A Study and Comparsion of Base Shear in Different Zones and Soil Types for (G+4),(G+9),(G+14)

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A Study and Comparsion of Base Shear in Different Zones and Soil Types for (G+4),(G+9),(G+14)

Sajala, Nadiya

RVR and JC College of Engineering

Abstract:- In modern days the seismic design of the buildings is going for higherimportance. In this regard we are going to compare the results of the buildings of G+4,G+9,G+14 of a same dimensions for different zone values of II=0.1; III=0.16, IV=0.24 V=0. 36 (low, medium, severe , very severe) and for various types of soils namely rocky , medium ,soft soils and for different fundamental natural time periods :

1) (G+4)

Ta=0.382sec 2) (G+9)

Ta=0.734sec 3) (G+14)

Ta=1.086sec

And for various ground accelerations 1) (G+4)

2) (G=9)

Sa/g=2.5

Sa/g = 1.361381 for rocky

= 1.851478 for medium

= 2.273506 for soft

3) (G+14)

Sa/g = 0.920193 for rocky

= 1.251452 for medium

= 1.536722 for soft

And we compared the base shear of the buildings at different zones and soil types. For term paper we are submitting zone comparison and soil comparison results.

  1. NOTATION

    Important letter symbols generally used are listed here for reference. Other symbols are covered in the concerned sections.

    Ah : Design horizontal seismic coefficient.

    g : Acceleration due to gravity.

    h : Height of structure, in meters

    I : Importance factor.

    n : Number of storeys.

    Qi : Lateral force due to earthquake, wind at floor i.

    R : Response reduction factor.

    Sa : Average response acceleration coefficient.

    g

    T : Fundamental natural period, in seconds.

    Vb : Design seismic base shear.

    W : Seismic weight of the structure.

    Wi : Seismic weight floor i.

    Z : Zone factor.

    fck : Characteristic compressive strength of concrete cube.

    fy : Yield stress of steel.

    lw : Horizontal length of wall.

    tw : Thickness of wall web.

    dw : Effective depth of wall section.

    v : Nominal shear stress.

    c max : Maximum permissible shear stress in section.

    c Shear strength of concrete.

    Vu : Factored shear force. xu : Depth of neutral axis.

  2. INTRODUCTION

    WHAT IS EARTH QUAKE:

    An earthquake is a sudden tremor or movement of the earths crust which originates naturally at or below the surface. The word natural is important here, since it excludes shock waves caused by nuclear tests, man-made explosions, etc., about 90% of all earthquakes result from tectonic events primarily movements on the faults. The remaining is related to volcanism, collapse of subterranean cavities or man made effects. Tectonic earthquakes are triggered when the accumulated strain exceeds the shearing strength of rocks.

    EARTHQUAKE SIZE:

    Intensity is a qualitative measure of the strength of an earthquake. It gives a graduation of strength of earthquake using observed damage to structures and or ground and reaction of humans to the earthquake shaking. An earthquake has many intensities the highest near the maximum fault displacement and progressively to lower grade at further away. Since the measure is not instrumental intensity can be assigned to historical earthquakes also. The popular intensity scale is the modified mercalli scale with twelve gradation denoted by roman numerals from I TO XII. Another intensity scale developed for central and eastern European states is kno9wn as medveddvsponheuer-karnik intensity scale. The twelve gradation MSK scale differes with MMI in details only. Like many other countries IS 1893(Part 1), the Indian standard: 2002 also refers to the MSK scale.

    MAGNITUDE:

    The magnitude is a quantitative or absolute measure of the size of an earthquake it can be correlated to the amount of wave energy released at the source of an earthquake. The elastic wave energy is that portion of total strain energy stored in lithospheric rock that is not consumed as mechanical work during an earthquake there are various magnitude scales in use. These scale differ from each other because those are derived from measuring different wave components of an earthquake.

