5G Enriching the Telecommunication Ecosystem

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5G Enriching the Telecommunication Ecosystem

Sarthak Agrawal

School of Electronics Engineering Vellore Institute of Technology Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract We are at the threshold of fifth generation(5G) wireless networking technologies to be established and then incorporated into standards. New-level scalability needs to develop to construct a design framework for designing innovative 5G-enabled technology solutions. The mobile network of the next generation needs to meet diverse demands. End-to-end (E2E) network slicing is a foundation for supporting diversified 5G networks and is vital to the advancement of 5G network architecture. Providing companies and individuals with real- time, on-demand, all online, social interface requires an organised

Through offering higher data rates and greater coverage, eMBB provides a more reliable and more streamlined user experience [2]. In crowded conditions, eMBB is aimed at promoting both higher capacity and increased mobility coverage for commuters.




E2E infrastructure featuring adaptive, automated, and smart

operation during each process. Through 5G, we are driving towards consumer value creation, the total cost of ownership and future networks. A step forward for augmenting existing operations and creating new sources of value. In this paper we are dealing with the potential enablers for meeting required vital quality indicators.

Keywords 5G; Cloud-Native; Virtualisation; Network Function Virtualization(NFV); New Radio(NR)


5G is not only about introducing a series of gradual changes over 4G, primarily with regards to the increasing data rate that it can achieve. The move to 5G now also opens up total new application domains, specifically within IoT and the Tactile Internet, in sharp contrast to previous change measures when moving from 2G to 3G to 4G.

The expansion of the reach of operation for mobile networks enriches the environment of the telecom network. A variety of conventional sectors are involved in the construction of this environment, such as the automobile, healthcare, electricity and municipal structures. 5G is the beginning of digitalisation from personal entertainment to interconnection within society. Digitalisation provides immense potential for the wireless communication industry, which poses stringent barriers to wireless technologies.[1]

New-level scalability needs to be developed to construct a design framework for designing new 5G-enabled technology solutions.

5G is planned for 3 different classes of use case:

Ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC), enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC).


5G is intended to span a wide variety of services; however, eMBB and fixed wireless communication networks are expected to have the first practical use of the platform. In many ways, eMBB is an extension of services that 4G LTE networks first enabled.

Lighting -fast browsing Better video calls

Stream UHD and 360 videos Instant Cloud access

To meet this demand, eMBB introduces two significant improvements:

1) Shifting to cmWave and mmWave band of spectrum to achieve much higher bandwidth allocation and reachability

2) To enable massive MIMO and Beamforming, designing advanced antenna array that has hundreds of Tx/Rx antenna elements

The initial deployment of 5G Non-Standalone (NSA) focuses on eMBB, this offers higher network capacity and modest latency enhancements for both 5G NR and 4G LTE. A multi-tier ranked network deployment (i.e., small cells underlying macro-cells) is intended to expand wireless network coverage.[3] At the same time, in the wired core network, the availability of system routers, computationally efficient servers and physical links with high frequency transmission is surged to handle high traffic volumes and respond timely to demands for assistance.

Figure 1: eMBB Usage Scenarios

This will facilitate improve existing cases of mobile broadband use such like rising AR / VR devices and software,

UltraHD or 360-degree streaming video, and even real-time translation for participants speaking different languages.[4]


5G address the field of Machine type communication (MTC), it is about machine-to-machine communication.

mMTC devices can take advantage of their very low latency and rate requirements to facilitate device simplicity that is supported by an MTC-specific transmission mode network.[5] Features of such a transmission method are communications with limited peak-rate and restricted bandwidth for the device.



Low device Complexity Service Flexibility

Coverage extension (by 15 dB)

Long battery life (5-10 years) Supports massive number of devices

Since mMTC devices may be integrated with various types of physical artefacts, and in different kinds of environments, they can be located where access from the mobile network infrastructure is difficult to achieve. Taking advantage of the delay-tolerant low-rate specifications, transmission modes with deficient data levels and extremely reliable channel architecture can be implemented, thereby offering a considerably more extensive range of mobile networks.[6]

Figure 2: mMTC Usage Scenarios

The infrequent data transmission per system and the tolerance to delays allow extended battery life. Long battery lifetimes can be given by relaying together with meager data rates, where the substantial path loss is split into two lower- loss sections.[7]

A scalable transmission is required as the number of mMTC devices can be immensely growing, with probably several hundred thousand devices per radio cell. In particular, large system populations need robust multiple access schemes for random access. That can be accomplished by increasing the room for contention for example, by extending time-frequency domain contention signals which may be further enhanced by successive interference cancellations. For data transmission, uplink capability for devices with very high path loss can be

improved.[8] For such apps, it is useful to assign fine-granular resources or overload resource use, e.g. through multiplexing code-division. In addition, the purpose of relaying will provide a significant improvement in both uplink and downlink capabilities.

