offer power offer. The space vehicle carrier transmitters send L-Band navigation signals in 12 channels separated by 0.5625 rate intervals in 2 frequency bands: 1602.5625 – 1615.5 rates and 1240-1260 rates. EIRP has 25 to 27dBW. Mitt circular polarized. Aboard metallic element clocks will offer time accuracy to 1,000 nanoseconds.
The second generation of satellite, called Glonass-M, was developed starting in 1990 and initial launched in 2003. These satellites possess a well exaggerated life of seven years and weigh slightly additional at 1,480 kg. They are or so 2.4 m (7 linear unit ten in) in diameter and 3.7 m (12 ft) high, with a solar battery span of 7.2 m (24 ft) for associate degree electric power generation capability of 1600 watts at launch. The aft payload structure homes twelve primary antennas for L-band transmissions. Optical device corner-cube reflectors are carried to assist in precise orbit determination and geodesic analysis. On-board Cs clocks give the native clock supply. The GLONASS-M satellite featured improved antennas, extended life and also the introduction of a separate transmission frequency dedicated to civilian users, called L2. The satellite conjointly sported associate degree exaggerated clock stability, additional correct solar battery orientation and higher mobility.
Fig:2 Different Generation Of GLONASS
GLONASS-K may be a substantial improvement of the previous generation: it's the primary unpressurised GLONASS satellite with a way reduced mass (750 metric weight unit versus 1,450 metric weight unit of GLONASS-M). Its associate operational lifespan of ten years. Itll transmit additional navigation signals to boost the system's accuracy, as well as new CDMA signals within the L3 and L5 bands which can use modulation like progressive GPS, stargazer and Compass. The new satellite's advanced equipmentmade only from Russian componentswill permit the doubling of GLONASS' accuracy. Like the previous satellites, there square measure 3-axis stabilized nadir inform having twin solar battery. The primary GLONASS-K satellite was with success launched on twenty six February 2011. Due to their weight reduction, GLONASS-K space vehicle is launched in pairs from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome launch website mistreatment the considerably lower price Soyuz-2.1b boosters or in six-at-once from the Baikonur Cosmodrome mistreatment Proton-K Briz-M launch vehicles. The first GLONASS-K satellite was with success launched on twenty six February 2011. The GLONASS-K version featured lighter, standardized unpressurized bus. A Word of God of GLONASS-K satellite, referred to as GLONASS-K2 was originally secure as early as 2013, but by 2012, it had been not expected to enter service till 2015. The GLONASS-K of the second modernization section can transmit the total set of recent CDMA signals in L1, L2 and L3 bands.
V. FUTURE ASPECTS
If call were to be taken to maneuver to an eternal time- scale within the close to future and this decision were to be enforced within the GLONASS system while not holding the prevailing time-scale (with the leap second), then an oversized quantity of existing instrumentality and also the corresponding systems would offer incorrect navigation info or perhaps be completely unable to wrk. In some cases (for example in aviation, maritime and satellite systems) this might result in disaster. To avoid this fateful outcome, the prevailing navigation receivers that use the reference time-scale with the eternal time scale ought to be updated or replaced so as to be able to operate with the continual time-scale.
Also a team of authors from Russian area Systems, a key developer of navigation and geospatial technologies within the Russian region trade, describes the new L3 CDMA signal (GLONASS KM) to be broadcast by GLONASS-K satellites and also the progress until 2025.
Since Dec 2011, the GLONASS system has been totally operational, providing worldwide service with 100% world handiness and acceptable accuracy for many users. The system is globally accepted by several users, and most leading makers embody GLONASS in their devices. This reality became a reality as a result of the winning completion in Dec 2011 of the Russian Federal Mission bound Program
dedicated to GLONASS restoration. GLONASS system and supply its open service freed from charge and offered for all users worldwide with none restrictions.
Letter of Commander-in-Chief of Military Space Forces, N 344/1(/200, dated 04.01.1994
Prospects of GLONASS system usage, Y.G.Milov, Y.G.Gusev, Radionavigation and time, N2 1, 1992.
GLONASS satellite navigation system, IMO DOC, NAV 35/INf3, 27.09.1988
GLONASS system technical characteristic and performance, ICAO DOC. FANS/4-VVP/75, May, 1988.
GPS/GLONASS sensor, ARINC characteristic 743A, 10.12.1991.
Global satellite navigation system GLONASS (Interface control document) NPO PM, RNII KP, 1990.
RTCA Paper No.603-92/SC 159-396,VVashington, 1992.
Test Results for GLONASS user equipment, I.V.Koudriavtsev,S.N.K1ushnikov and others, Radionavigationand time, N2 1, 1992.
Worth-while airborne user equipment using GLONASS/GPS signals, Koudriavtsevand others, Radionavigationand time, N2 1, 1992.
State of the art and prospects for GLONASS use in Marine navigation and Hydrography,Y.I.Zheglov, Radionavigationand time, NQ1, 1992.
GPS Receivers, Survey of equipment characteristics K.D.McDonald, June 1, 1993, Navtech Seminars Inc.
Croucher, Phil. Professional Helicopter Pilot Studies. 2007.
Bruyninx, C. (2007) Comparing GPS-only with GPS+GLONASS positioning in a regional permanent GNSS network. GPS Solution, 11(2), 97-106.
Dach, R., Hugentobler, U., Fridez, P., Meindl, M. (eds) (2007) Bernese GPS Software Version 5.0. Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, Switzerland, available at http://www.bernese.unibe.ch (accessed on 16/May/2007)
Dai, L., Wang, J., Rizos, C., & Han, S. (2003) Predicting atmospheric biases for real-time ambiguity resolution in GPS/GLONASS reference station networks. Journal of Geodesy, 76, 617-628.