  3. DEFINITIONS TERMINOLOGY FOR EARTHQUAKE

ENGINEERING OF BUILDINGS

  1. EARTHQUAKE:

    Vibrations of Earths surface caused by waves from a source of disturbance inside the earth are known as

    Earthquakes.

  2. INTENSITY:

    The Severity of shaking of an Earthquake as fell or observed through damage is known as intensity. Areas having same intensities are then enclosed by contour lines such a map is called isoseismic map.

  3. MAGNITUDE:

    The magnitude of earthquake is a number, which is a measure of energy released in an earthquake .It is defined as logarithm to the base 10 of the maximum trace amplitude, expressed in microns, which the standard short period torsion seismometer would register due to the earthquake at an epicenteral distance of 100km.

  4. NATURAL PERIOD:

    Natural period of a structure is its time period of undamped free vibration.

  5. RESPONSE SPECTRUM:

    The representation of the maximum response of idealized single degree freedom systems having certain period and damping, during earthquake ground motion .The maximum response is plotted against the undamped natural period and for various damping values , and can be expressed in terms of maximum absolute acceleration, maximum relative velocity, or maximum relative displacement.

  6. SEISMIC WEIGHT:

    It is the total dead load plus appropriate amounts of specified imposed load.

  7. STRUCTURAL RESPONSE FACTORS (Sa/g):

    It is a factor denoting the acceleration response spectrum of the structure subjected to earthquake ground vibrations, and depends on natural period of vibration and damping of the structure.

    AVERAGE RESPONSE ACCELERATION COEFFICIENT (Sa/g):

    The values of Sa/g can be found either from above graph or by some empirical equations given below :- For rocky, or hard soil sites

    1+15T;

    0.00<= T <= 0.10

    Sa/g =

    2.50;

    0.10 <= T <= 0.40

    1.36/T;

    0.55<=T <=4.00

    For medium soil sites

    1+15T;

    0.00<= T <= 0.10

    Sa/g =

    2.50 ;

    0.10 <= T <= 0.55

    1.36/T ;

    0.55<= T <=4.00

    For soft soil sites

    1+15T; 0.00<=T <=0.10

    Sa/g = 2.50 ; 0.10 <= T <=0.67

    1.36/T ; 0.67<=T <=4.00

    Where T is the fundamental nature period.

  8. ZONE FACTOR(Z):

    It is a factor to obtain design spectrum depending on the perceived maximum seismic risk characterized by Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in the zone in which the structure is located .The basic zone factors included in this standard are reasonable estimate of effective peak ground acceleration.

    The country is classified into four seismic zones as given below Zone factor,

    Seismic Zone

    II

    III

    IV

    V

    Seismic intensity

    Low

    Moderate

    Severe

    Very severe

    Z

    0.10

    0.16

    0.24

    0.36

  9. DESIGN SEISMIC BASE SHEAR(VB):

    p>It is the total design lateral force or design seismic base shear(VB) along any principal direction shall be determined by the following expression.

    VB = AhW

    Where:

    Ah = Design horizontal seismic coefficient. W = Seismic weight of the building.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL PERIOD:

    The fundamental natural period of vibration (Ta), in seconds, of all other buildings , including moment resisting frame buildings with brick infill panels, may be estimated by the empirical expression .

    Ta = 0.09h/d^(1/2)

    Where:

    h = Height of the building in m

    d = Base dimension of the building at the plinth level in m, along the considered direction of the lateral force.

    11 .DISTRIBUTION OF DESIGN FORCE:

    The vertical distribution of base shear to different floor levels can be computed as per the following expression.

    Qi = VB * (Wi * hi*hi) /

    where :

    Qi =design lateral force at floor i Wi =seismic weight of floor i

    hi =height of floor I measured from base

    n=no. of stories in the building is the no: of levels at which masses are located

    1. BASE SHEAR:

      Base shear is an estimate of the maximum lateral force that will occur due to seismic ground motion at the base of the structure.