An mMTC network is engineered to be latency-tolerant, effective for transmitting or receiving small data blocks, and to be sent on channels with low bandwidth. The key performance criteria for a mMTC network service is to achieve a high link density of up to 1 million users per km2, which is approximately 10x times its current highest possible 4G LTE connection.[9]


URLLC aids veru high reliablity with low latency transmissions of finite payloads from a restricted cluster of terminals being dynamic in compliance with patterns usually defined by external events such as alarms.[10]

Low latency allows the optimisation of a network to process sublime large amounts of data with minimum delay (or latency). The networks need to respond in real-time to a vast volume of data that is evolving. 5G should enable the service to operate. URLLC could be the most exciting addition to potential 5G capabilities, but it will also be the most difficult to secure; URLLC requires a completely different quality of service ( QoS) from mobile broadband services. It will provide instantaneous and intelligent systems to networks, while transfer from the core network will be needed.[11]TABLE III



Industrial Automation Tactile Interaction

Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality0020(VR)

Urgent Healthcare Intelligent Transport

This new wireless URLLC networking will ensure latency is 1ms or less. To achieve low latency at this interface, all devices need to synchronize to the same time-base. A further component of the 5G URLLC capabilities is time-sensitive networking. This will allow for time-consciousness of the shapers used to control traffic.[12]

The architecture of a low-latency and high-reliability infrastructure requires several components: optimized frame structure, extremely quick turnaround, effective network resource sharing and control, grant-free uplink transmission, and sophisticated channel coding systems. Uplink grant-free systems guarantee a reduction in latency transmission of user equipment (UE) by eliminating the middle man phase of obtaining a dedicated scheduling grant.[13]

Supporting sporadic URLLC transmissions requires a combination of timing to ensure a certain level of predictability in the available resources, thus fostering high reliability; as well as random access to prevent too many resources from becoming idle due to irregular traffic.[5]

Figure 3: URLLC Usage Scenarios

A URLLC chanelling should be widely distributed at any moment in time, owing to the reduced latency requirements. Complexity, that is essential in achieving high accuracy, can therefore only be attained by means of numerous frequencies or structural methods. A URLLC transmission rate is comparatively small, and the analytical precondition is to maintain a exorbitant degree of authenticity, with a generally little packet error rate (PER) than, given the limited block lengths[9].

In addition, the resources assigned to URLLC end user will possibly be unutilized since the URLLC traffic is discontinuous. This is because in the absence of a URLLC transmission the channels booked for URLLC are indolent. Reliability of URLLC will potentially be enhanced by eliminating prevalent assets from eMBB and assigning them to URLLC[7].


Network Slicing is one of those principles that facilitates and accelerates digital transformation and achieves maximum growth in the management of resources and financial values in the communications service providers (CSPs) and the Telecommunications industry. The contemporary network topologies will be transformed to automatically identify the best routing path through a dedicated and highly sensitive network to meet the business and customer demands which reflect a logical evolution is Network Slicing[3].

Network slicing makes it possible to provide service differentiation and achieve end-user Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with the most economical model. The ultimate potential with network slicing will open new types of service offerings and endorse various business models in a scalable manner with a high pace of service delivery. It is an enabler for the service provider to generate more revenues, but at lower prices than with reasonable options, and robustness of the network maintained or improved. Network slicing is often discussed as a benefit of moving to the 5G Standalone (SA) and it is reviewed as one of the essential enablers in 5G system.[5]

Figure 4. 5G Network Slicing interrelation with eMBB, mMTC and uRLLC

One of the primary advantages of network slicing is that network slices can be designed explicitly to accommodate those use cases whetherit is smart home, Internet of Things ( IoT), the Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communication between car or the smart power system. Every use case undergoes a specific collection of tailored resources and a complex network configuration containing some service-level agreement- specified variables such as bandwidth, speed, and availability that all match the application 's needs.

