A Study on Attitude Towards Entrepreneurship

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A Study on Attitude Towards Entrepreneurship

Among Rural Youth with Special Reference to Power Loom Sector A North Karnataka Perspective

Shashidhar Mahantshetti*

Head of the Department of MBA, Angadi Institute of Technology & Management,

Belgaum, Karnataka, India

Rajashekhar Beedimani**

Faculty, Department of MBA,

Angadi Institute of Technology & Management, Belgaum, Karnataka, India

Abstractthe word Entrepreneurship has fascinated economists, academicians, policy makers, political leaders and the youth in the past couple of decades. The phenomenon has spurred the developing countries in the last few years, as that seems to be the panacea for the sorry plight of their economies and mounting unemployment problem in these countries. Power loom sector which has a strong presence in the rural areas is increasingly being seen as an avenue to address the rural problems such as poverty, unemployment, etc. Indias 60% of cloth is manufactured through decentralized power loom sector Many experts estimate that the sector has a huge potential but somehow it has been plagued by various issues which have been hurdles in realizing the full potential it has to offer. Though the decentralized power loom sector offers tremendous opportunities with the support of the government policies, there has been a lackadaisical attitude among the entrepreneurs. Owing to lack of skilled labour and large turnover of labour, the power loom sector is moving at snails pace in terms of development and moving up the hierarchy. The present study tries to find out the attitude and perception of the rural youth towards taking up entrepreneurship in the power loom sect

  1. When the government is contemplating whether to make major policy changes in order to boost the rural economy, the question that needs to be answered is, is the youth motivated enough to venture into the sector?

    The study also tries to find whether there are significant differences in attitude, when classified by gender, size of the family, parental education, etc. 500 youth across various rural areas from North Karnataka were surveyed using modified attitude towards entrepreneurship questionnaire devised by center for Rural Entrepreneurship, USA. Finding revealed a negative attitude towards the entrepreneurship in power loom sector. There was no significant difference in attitude when classified by gender, parental education, size of the family, etc.

    Keywords Entrepreneurship, Powerloom sector, attitude

    One Panacea, for economic revival among the developing countries seem to be in the realm of developing entrepreneurship (Kanungo, 1998; Khandwalla, 1998). It was evident in a study carried out by (J K Jain & Rahul Pandey, 2013) that there is a positive corelation between number of units setup and employment generated. In developing countries like India, the initiatives to promote and harness the entreprenurial activities figures on the top of their agenda. Goel, Vohra, Zhang, and Arora (2007) define the process of entrepreneurship as a process of establishing and managing a activity with an intention to earn profits. Entrepreneurship education is a mode through which countries could foster the growth of entrepreneurial activity (Bishop 1985). Entrepreneurship eduation had a very positive impact among the youth in shaping their attitues towards entrepreneurship (Gorman, Fanlont & King, 1997 Kourilsky & Walstad, 1998).

    There is a drastic lack of awareness among rural women with regard to handling legal and other formalities of availing loan facilities. (Anita Mehta & Mukund Mehta). Entrepreurship among rural people can solve rural poverty ( Sandeep Saxena 2012). In his paper, he mentions that the rural youth do not consider entrepreneurship as one of the career options. Women are a very vital cog in the entire scheme of reviving the situation in the developing countries. The regressive mindset blended with lack of social support are the major hindrances in fostering entrepreneurial spirit among the people I developing countries (Vijay Kumbhar 2013). One reason why rural entrepreneurship has not taken off in India is cecause there is lack of connectedness among the elements which are cruicial for fostering entrepreneurship such as capital accumulation, risk taking and innovation (Monika Sharma, Vandana Chaudary, Rajni Bala & Ranchan Chauhan 2013). Thre appears to be a gap in the literature, where a concrete study related to whether the rural youth in India is positively oriented towards the phenomenon of entrepreneurship.

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

    The research had twin obkectives:

    1. To know the attitude of youth in the rural areas towards pursuing entrepreneurship in the powerloom sector.

    2. To find out if there are any significant differences among the respondents after categorizing them by (a).gender, (b).based on prior business connections,

(c) sibling composition, (d).sibling order, (e) mothers education (f) fathers education.

HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY:

The hypothesis that was set in this study was that there are no significant differences when the surveyed respondents were categorized by gender, prior business connections, sibling composition, sibling order, mothers education, fathers education.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

Attitude results in exhibition of specific behaviours meaning whether a individuals actions are guided by the attitude carried by him with respect to that action (Kruger, Reilly & Carsrud, 2000). Attitude is a mode of expression which manifests into actions (Meridith, Nelson & Neck, 1982). This study was carried out with attitude remaining a dependent variable shaped by beliefs and a views which are tested with a validated questionnaire. The beliefs and views expressed in the questionnaire test the possibilites of an individual pursuing entrepreneurship at some stage of their lives. Out of varied attitudes, this study focuses on specific attitude towards pursuing entrepreneurship in powerloom sector. The research also makes an effort to unearth any differences in attitude among the youth in North Karnataka with respect to pursuing entrepreneurship in powerloom sector.