    2. DESIGN SEISMIC BASE SHEAR:

The total design lateral force or design seismic base shear will be along any principal direction shall be determined by the following expression:

VB=Ah*W

Where:

Ah=design horizontal acceleration spectrum value using the fundamental natural time period Tn in the considered direction of vibration.

W=Seismic weight of the building.

12. IMPORTANCE FACTOR:

It is the factor used to obtain the design seismic force depending on the functional use of the structure, characterized by hazardous consequences of its failure, its post earthquake functional need, historic value or economic importance.

Sl.No

STRUCTURE

IMPORTANCE FACTOR

1.

Importance service and community buildings, such as hospitals, schools, monumental structures, emergency buildings like telephone exchange, television stations, radio stations, railway stations, fire station building; large community halls like cinemas, assembly hall stand subway stations, power stations

1.5

2.

All other buildings

1.0

GENERAL:

BHUJ earthquake occurred in 2001 and caused extensive damage to the structures and huge loss of lives also. Collapse of more than hundred reinforced buildings is due to open ground storey i.e. soft storey.

BHUJ earthquake has emphasized that such buildings are extremely vulnerable under earthquake shaking. Significant doubts have been arised in the minds of the professionals in dealing with these structures and make the structure more stiff, to resist earthquake.

The earthquake causes vibratory ground motions at the base of the structure, and the structure actively responds to these motions. For the structure responding to a moving base, there is an equivalent system. The base is fixed and the structure is acted upon by forces (called inertia forces) that cause the same distributions that occur in the moving-base system. In design system it is customary to assume the structure as a fixed- base system acted upon by inertia forces. Seismic design involves two distinct steps

  1. Determining (or estimating) the earthquake forces that will acted on the structure, and,

  2. Designing the structure to provide adequate strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation capabilities to with stand these forces.

1.2. BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURE:

Building and other structures are composed of horizontal and vertical structural elements that resist lateral forces. The horizontal elements, diaphragms and horizontal bracings are used to distribute the lateral forces to vertical elements. The vertical elements that are used to transfer lateral forces to the ground are shear walls, braced frames and moment resisting frames. The structure must include complete lateral and vertical force resisting systems, capable of providing adequate energy dissipation capacity to withstand the design ground motions with in the prescribed limits, deformation and strength demand.

The loads or forces that a structure sustains during an earthquake result directly from the distortions induced in the structure by motion of the ground on which it rests. Earthquake loads are inertia forces related to the mass, Stiffness and energy absorbing. (i.e. damping and ductility) characteristics of the structure.

During the life of a structure , located in a seismically active zone, subjected to many small earthquakes, some moderate earthquakes, one or more large earthquakes and possibly a very severe earthquake. In general it is uneconomical or impractical to design buildings to resist the forces resulting from the very severe earthquake with in the elastic range of stress instead the building is designed to resist lower level of force, using ductile systems. When the earthquake motion is large to severe, some of the structural elements are expected to yield. Buildings that are properly designed and detailed can survive earthquake forces substantially greater than the forces associated with allowable stresses in the elastic range. Seismic design concepts must consider building proportions and detail for their ductility and for their reverse energy- absorbing capacity for surviving the inelastic deformations that would result from the maximum expected earthquake.

Architectural planning of structures:

The behaviour of a building during earthquake depends critically on its overall shape, size and geometry, in addition to the earthquake forces. Building with plan

irregularities (e.g., those with re-entrant corners such as L-shape plans on corner plots) and those with elevation irregularities (e.g., large vertical setbacks in elevation such as a plaza type configuration in commercial structures) are common. Building with plan asymmetry may experience significant torsional motions with even slight eccentricity between the center of mass (CM) and the center of rigidity (CR).As a result, the flexible side of the building (the edge of the building closer to CM) experiences larger than the stiff side (the edge of the building closer to CR).If not designed to accommodate these excessive deformations, the columns on the flexible side may fail and lead to collapse.