While it is very appealing that Network Slicing can change all industries and help in 5G network evolution, whereas, it eill take time for the network operators to move from the existing network, largely manually operated, to a fully automated smart network that incorporates network slicing.[10]

Many of the operators are taking small steps towards migrating to 5G SA, while they have started with deploying non-standalone 5G which uses most of 4G core network. As 5G NSA doesnt incorporate automation and network virtualization. Transforming from 5G NSA to 5G SA will help operators to assimilate the more virtual network functions that enable network slicing.[12]


5G brings several capacity improving features, like spectral efficiency, new centimeter and millimeter frequency bands, massive MIMO and beamformimg, and scalable lower radio latency.

Introducing multi-connectivity improves reliability and capacity for end-to-end 5G. 5G also includes specific features that enable massive connectivity, and high throuput capabilities.

Network Slicing and 5G together incorporate capabilities from technologies such as software-defined networking(SDN), NFV, orchestration, and analytics. These network slices will have a more important function, as they can be designed, deployed and customized although run on a common network framework. The sharing of this framework helps reduce its costs.


[1] K. Samdanis and T. Taleb, "The Road beyond 5G: A Vision and Insight of the Key Technologies," in IEEE Network, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 135-141, March/April 2020, doi: 10.1109/MNET.001.1900228.

[2] Li, Qian & Wu, Geng & Papathanassiou, Apostolos & Mukherjee, Udayan. (2016). An end-to-end network slicing framework for 5G wireless communication systems.

[3] Qualcomm, 5G New Radio Use Cases Capabilities Timeline Whitepaper. Sep. 2016. [Online]. https://www.qualcomm.com/media/documents/files/heavy-reading- whitepaper-exploring-5g-new-radio-use-cases-capabilities- timeline.pdf

[4] Q. Ye, J. Li, K. Qu, W. Zhuang, X. S. Shen and X. Li, "End-to-End Quality of Service in 5G Networks: Examining the Effectiveness of a Network Slicing Framework," in IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 65-74, June 2018, doi: 10.1109/MVT.2018.2809473.

[5] Victor C. M. Leung, Haijun Zhang, Xiping Hu, Qiang Liu, Zhi Liu (Eds.), Intelligent Computing Technology for 5G Applications in 5G for Future Wireless Networks, Second EAI International Conference, 5GWN 2019 Changsha, China, February 2324, 2019,


[6] A. Aijaz, M. Dohler, A.H. Aghvami, V. Friderikos, M. Frodigh, Realizing the tactile internet: haptic communications over next generation 5G cellular networks. IEEE Wirel. Commun. (2015), [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.02826

[7] Ericsson, 5G systems: enabling industry and society transformation.

White Paper, Jan. 2015. [Online]. Available:

https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-and-papers/white-papers/5g- systems–enabling-the-transformation-of-industry-and-society

[8] C. Bockelmann et al., "Massive machine-type communications in 5g: physical and MAC-layer solutions," in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 59-65, September 2016, doi: 10.1109/MCOM.2016.7565189.

[9] Ericsson, GSMA Mobile IoT in the 5G Future Whitepaper. Apr. 2018. [Online].

https://www.ericsson.com/4a8d35/assets/local/networks/documents/ gsma-5g-mobile-iot.pdf

[10] X. Tan, Z. Sun, D. Koutsonikolas, K. M. Jornet, Enabling indoor mobile millimeter-Wave Networks Based on Smart Reflect- Arrays in IEEE Conference on Computer Communications,

Honolulu, 2018

[11] NGMN, 5G White Paper. Feb. 2015. [Online]. https://www.ngmn.org/wp- content/uploads/NGMN_5G_White_Paper_V1_0.pdf

[12] P. Popovski, K. F. Trillingsgaard, O. Simeone and G. Durisi, "5G wireless network slicing for eMBB URLLC and mMTC: A communication-theoretic view", IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 55765- 55779, 2018

[13] A. Anand, G. de Veciana and S. Shakkottai, "Joit Scheduling of URLLC and eMBB Traffic in 5G Wireless Networks," in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 477-490, April 2020, doi: 10.1109/TNET.2020.2968373.

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