A Review Paper on “E-Waste” Technology

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A Review Paper on “E-Waste” Technology

1Aditya Vijayvargiya, 2 Mr. Kapil Sahu

Electronics and Communication Department Electronics and Communication Department

1Btech Scholar, 2Associate Professor

Vivekananda Institute of Technology (East), Jaipur Vivekananda Institute of Technology (East), Jaipur

Abstract: -Basically Electronic waste (e-waste) is a kind of unwanted electronic or electrical appliances. This E-waste includes entertainment electronics, computers, mobile phones and other items that have somewhere been discarded by their existing users. E-waste is an inevitable by-product of a technological revolution. Driven primarily by smaller, faster, cheaper and microchip technology, society is experiencing the evolution in capability of all the electronic appliances. For its benefits innovation brings with it. As per the EPA an estimated 5-7 million tons of stereos, TV, computers, toys, electronic appliances, cell phones and other electronic gadgets become obsolete every year. By various reports we usually see that the electronics comprise approximately 1-4% of the municipal solid waste stream. An E-waste problem will be continuously growing at a much higher rate. E-waste refers to electronic products being discarded by the consumers.

Keywords: -E-waste, benefits, recycle, TV etc.

INTRODUCTION

Electronic waste or e-waste are describesdiscarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are the destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling or disposal is also is considered e-waste. Informal processing of e- waste in developing countries can be lead to adverse human health effects and environmental pollution.

Electronic scrap components, such as CPUs, contain potentially harmful components are belead, cadmium, beryllium, or brominates flame retardants. Recycling and disposal of e-waste may involved significant risk for the workers and communities in developed countries and great care must be taken for avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operation and leaking of materials are such as heavy metal from landfill and incinerator ashes.

Rapid change in technology, changes in media (tapes, software, MP3), falling prices, and have resulted in a fast- growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Technical solutions are available, for most cases a legal framework, a collection, logistics, and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied

AMOUNT OF ELECTRONIC WASTE WORLD-WIDE

According to a report by UNEP titled, "Recycling from Electronic Waste to Resources," the amount of e-waste beingproducedincluding mobile phones and computers could rise by as much as 500% over the next decade in

some of countries, such as India.The United States is the world leader in producing electronic waste, toss away about 3 million ton each year. China already produces about 2.3 million tons (2010 estimate) domestically, second only for the United States. And, despite having banned e- waste imports, China remains a major e-waste dumping ground in developed countries

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Figure 1 Environmental Impact

The process of disposing of electronic wasted in the developing countries is lead to the number of environmental impact as illustrated in the graphic. Liquid and atmospheric release end up in body of water, groundwater, soil, and air and therefore in land and sea animals are both domesticated and wild, in crops eaten by both animals and human, and in drinking water.

Levels of carcinogens in duck of ponds and rice paddies exceeded international standards for agricultural areas and cadmium, copper, nickel, and lead levels in the rice paddies were above international standards. Heavy metals found in road dust lead over 300 times that of the control village's road dust and copper over 100 times.

The environmental impact of processing the different electronic waste components

E-Waste Component

Process Used

Potential Environmental Hazard of e- waste component

Cathode ray tubes

(used in TVs,

Breaking and

Lead, barium and other

computer

removal of yoke,

heavy metals leaching into

monitors, ATM,

then dumping of

the ground water and release

video cameras,

yoke.

toxic of phosphor.

and more)

Printed circuit

board (image behind table a thin plate on which chips and other electronic components are placed)

De-soldering and removal of the computer chips; open burning and acid baths to remove metals after chips are removed.

Air emissions and discharge into river of glass dust, tin, lead, brominates dioxin, beryllium cadmium, and mercury

Chips and other gold plated components are

Chemical stripping using nitric and hydrochloric acid and burning of chips

PAHs, heavy metals, brominate flame retardants discharged directly into rivers acidifying fish and flora. Tin and lead contamination of the surface and the groundwater. Air emissions of thebrominates dioxins, heavy metals, and PAHs

Plastics of printers, keyboards and monitors, etc.

Shredding and low temp melting to be reused

Emissions of brominates dioxins of heavy metals and hydrocarbons

Computer wires

Open burning and stripping to remove copper

PAHs released into air, water and soil.

INFORMATION SECURITIES

E-waste presents a potential security threat to individuals and exporting countries. Hard drives that are not properly erased before the computer is disposed of can be reopened, exposing sensitive information. Credit card numbers, private financial data, account information, and records of online transactions can be accessed by most willing individuals. Organized criminals in Ghana commonly search the drives for information to use in local scams. Electronic files about government contracts have been discovered on hard drives found in Agbogbloshie. Multimillion-dollar agreements from United States security institutions such as the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the Transportation Security Administration and Homeland Security have all resurfaced in Agbogbloshie.

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Recycling

Figure 2 E-waste Products

Computer monitors are typically packed into low stacks on wooden pallets for recycling and then shrink-wrapped.

Audiovisual components, televisions, VCRs, stereo equipment, mobile phones, other handheld devices, and computer components contain valuable elements and substances suitable for reclamation, including lead, copper, and gold.

One of the majr challenges is recycling the printed circuit boards from the electronic wastes. The circuit boards contain such precious metals as gold, silver, platinum, etc. and such base metals as copper, iron, aluminum, etc. One way e-waste is processed is by melting circuit boards, burning cable sheathing to recover copper wire and open- pit acid leaching for separating metals of value. Conventional method employed is mechanical shredding and separation but the recycling efficiency is low. Alternative methods such as have been studied for printed circuit board recycling, and some other methods are still under investigation. As properly disposing of or reusing electronics can help prevent health problems, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and create jobs, there have been calls to

Reform "the methodology for e-waste disposal and re-use in developing countries with reuse and refurbishing offering a more environmentally friendly and socially conscious alternative todowncycling processes.

CONCLUSION

Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling or disposal are also considered e-waste. Informal processing of e-waste in developing countries can lead to adverse human health effects and environmental pollution.

Electronic scrap components, such as CPUs, contain potentially harmful components such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, or brominates. Recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities in developed countries and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaking of materials such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes.

REFERENCES

  1. Sakar, Anne. "Dad brought home lead, kids got sick".

  2. Jump up to:a b : Sthiannopkao S, Wong MH. (2012) Handling e- waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences. Sci Total Environ.

  3. Jump up^ "WEEE CRT and Monitor Recycling". Executiveblueprints.com. 2 August 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2012.

  4. Jump up to:a b Morgan, Russell (21 August 2006). "Tips and Tricks for Recycling Old Computers". SmartBiz. Retrieved 17 March 2009.

  5. Jump up^ "Defining & categorization of wastes via the regulations". ITGreen. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.

  6. Jump up^ "Ghana e-Waste Country Assessment" (PDF). Ghana e-Waste Country Assessment. SBC e-Waste Africa Project. Retrieved 29 August 2011.

  7. Jump up^ Smedley, Tim. The Guardian, 2013. Web. 22 May 2015. <http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable- business/phonebloks-future-sustainable-smartphone

  8. Jump up^ "Statistics on the Management of Used and End-of-Life Electronics". US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 13 March 2012.

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