    1. The size of buildings:

      In tall buildings with large height to base size ratio, the horizontal movement of the floors during ground shaking is large. In short but very long buildings, the damaging effects during earthquake shaking are many. In buildings with large plan area, the horizontal forces can be excessive to be carried by columns and walls.

    2. Horizontal layout:

      Generally, buildings with simple geometry in plan perform well during the strong earthquakes. Building with reentrant corners like those U, V, H and + shaped in plan subjects to severe damage. Often, simple plan with columns/ walls unequally distributed in plan tend to twist during the earthquake.

    3. Vertical layout:

      The earthquake forces developed at different floor levels in a building need to be brought along the height to the ground by the shortest path. Any deviation or discontinuity in the load transfer path results in poor performance. Buildings with vertical

      setbacks cause a sudden jump in earthquake forces at the level of discontinuity. Building with fewer columns or walls in a particular storey or with unusually tall storey tend to damage or collapse which is initiated in that storey. Buildings with open ground storey intended for parking, building on sloppy ground having unequal height columns along the slope cause ill effects twisting and damage in short coumns. Buildings with floating columns has discontinuity in the load transfer path.

    4. Adjacency of buildings:

      Two buildings closely spaced may pounding during strong shaking. The unequal heights in adjacent buildings cause severe damage to both the buildings due to pounding action.

    5. Seismic zones of India:

The varying geology at different locations in the country implies that the likelihood of damaging earthquakes taking place at different locations is different. Thus, a seismic zone map is required so that buildings and other structures located in different regions can be designed to withstand different level of ground shaking. The current zone map subdivided India into five zones I, II, III, IV and V (Fig) and subsequently in 2002 the zone I and II have minimized.

The maximum Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity of seismic shaking in these zones are V or less, VI, VII, VIII and IX and other, respectively. Parts of Himalayan boundary in the North and Northest, and the Kach area in the West are classified as zone

V. The seismic zone maps are revised from time to time as more understanding is grained on the geology, the seismic tectonic and the seismic activity in the country.

Zone factors detailing:

Zone 5

Zone 5 covers the areas with the highest risks zone that suffers earthquakes of intensity MSK IX or greater. The IS

code assigns zone factor of 0.36 for Zone 5. Structural designers use this factor for earthquake resistant design of structures in Zone 5. The zone factor of 0.36 is indicative of effective (zero period) peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.36 g (36 % of gravity) that may be generated during MCE level earthquake in this zone. It is referred to as the Very High Damage Risk Zone. The state of Kashmir, Punjab,the western and central Himalayas, the North-East Indian region and the Rann of Kutch fall in this zone.Generally, the areas having trap or basaltic rock are prone to earthquakes.

Zone 4

This zone is called the High Damage Risk Zone and covers areas liable to MSK VIII. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.24 for Zone 4. The Indo-Gangetic basin and the capital of the country (Delhi), Jammu and Kashmir fall in Zone 4. In Maharashtra Patan area(Koyananager) also in zone 4. but East Delhi is an earthquake prone area.

Zone 3

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of Kashmir, Western Himalayas fall under this zone. This zone is classified as Moderate Damage Risk Zone which is liable to MSK VII. and also 7.8 The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.16 for Zone 3.

Zone 2

This region is liable to MSK VI or less and is classified as the Low Damage Risk Zone. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.10 (maximum horizontal acceleration that can be experienced by a structure in this zone is 10 % of gravitational acceleration) for Zone 2.

5.AIM OF THE PROJECT

Here the main objective of the term paper is to compare base shear values for buildings of varying heights (G+4,G+9,G+14) in different zones in India categorized as per IS code of importance factor 1and also for different types of soils.The final conclusion for the project will be comparision of base shear values with moment values using STAAD PROGRAMING. Thus, simplifying the design calculations for construction of buildings.

