A Case Study on Sanitation Conditions in India

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A Case Study on Sanitation Conditions in India

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Mayur Ambarlal Humane*, Dr. Arif Khan**

* Environmental Engineering Department;Nuva College of Engineering & Technology Nagpur,India

** Environmental Engineering Department ;Nuva College of Engineering & Technology Nagpur,India

Abstract- Water is a precious commodity. Provision of clean drinking water, sanitation and a clean environment are vital to improve health and life span of people. Sanitation is a basic need like food and drinking water. A sanitary toilet within or near home provides privacy and dignity to women. Sanitation and hygienic improvement is very important for the development of society.In this case study discussing all methods,management,conditions etc. for a sanitation conditions in India.

Keywords- Rural Sanitation, Drinking Water, Diseases,

Hygiene, Water, Public latrines, Education Campaign

I. INTRODUCTION

Water, sanitation and hygiene service are very important to address the poverty, livelihoods and health.Water is a precious commodity. Provision of clean drinking water, sanitation and a clean environment are vital to improve the health and life span of people. Women and girls spend hours fetching water from different sources like Public Stand Post (PSP), Hand Pump (HP), Household Tap (HHT), Open Wells (OW), Agriculture Wells (AW) and Surface Water (SW).

In the 21st century more than half of the global population is expected to live in towns and cities. In some of cites more than quarter a million people are added every year. This poses huge challenge to urban municipal and planning bodies, which are responsible for providing infrastructure and basic services to the urban population.

The growing cities of developing countries are facing crisis between demand and supply of the basic amenities like drinking water and adequate sanitation services and necessary infrastructure. India (where 7.5 % of reported deaths are sanitation and water related) has been grappling with the problem of water and sanitation coverage, especially for the rural areas and poor in urban areas (editorial EPW, Jan 24, 2009). The most cities and towns of India are characterized by over-crowding, congestion, inadequate water supply and sanitation which include disposal of human excreta, waste water, and garbage disposal, which in turn affects the health of urban people.

Water and sanitation have been the subjects of considerable recent attention as a result of the declaration by the United Nations General Assembly that the 1980s were the International Drinking-Water, Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD) and year 2008 has been declared the International Year of Sanitation. Sanitation offers the opportunity to save the lives of 1.5 million children every year who would otherwise succumb to sanitation related

diseases and it protects the health of many more. Sanitation incorporates safe disposal of human waste, waste water management, control of vector of disease, domestic and personal hygiene, food sanitation and lastly but not least housing condition.

The recent definitions of sanitation prominently states that the access to latrine is not the same as adoption of sanitary practices in dealing with human waste, nor are access to a latrine the same as its hygienic use and the adoption of other hygienic practices. Epidemiological investigations have shown that even in the absence of latrine, diarrheal morbidity can be reduced with adoption of improved hygiene behavior (WHO, 1998).

Water and improved sanitation play a major role in the overall well-being of the people, with a significant bearing on the infant mortality, longevity and productivity. Causes of contamination of water are indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and chemicals, poor hygienic environment of water sources, improper disposal of sewage and solid waste, pollution from untreated industrial effluents, over-exploitation leading to quality degradation.

Thus, the supply of additional quantity of water by itself does not ensure good health; proper handling of water and prevention of contamination are also equally important. Contagious, infectious and waterborne diseases such as diarrhoea, amoebiasis, typhoid, infectious hepatitis, worm infestations, measles, malaria, tuberculosis, whooping cough, respiratory infections, pneumonia and reproductive tract infections dominate the morbidity pattern and prevalence in India. Recent studies have shown the importance of washing ones hands with soap as it reduces diarrheal disease by 43 per cent. Respiratory problems such as sniffles and coughs were also brought down by 45 per cent when hands were washed five times a day (10th five year plan 2002-2007).

The study of the sanitation facilities available to the households is an important aspect of living facilities and it is closely related to the health and hygiene of the households members and its surrounding environment (NSSO 69th round report, 2013). In this consideration, the objectives of this paper are to examine the water and sanitation conditions and the effects on diseases prevalence in urban areas of India.

1.1 Rural Sanitation in India-1.2 Rural Sanitation coverage in India-1.3 The National Sample Survey (NSS) Findings on Rural Sanitation Coverage-Constitutional ObligationsThe priorities are as under:

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