Surveys are used for social science research which is quantitative in nature. A sample of 500 youths spread in different rural areass of North Karnataka were surveyed face to face using a questionnaire developed in 2011 by center for Rural entrepreneurship, USA. The places choosen were generally clusters of powerloom sectors as identified by the government of Karnataka. The reason for selecting these clusters was that the people residing in these so called powerloom clusters have a fair idea of the business of powerloom. They know the intricacies of owining a powerloom business.

In order to guage the suitability of the questionnaire, a pilot stuy was carried out. Subtle canges were made in the questionnaire to meet the local demands. A cronbach alpha was obtained which measured to 0.871 which is relatively high. The degree of positiveness or negativeness of attitude was assessed by the scale formulated for the highest score of 60 (12 items x 5) and the lowest possible score 12 (12 x 1). The four possible degrees of attitude were formed based on the judgement.

Overall Mean Discription

45 & above Very positive 35 – 44 Positive

25 – 34 Negative

15 – 24 Very negative

The data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistics at the significance level of 0.05%.

Nearly 60% of the respondents were male of wichh a large amount of them had no previous cnnections to business. Many of them (55%) had a sibling composition of 3 to 4. Most of their mothers had no formal education whatsover and majority of the fathers had studied upto SSLC.

FINDINGS:

Attitude of respondents which is spread through varied statements representing the same is displayed in the table 1. The mean score as observed is between 2.83 and 3.97, which indicates that the respondents show some degree of disparity in their attitudde towards entrepreneurship. To be precise, the item 8, which depicts the individuals willingness to sacrifice the financial security of the family shows a very small mean (mean =2.41). This only goes to show that the respondents held the financial security of the family at a higher priority compared to pursuit of entrepreneurship.

Looking closely, it is seen that majority of the surveyed people were in disagreement to the statement 8. Very small percentage of the respondents had a affirmitive answer to the scale measuring their willingness to forego the financial security of their families. Keeping in line with the statement 8, the respondents showed a positive attitude towards the statement 11, which reflects the individuals tendency to have more flexibility (mean= 4.18). overall majority of the respondents either agreed or strongly disagreed to the statement. This could be intrepreted that the respondents sense that entrepreneurship offers flexibility to their personal life. Hence pursuing entrepreneurship in powerloom sector gives them more opportunities to fulfill their family obligations.

The same tempo among the respondents could be observed with similar tendencies to other items. In summary, out of a maximum possible score of 60 the lowest obtained score was 26.12, while the highest was 57.12, with a mean of

33.12 (SD=9.13). The obtained means are compared with the standards set previously. The mean 33.12 indicates a slightly negative mindset towards entrepreneurship in powerloom sector.

Table 1

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Respondents Attitude towards Entrepreneurship (n=500)

Statement

SD

D

N

A

SA

Weighted Mean

n (%)

n(%)

n(%)

n(%)

n(%)

[1]. Being Entrepreneur is most important priority in my life

50

(10.0)

26

(5.2)

59

(11.8)

225

(45.0)

140

(28.0)

3.76

[2]. I will Strive my best to initiate a business.

19

(3.8)

37

(7.4)

92

(18.4)

199

(39.8)

153

(30.6)

3.86

[3]. I Would like to contribute to society through my entrepreneurial efforts

19

(3.8)

29

(5.8)

80

(16.0)

190

(38.0)

182

(36.4)

3.97

[4]. I would choose business as a career than work for others to earn higher salary

37

(7.4)

59

(11.8)

147

(29.4)

119

(23.8)

138

(27.6)

3.52

[5]. I would dedicate my time to business more than my family.

106

(21.2)

126

(25.2)

96

(19.2)

92

(18.4)

80

(16.0)

2.83

[6]. I prefer to be an entrepreneur rather than choosing other option.

33 6.6

90

18.0

162 32.4

96

19.2

119 23.8

3.36

[7]. One should have high risk appetite to venture into a successful business

39

(7.8)

46

(9.2)

72

(14.4)

164

(32.8)

179

(35.8)

3.80

[8]. I Don't Mind sacrificing financial security of family members to run my business

60

(12.0)

148

(29.6)

108

(21.6)

97

(19.4)

87

(17.4)

3.01

[9]. I would be willing to sell any of my assets to fund my business

113

(22.6)

78

(15.6)

102

(20.4)

112

(22.4)

95

(19.0)

3.00

[10]. Owning a business will enhance my family esteem

16

(3.2)

36

(7.2)

114

(22.8)

134

(26.8)

200

(40.0)

3.93

[11]. Business provides flexibility for my personal life.

16

(3.2)

43

(8.6)

90

(18.0)

180

(36.0)

171 (34.2)

3.89

[12]. I would prefer to venture into powerloom rather than any other business option.