DETAILS OF MODEL PROBLEM:

The RCC frames are in filled with brick masonry Thickness of slab 0.15m

Load due to roof finish 2Kn/m^2

Load due to floor finish 1Kn/m^2

Thickness of outer walls 0.25mmincluding plaster

Thickness of inner walls 0.15mm including plaster

Imposed load 3.5Kn/m^2

Size of column at ground level 0.25* 0.4m

Type of foundation isolated footing

Soil condition hard murmur available at depth of 1.5m below G.L

Seismic zone III

Length in x-direction 20m

Length in y-direction 20m

No of in fills in x-direction 3

No of in fills in y-direction 4

Total floor area 400m^2

Floor to floor height 3.5m

Ground level 1.5m

Height of ground floor 3.5m

No of floors without stilt 9

Total height of the building 36.5m

Unit wt of masonry 20

Unit wt of concrete 25

Self wt of slab 3.75Kn m

No of floors without stilt and roof floor 8

PLAN AND SECTIONAL VIEWS ARE:

Y N

20

5

20

X

4

PLAN

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

SILT

G+14

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

SILT

G+9

4

3

2

1

SILT

G+4

COMPARISION RESULTS FOR ZONES:

BASE SHEAR VALUES FOR ROCKY SOIL, MEDIUM SOIL, SOFT SOIL (G+4):

ZONE

/STOREY

ZONEII

ZONEIII

ZONE IV

ZONE V

04

311.2152

497.9443

746.9165

1120.375

03

303.3289

485.3262

727.9893

1091.984

02

181.8079

290.8927

436.339

654.5086

01

91.21961

145.9514

218.9271

328.3906

SILT

24.02995

38.44792

57.67188

86.50782

T-SHEAR

911.6016

1458.563

2187.844

3281.766

COMPARSION/ STOREY

V/II

V/III

V/IV

IV/III

IV/II

III/II

04

360.0001

225.0001

150

150

240

160

03

360

225

150

150

240

160

02

360.0001

225

150

150

240

160

010

360

225

150

150

240

160

SILT

360

225

150

150

240

160

T-SHEAR

360

225

150

150

240

160

BASE SHEAR VALUE FOR ROCKY SOIL (G+9):

ZONE/ STOREY

ZONEII

ZONEIII

ZONEIV

ZONEV

09

196.3375

314.1401

471.2101

706.8152

08

235.0402

376.0644

564.0966

846.1449

07

187.8272

300.5234

450.7852

676.1778

06

145.9019

233.4431

350.1646

525.247

05

109.2646

174.8233

262.235

393.3525

04

77.91508

124.6641

186.9962

280.4943

03

51.85346

82.96554

124.4483

186.6725

02

31.0797

49.72752

74.59128

111.8869

01

15.59381

24.95009

37.42514

56.13771

SILT

4.107872

6.572595

9.858892

14.78834

T-SHEAR

1054.921

1687.874

2531.811

3797.717

COMPARISION/ STOREY

V/II

V/III

V/IV

IV/III

IV/II

III/II

09

360.0001

225

150

150

240.0001

160.0001

08

360.0001

225

150

150

240.0001

160

07

359.9999

225

150

150

240

159.9999

06

360.0001

225

150

150

240

160

05

359.9999

225

150

150

240

159.9999

04

360

225.0001

150

150

240

160

03

359.9999

225

150

150

240

160

02

360

225

150

150

240

160

01

360

225

150

150

240

160

SILT

360

225

150

150

240

160

T-SHEAR

360

225

150

150

240

160

BASE SHEAR VALUE FOR MEDIUM SOIL (G+9):

