A Study on Thermal Properties and Wear Characterization of Glass Fiber Hybrid Composite Materials


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A Study on Thermal Properties and Wear Characterization of Glass Fiber Hybrid Composite Materials

Gurushanth B Vaggar

Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Alvas Institute of Engineering and Technology Moodbidri, Karnataka State, India.

S C Kamate

Principal

Hirasugar Institute of Technology Nidasoshi, Karnataka State, India.

Abstract Hybrid polymer composite materials (HPCM) are new solution for high thermal resistivity and stability of composites under thermal conditions. In the present study, investigation on thermal properties and wear resistance of silicon inserted glass fiber (GF) hybrid composite materials was carried out. The specimens were prepared by hand layup technique by compression moulding machine. Thermal conductivity (K) and Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of HPCM materials were assessed. Also failure of HPCM was determined using Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that K of silicon inserted HPCM increased with increase in percentage of silicon and the value of CTE was decreased with increase in percentage of silicon. TGA indicated that the failure of HPCM occurred at 2800C for 25 minutes. Further, the wear behaviour of HPCM was studied under varying speeds and percentage of silicon.

Keywords Thermal conductivity (K); Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE); Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA); Silicon; Wear.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Composites are engineered materials made out of two or more components. Most of the composites can be tailored to obtain properties better than individual constituents. A polymer composite reinforced with fibre is called FRP composite. Considering a composite, which involves two or more macro constituent phases, the matrix is referred to as continuous phase and the fibres are called the reinforcing phase. The fibres increase the strength and stiffness, increase thermal and fatigue properties, provide better dimensional stability and electrical resistivity. Whereas the primary function of the resin is to transfer load, to hold the fibres, protect fibres from environment and mechanical abrasion. Matrix also carries transverse loads and interlaminar shear stresses. The advantages of composites include high strength to weight ratio, non-corrosiveness, less maintenance, high electrical resistance, wear resistance, electromagnetic transparency, appeasing appearance etc. Composites can be manufactured in different ways depending upon matrix, reinforcement and application. Different manufacturing methods include Hand-layup, Compression moulding, Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), Pultrusion, Autoclave and Filament moulding etc. [16].

    In the present work a study of thermal properties are carried out to the prepared specimens of silicon inserted hybrid composite materials (on silicon inserted glass fiber

    chop strand). The specimens were prepared by hand layup followed by compression molding machine by non-heating molding technique. The thermal properties, 1) Thermal conductivity (K), 2) Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and 3) Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) are found experimentally and specimens and experimental setups are prepared as per the ASTM standards [4]. Thermal properties of any materials decides withstanding and sustainability of that material under variable temperature conditions it may be high temperature or low temperature.

  2. THERMAL PROPERTIES

    1. Thermal Conductivity (K):

      The measurements of K carried out under variable heat inputs at ATP condition. According to ASTM E1530 circular slab type HPC specimen diameter 150 mm and thickness 10 mm are used as shown in figure 1. A known value of heat is applied from one side of the composite slab wait till the system reach steady state, the temperature of each interface surfaces were measured by thermocouples. Thermal conductivity determined by using one-dimensional Fouriers law of conduction equation [2]. The conduction equation can be stated as The rate of heat conduction in a given direction is proportional to the temperature gradient in that direction. This statement can be represented by equation

      Where,

      Q = Heat Supplied (W).

      K = Thermal conductivity (W/m °C). A = Area (m2).

      L = Thickness of the HPC specimen (m).

      T1= Temperature of lower interface surface of HPC Specimen (°C).

      T2= Temperature of upper interface surface of HPC Specimen (°C).

      = Temperature gradient (°C/m).

      Figure.1: Thermal conductivity experimental setup.

    2. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE):

      Most solid materials expand by heating and contract when cooled. Thermal expansion is a property of a material is indicative of the extent to which a material expands upon heating. The change in length with temperature for a solid material may be expressed as follows [9].

      Where,

      L1 = Initial length L2 = Final length

      T1 = Initial temperature T2 = Final temperature

      1 = linear coefficient of thermal expansion T = Temperature change (°C)

      L= Change in length of the sample (mm)

      The CTE test conducted to HPC specimens had length 90mm and thickness 10mm. The CTE tests were done for the temperature range of 25ºC to 90ºC using temperature controlled muffler furnace. The HPC specimens heated from room temperature to 90°C in the muffler furnace and kept at 90°C for 10 minute.