33

(6.6)

85

(17.0)

108

(21.6)

114

(22.8)

160 (32.0)

3.57

Overall MEAN

29.51

MINIMUM

42.28

MAXIMUM

58.84

STANDARD DEVIATION

13.84

Variances in Entrepreneurial attitude by variables

Attitude By Gender

Assessing the scores of means, which compares male and female respondents, the male fraterniy mean scored upto

31.87 (SD=10.11). On the contrary, the female respondents had a drastically less mean score of 26.73. Evidently male fraternity had a higher inclination towards entrepreneurship in powerloom sector. To know whether theres was a considerable difference between male and female respondents towrds desired entrepreneurship, P-value was calculated which was found to be 0.172. This clearly proved there was no significant difference in attitude towards entrepreneurship among men and women.

Attitude based on prior business association

A remarkable revelation was that people who had some prior business association had a higher mean of (20.23, SD=8.30). T-test application went on to prove that that the difference was not consequential enough to reject the null hypothesis (t=0.42). The bottom line of this analysis was that no amount of prior business association had anyy influence among the respondents attitude towards entrepreneurship. The results were not in tune with the Shinnar, Pruett and Toney (2009) which established the fact that prior exposure to entrepreneurial activity would positively impace a persons attitude towards entrepreneurship.

Table 2

DIFFERENCES IN MEANS ACROSS VARIABLES

Differences in Means Across Variables (n=500)

Variable

Overall Mean (SD)

t

F

p

Statistical Decision

Gender

Male (74.4)

31.87 (10.11)

Accept Null

Female (25.6)

26.73 (6.77)

1.39

0.17

Hypothesis

Business Exposure

Yes (19%)

20.23 (8.30)

Accept Null

No (81%)

18.38 (10.06)

.45

0.66

Hypothesis

Siblings Size

2-

24.24 (10.95)

Below (14%)

3-4 (69%)

22.88 (9.67)

Accept Null

>5 (17%)

20.42 (6.17)

0.61

0.55

Hypothesis

23.28 (9.94)

Siblings Order

1st (5%)

25.27 (6.36)

2nd (11%)

Mid

27.97 (9.89)

(57%)

Last (5%)

29.31 (5.66)

Accept Null

Others (22%)

26.37 (11.65)

0.54

0.71

Hypothesis

Mother's Education

None

27.57 (10.79)

(41%)

Primary School

28.87 (8.88)

(36%)

SSLC (14%)

29.86 (6.90)

PUC (5%)

Graduation & Above

34.19 (0.05)

Accept Null

(4%)

34.31 (0.65)

1.03

0.41

Hypothesis

Father's Education

None

18.88 (5.77)

(33%)

Primary School

24.57 (9.91)

(23%)

SSLC (20%)

23.62 (10.05)

PUC (10%)

Graduation &

26.25 (9.90)

Accept Null

Above (14%)

29.75 (6.36)

2.03

0.08

Hypothesis

By Sibling Composition

Analysis of the impact of sibling composition was also carried out. A high mean of (24.24 SD=09.89) was observed where there were below 2 siblings. Subsequently a lower mean was observed where there were 3-4 siblings (22.88 SD=9.67). Analysis of variance was applied to know if thre were any substantial differences among the sibling composition and their attitude. As predicted, there were no substantial differences. Hence the null hypothesis was accepted.

By Sibling Order

When the respondents were categorized by their order among the siblings, it was observed that those who were born second had a higher mean of 25.27 (SD= 6.36). This could be interepreted that those who were born second among their sibling had a more positive view about entrepreneurship in powerloom sector. Those who were the last among their siblings had the second highest mean (29.31 SD= 5.66) indicating higher regard for entrepreneurship after the second-born siblings. Once again a ANOVA analysis was carried out to find the significance of differences. It was found that there were no statistically significant differences in the mean scores (F=0.54; df=35; p=0.710). This indicates that irrespective of the sibling order, they had no significant differences in their attitude.

Influence of Mothers Education

At outset, when we observe the means of mothers with different amount education, it appears that education does have a positive impact on attitude towards entrepreneurship in general. Precisely speaking, mothers who had highest education scored higher mean (34.31) indicating that they had a more positive influence on respondents attitude towards entrepreneurship in powerloom sector. On the Contrary, mothers who had no education scored a mean of (27.57) indicating they had lower influence on respondents attitude. ANOVA was used to find out if there was significant difference among respondents based on their mothers education. Once again, the test revealed that there were no statistically significant differnces among the respondents when they were categorized by their mothers education (F=1.03; df=36; p=0.413).

Influence of Fathers Education

As expected, it came to the fore once again, that the respondents whose fathers had higher education scored higher means. Speaking explicitly respondents whose father;s had graduation had a higher mean of 29.75. Respondents whose fathers had no education had a low mean of 18.88. When the difference in the mean scores were subjected to ANOVA, it turned out that there were no significant differences in the means (F=2.03; df=36; p=0.08). Summing up irrespective of the fathers

education, the respondents showed no significant differences in their attitude.

Conclusion:

The findings indicate that overall there is a negative attitude towards entrepreneurship among the rural youth towards pursuing entrepreneurship in powerloom sector. This is in contradition to the general feeling of positiveness towards enterprenuership across the country.The gloomy situation could be due to many external variables such as labour issues or lack of suport from the government in terms of proper and timely policies. A further researach could be directed towards exploring the different problems faced by the powerloom owners.

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