ZONE/ STOREY

ZONEII

ZONEIII

ZONEIV

ZONEV

09

267.019

427.2305

640.8457

961.2685

08

319.6547

511.4475

767.1713

1150.757

07

255.4449

408.7119

913.0678

919.6017

06

198.4266

317.4826

613.0678

714.3358

05

148.5998

237.7597

356.6395

534.9593

04

105.9645

169.5432

254.3148

381.4722

03

70.5207

112.8331

169.2497

253.8745

02

42.26839

67.62942

101.4441

152.1662

01

21.20758

33.93212

50.89819

76.34728

SILT

5.586705

8.938728

13.40809

20.11214

T-SHEAR4

1434.693

2295.509

3443.263

5164.895

COMPARISION/ STOREY

V/II

V/III

V/IV

IV/III

IV/II

III/II

09

360

225

150

150

240

160

08

360

225

150

150

240

160

07

360

225

150

150

240

160

06

360

225

150

150

240

160

05

360

225

150

150

240

160

04

360

225

150

150

240

160

03

360

225

150

150

240

160

02

360

225

150

150

239.9999

160

01

360

225

150

150

240

160

SILT

360

225

150

150

240

160

BASE SHEAR VALUES FOR SOFT SOIL(G+9):

ZONE/ STOREY

ZONEII

ZONEIII

ZONEIV

ZONEV

09

32708837

524.6139

786.9208

1180.381

08

392.5172

628.0275

942.0412

1413.062

07

313.6713

501.8741

752.8111

1129.217

06

243.6562

389.8499

584.7749

877.1623

05

182.4718

291.9549

437.9324

656.8985

04

130.1182

208.1891

312.2836

468.4254

03

86.59527

138.5524

207.8286

311.743

02

51.9031

83.04495

124.5674

186.8511

01

26.04166

41.66665

62.49998

93.74997

SILT

6.860145

10.97623

16.46435

24.69652

T-SHEAR

1761.719

2818.75

4228.124

6342.187

COMPARISION/ STOREY

V/II

V/III

V/IV

IV/III

IV/II

III/II

09

359.9999

224.9999

150

150

240

160

08

360

225

150

150

240

160

07

360.0001

225.0001

150

150

240

160

06

360

225

150

150

240

160

05

360

225

150

150

240

160

04

359.9999

225

150

150

239.9999

160

03

360

225.0001

150

150

239.9999

160

02

359.9999

225

150

150

239.9999

160

01

360

225

150

150

240

160

SILT

360

225

150

150

240

160

T-SHEAR

360

225

150

150

240

160

BASE SHEAR VALUES FOR HARD SOIL(G+14):

ZONE/ STOREY

ZONE II

ZONE III

ZONE IV

ZONE V

01

139.682

223.4912

335.2367

502.8551

02

178.9091

286.2545

429.3817

644.0726

03

154.9692

247.9507

371.926

557.889

04

132.748

212.3968

318.5953

477.8929

05

112.2457

179.593

269.3896

404.0844

06

93.46205

149.5393

224.3089

336.4634

07

76.3972

122.2355

183.3533

275.0299

08

61.05111

97.68178

146.5227

219.784

09

47.42379

75.87806

113.8171

170.7256

10

35.51523

56.82436

85.23654

127.8548

11

25.32543

40.52068

60.78102

91.17153

12

16.85439

26.96702

40.45053

60.67579

13

10.10211

16.16337

24.24506

36.36759

14

5.068593

8.109749

12.16462

18.24693

SILT

1.347842

2.156548

3.234822

4.852233

T-SHEAR

1091.102

1745.763

2618.644

3927.966

ZONES/ COMPARISION

V/II

V/III

V/IV

IV/III

IV/II

III/II

01

359.9999

225

150

150

239.9999

160

02

359.9999

225

150

150

239.9999

160

03

359.9999

225

150

150

239.9999

160

04

360.0001

225

150

150

240.0001

160

05

359.9999

225.0001

150

150.0001

239.9999

159.9999

06

360

225

150

150

240

160

07

360

225

150

150

240

160

08

360

225

150

150

240.0001

160

09

359.9999

225

150

150

240

160

10

359.9999

225

150

150

240

160

11

359.9999

225

150

150

240

160

12

359.9999

225

150

150

240

160

13

359.9999

225

150

150

240

159.9999

14

359.9999

224.9999

150

150

239.9999

160

SILT

360.0001

225

150

150

240.0001

160.0001

T-SHEAR

360

225

150

150

240

160

BASE SHEAR VALUES FOR MEDIUM SOIL(G+14):