    3. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA):

      Thermo gravimetric analysis is one of the method thermal analysis in which the changes in physical and chemical properties of specimens measured with reference to the increase in temperature. The TGA test carried out to the square specimens of size 50mm x 50mm and thickness 10mm. The TGA tests were performed over the temperature range of 30°C to 300°C using temperature controlled muffle furnace. Specimens heated from room temperature to 300ºC in the muffler furnace for 20 minutes. After heating specimens check for decompose of hybrid polymer composites and % of loss material in weight is calculated.

      Fig.2a shows specimen before TGA test and Fig.2b shows the decomposed specimen after TGA test.

      Fig.2a: Specimen before TGA test Fig.2b: Specimen after TGA test

    4. Wear Test):

    Wear test is conducted as per the ASTM Standards with specimen sizes 10 mm x 10 mm square cross section and length 50 mm the wear testing setup shown in figure 3. Wear test conducted for three variable speeds and three different composition hybrid polymer composite specimens [10].

    Wear Test Specimen

    Fig.3: Wear test setup

  3. METHOD TO PREPARE HYBRID POLYMER COMPOSITES

    Machine moulding is used to prepare hybrid polymer composites by hand layup method. Mould box is prepared as per the size of the HPC with the proper mixture of resin hardener and filler particles pasted on glass fiber layups then pressure applied on mould by using SANTAC compression moulding machine allowed cure for 24 hours under normal atmospheric conditions. This method of preparing hybrid polymer composites is the simplest and economical than other methods.

    Material Designation

    Weight Quantity in Grams

    Silicon

    E-Glass Fiber

    Epoxy Resin

    Hardener

    GE10

    0

    116.40

    291.00

    29.10

    GE10SI10

    24.32

    121.60

    218.88

    21.88

    GE10SI20

    46.00

    15.00

    184.00

    18.40

    GE10SI30

    78.18

    130.20

    182.42

    18.242

    Material Designation

    Weight Quantity in Grams

    Silicon

    E-Glass Fiber

    Epoxy Resin

    Hardener

    GE10

    0

    116.40

    291.00

    29.10

    GE10SI10

    24.32

    121.60

    218.88

    21.88

    GE10SI20

    46.00

    115.00

    184.00

    18.40

    GE10SI30

    78.18

    130.20

    182.42

    18.242

    TABLE I. SPECIMEN COMPOSITIONS

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Variation of thermal properties K, CTE, TGA and Coefficient of friction (µ) for different composition hybrid polymer composite materials are shown in figures 4 to 6 respectively.

    In figure 4 it shows that the thermal conductivity value increases as the percentage of silicon filler material increases. The thermal conductivity of silicon is greater than that of epoxy resin hence the coefficient of thermal expansion of hybrid polymer composite decreases with increase in percentage of silicon as shown in figure 5. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the failure of HPCM occurred at 2800C for 25. Figure 6 shows coefficient of friction varies to higher value with increase in % of silicon as well as speed, means the material can sustain more frictional force.

    Figure.4: Variation of Thermal conductivity with % of Silicon

    Figure.5: Variation of Coeeficient of Thermal Expansion with % of Silicon

    Figure.6: Variation of Coefficient of Friction with % of Silicon & Speed.

  5. CONCLUSIONS

The following conclusions are inferred from this study.

  • Thermal conductivity of hybrid polymer composite materials increases as the percentage of SiC filler material increases.

  • The coefficient of thermal expansion decreases as the percentage of filler material SiC increases.

  • By Thermogravimetric analysis it shows that the specimens gets decomposed around 2750C to 2800C.

  • Increase in coefficient of friction with increase in percentage of SiC and speed.

  • With the above results it is concluded that hybrid polymer composite materials can withstand high temperatures up to 3000C. Silicon can be used as filler material in GFER composites successfully.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The Authors are very much grateful to Dr. K. Devendra, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, SKSVMACET, Laxmeshwar, Karnataka, India. Dr. Basava T, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka, India. for their valuable suggestions, guidance and support. I Thank GOD almighty for his grace throughout the work.

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