ZONES/ STOREY

ZONE II

ZONE III

ZONE IV

ZONE V

14

189.9674

303.9479

455.9218

683.8827

13

243.3162

389.3059

583.9589

875.9384

12

210.758

337.2128

505.8191

758.7287

11

180.5372

288.8596

433.2894

649.9341

10

152.654

244.2465

366.3697

549.5545

9

127.1083

203.3733

305.06

457.59

8

103.9002

166.2402

249.3604

374.0405

7

83.02948

132.8472

199.2708

298.9061

6

64.49633

103.1941

154.7912

232.1868

5

48.30069

77.2811

115.9217

173.8825

4

34.44257

55.10811

82.66216

123.9932

3

22.92196

36.67513

55.0127

82.51905

2

13.73886

21.98218

32.97327

49.45991

1

6.893284

11.02925

16.54388

24.81582

SILT

1.833065

2.932904

4.399356

6.599034

T.SHEAR

1483.898

2374.236

3561.354

5342.031

ZONES/ COMPARISION

V/II

V/III

V/IV

IV/III

IV/II

III/II

01

360

225

150

150

240

160

02

360

225

150

150

240

160

03

360

225

150

150

240

160

04

360.0001

225

150

150

240.0001

160

05

360.0001

224.9999

150

150

240.0001

160.0001

06

360.0001

225

150

150

240.0001

160

07

359.9998

225

150

150.0001

239.9999

159.9999

08

360

224.9999

149.9999

150

240.0001

160

09

360

225.0001

150

150

240

160

10

360

225

150

150.0001

240.0001

160

11

359.9998

224.9999

150

150

240

160

12

360

225

150

150

240

160

13

360.0001

225

150

150

240

160

14

360

225.0001

150

150

240

159.9999

SILT

360

225

150

150

240

160

T-SHEAR

360

225

150

150

240

160

BASE SHEAR VALUES FOR SOFT SOIL (G+14):

ZONES/ STOREY

ZONE II

ZONE III

ZONE IV

ZONE V

14

233.2688

373.2302

559.8452

839.7678

13

298.7781

478.0449

717.0673

1075.601

12

258.7984

414.0775

621.1163

931.6744

11

221.6892

354.7027

532.054

798.081

10

187.4502

299.9203

449.8805

674.8207

9

156.0816

249.7305

374.5958

561.8937

8

127.5833

204.1333

306.1999

459.2999

7

101.9553

163.1285

244.6928

367.0392

6

79.19771

126.7163

190.0745

285.1118

5

59.31042

94.89667

142.345

213.5175

4

42.29345

67.66952

101.5043

152.2564

3

28.14682

45.03491

67.55237

101.3286

2

16.87052

26.99283

40.48924

60.73387

1

8.464548

13.54328

20.31492

30.47237

SILT

2.250896

3.601434

5.402151

8.103227

T.SHEAR

1822.139

2915.423

4373.134

6559.701

ZONES/ COMPARISION

V/II

V/III

V/IV

IV/III

IV/II

III/II

01

360.0001

225

150

150

240

160.0001

02

359.9999

225

150

150

240

160

03

360.0001

225

150

150

240.0001

160

04

359.9999

225

150

150

240

160

05

360

225

150

150

240

160

06

360

225

150

150

240

160

07

360

225

150

150

240

160

08

360.0001

225

150

150

240.0001

160

09

360.0001

225.0001

150

150

240

160

10

360

225

150

150

240

160

11

360

225

150

150

240

160

12

360.0002

225.0001

150.0001

150

240

160

13

360

225

150

150

240

160

14

360

224.9999

150

150

240.0001

160

SILT

360.0001

225

150

150

240

160

T-SHEAR

360

225

150

150

240

160

ZONES/ STOREY

ZONE II

ZONE III

ZONE IV

ZONE V

14

135.9999

135.9999

136

136

13

135.9999

135.9999

136

135.9999

12

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

11

135.9999

136

135.9999

135.9999

10

135.9999

136

135.9999

135.9999

9

135.9999

135.9999

136

135.9999

8

136

135.9999

136

135.9999

7

136

136

136

135.9999

6

135.9999

135.9999

136

136

5

135.9999

135.9999

136

136

4

135.9999

136

136

135.9999

3

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

136

2

135.9999

136

136

136

1

136

135.9999

136

136

SILT

136

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

T.SHEAR

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

ZONES/ STOREY

ZONE II

ZONE III

ZONE IV

ZONE V

14

135.9999

135.9999

136

136

13

135.9999

135.9999

136

135.9999

12

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

11

135.9999

136

135.9999

135.9999

10

135.9999

136

135.9999

135.9999

9

135.9999

135.9999

136

135.9999

8

136

135.9999

136

135.9999

7

136

136

136

135.9999

6

135.9999

135.9999

136

136

5

135.9999

135.9999

136

136

4

135.9999

136

136

135.9999

3

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

136

2

135.9999

136

136

136

1

136

135.9999

136

136

SILT

136

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

T.SHEAR

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

135.9999

COMPARISION OF BASE SHEAR VALUES BY TYPE OF SOIL: HARD AND MEDIUM SOIL:

FOR HARD AND SOFT SOIL:

ZONES/ STOREY

ZONE II

ZONE III

ZONE IV

ZONE V

14

166.9999

167

167

167

13

166.9999

167

167

167

12

166.9999

166.9999

167

167

11

167

167

167

167

10

166.9999

167

167

166.9999

9

167

166.9999

167

166.9999

8

167

167

166.9999

167

7

166.9999

166.9999

166.9999

167

6

167

166.9999

166.9999

167

5

167

167

167

167

4

166.9999

167

167

166.9999

3

166.9999

167

167

167.0001

2

167

167

167

167

1

167

167

167

167

SILT

167

166.9999

166.9999

167

T.SHEAR

166.9999

167

167

167

FOR MEDIUM AND SOFT SOILS:

ZONES/ STOREY

ZONE II

ZONE III

ZONE IV

ZONE V

14

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

13

122.7942

122.7942

122.7941

122.7941

12

122.7941

122.7941

122.7942

122.7941

11

122.7942

122.7942

122.7941

122.7941

10

122.7942

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

9

122.7942

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

8

122.7941

122.7942

122.7941

122.7942

7

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

6

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

5

122.7941

122.7942

122.7941

122.7941

4

122.7941

122.7941

122.7942

122.7942

3

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

122.7942

2

122.7942

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

1

122.7941

122.7942

122.7942

122.7941

SILT

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

T.SHEAR

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

122.7941

COMPARISION RESULTS FOR SOILS:

  1. Comparision of base shear value for hard and medium soils for all zones is 136.

  2. Comparision of base shear value for hard and soft soils for all zones is 167

  3. Comparision of base shear value for medium and soft soils for all zones is 122.7941.

    CONCLUSION:

    In this contest we are going to develop the graphs with respect to : X Y

    Height base shear

    Base shear moment

    And observe the relation between base shear and moment with respect to height for wind load of terrace conditions 1(10 m) of building area.

    REFERENCES:

    1. Earthquake Engineering Research 1982, Committee on Earthquake

    2. Engineering, Research Commission on Engineering and

    3. Technical Systems, National Research Council, National Academy

    4. Press, Washington, D.C. 1982

    5. Dowrick, D. J., Earthquake Resistant Design, John Wiley & sons

    6. Newyork,1977

    7. Rosenbleuth, E., Design of Earthquake Resistant Structures, by

    8. Whitman, R. V., and Bielak, J., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

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