4D Password Scheme

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV5IS01073

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4D Password Scheme

Bhavna Arora

Computer Department, Atharva College of Engineering,

Mumbai University, India

Nida Parkar

Computer Department, Atharva College of Engineering,

Mumbai University, India

Tejal Rachh

Computer Department, Atharva College of Engineering,

Mumbai University, India

Archita Dad

Computer Department, Atharva College of Engineering,

Mumbai University, India

Abstract There exists many validation schemes at present, all have few disadvantages. So recently, the 3D password model was announced. The 3-D password is a multifactor validation pattern. It can combine all existing validation pattern into a single 3-D virtual situation. However the 3-D password model is still in its early phase. Scheming different types of 3-D virtual environments, determining on keyword spaces, and also understanding user response and the involvements from such platforms may result in increasing and refining the user knowledge of the 3-D password. Also, assembling attackers from diverse experiences to break the system is one of the forthcoming mechanism will clue to system enhancement and also ascertain the difficulty of breaching a 3-D password. The paper presents a study of the 3D password and an method to toughen it by way of adding a Fourth dimension, that deals with gesture recognition and time recording, and that would help support the authentication model totally. Hence there is a effort to offer a 4-D password as a one-up method to the 3-D password.

Index Terms Security, Authentication, Graphical Passwords

,Hacking, Critical Servers

I. INTRODUCTION AUTHENTICATION is a procedure of authenticating who you are to whom you appealed to be, or in added words a procedure of recognizing an individual, generally created on a username and password. Presently what is there in the field, are the subsequent set of methods: Human Authentication methods are as follows:

  1. Knowledge Base (What you know)

  2. Token Based (What you have)

  3. Biometrics (What you are)

  4. Recognition Based (What you recognize) Computer Authentication methods are as follows:

  1. Textual Passwords

  2. Graphical passwords

  3. Biometric schemes

    (fingerprints, voice recognition etc.)

    Different password types such as textual passwords, biometric scanning, tokens or cards (Automated Teller Machine cards) etc. But there are many drawbacks in the present validation systems. The utmost common computer

    authentication method is to use alphanumerical usernames & passwords. The main problems is the effort of memorizing passwords. Trainings have exposed that users are incline to pick small passwords or passwords that are not difficult to memorize. Inappropriately, these passwords can also be effortlessly predicted or cracked.

    Conferring to a current Computer world broadcast editorial, the safekeeping team at a very big multinational company ran a network password hacker and within 30 seconds, they recognised about 80% of the passwords.

    Listed is the brief instant of Human Authentication Techniques:-

    Knowledge Based Authentication Techniques are the extensively used validation techniques and enclose both text-based and picture-based passwords. These method is usually meant to as KBA, is a method of authentication which pursues to prove the identity of somebody accessing a service, such as a financial institution or Website. As the term proposes, KBA requires the knowledge of remote information of the individual to verify that the person providing the identity information is the owner itself.

    Token Based Authentication Techniques, such as key cards, bank cards and smart cards are extensively used. Numerous token based verification systems also use knowledge based techniques to improve security. For example, ATM cards are usually used together with a PIN number.

    Token-based authentication is a safety technique that validates the users who try to log in to a server, a network, or around other secure system, using a security symbol delivered by the server.

    An authentication is positive if a user can display to a server that he or she is a authorised user by transferring a safety token. This authenticates the safety token and routes the user request. Once the token is authenticated by the provision, it is used to create safety situation for the client, so the provision can make permission results or review action for consecutive user request.

    Biometrics Based Authentication Technique, such as fingerprints, iris scan, or facial recognition, are not very popular. The major disadvantage of this method is that such systems can be costly, and the authentication process can be sluggish and often unpredictable. However, this type of method delivers the maximum level of security.

    The Picture-Based OR Graphical Password Techniques can be further divided into two categories: recognition- based and recall-based graphical techniques.

    In Recognition-based techniques, a user is offered with a set of images and the user clears the verification by identifying and categorizing the pictures he or she selected during the recording stage.

    In Recall-based techniques, a user is offered to repeat approximately that he or she created or selected before during the recording stage. Key flaw was that password space was small then, the number of pictures were restricted to 30.

    Graphical Passwords can similarly be used. One of the key arguments for graphical passwords is that images are easier to recollect than text strings. The technology has transformed numerous firm processors and tools are accessible on internet, it has developed very easy to crack the graphical password. The 3D passwords scheme has been presented as a one up solution to these issues.

    This model is the manipulation of a systems liabilities includes irregular procedure of system and this irregularity can be noticed by looking for the irregular designs in the review records. This model is accomplished with sensing break-ins, penetrations, and other forms of computer anomaly[5].

    1. INTRODUCING THE FOURTH DIMENSION The 3D verification system writhes from many flaws such as shoulder surfing attack, timing attack and many more. There is the prospect of hacking the 3D password. The 4-D Password system is an effort to make the present system even more vigorous and robust [2]. So the system proposed is to enhance extra key to the present system, and which will offer more steadiness and make the outbreaks on user privacy even more tough to thrive in. The key, that is suggested to state to as the FOURTH DIMENSION would be an encoded string that compresses a gesture that the user is intended to make with his hands, in front of a webcam, other than his/her password. And that will make sure that the user is physically and actively present for login. So, the final password of the user would be:

      Hand Gesture + 3-D Password.

      So for that we have used a mapping function F(x), such that if we put V as a input variable, and so it creates F(V), which can our final encoded key. The user does not essential worry about any of these.

      Only he needs to remember the gesture, which would be captured as a binary string S. This would be saved as a precursor to his 3-D password. The String V would then be encrypted and appended to the already existing password.

      Hence, the end result would be a password that looks like this:

      P = 3-D password + F(V).

      The addition of F(V) at the finish would truly increase the difficulty of the password. he attacker will now have to guess the string V as well as try to decipher function F(x), in addition to the complex techniques required to decipher a users 3-D password itself.

      Figure.4 The 4-D Password Scheme.

      A. Signup Process:

      Consider a web-based repository of research work for scientists, wherein each scientist has his own account which stores his files and folders. This repository employs the 4-D password scheme.

      As a new user, I will sign up as follows:

      1. Choose a username.

      2.I will be redirected to the password generation page.

      1. I will enter the 3-D environment.

      2. In the situation, I will make certain actions, as have been conversed before.

      3. I will exit out of the environment and submit my actions.

      4. I will then be asked to make a motion in front of the webcam. This motion, once successfully seized, will be saved. I will be informed of the time that I had taken to perform this motion this time.

      5. I will need to remember it for subsequent attempts at login Sign up process is complete.

      B.Loging In:

      Now when I log in, I will have to enter my username, and then perform my gesture. Once this is submitted and verified, I will enter the 3-D environment and perform my password.

      I will exit and submit it. Once that is verified ,will be granted access to my account.

      Figure.5Gesture Recognition in use

      1. Significance

        The addition of an extra gesture will create an unlimited host of password combinations. Also it will ensure that there is a individual trying to login, and not any robotic program, or any automated program.

        Additional verification can be applied here, is the calculation of the total time taken for the 3-D Verification by the user. This time can be considered a part of the users verification, and the user must perform subsequent attempts within the same time limit, give or take a few more seconds. So each password can then have a time window associated with it.

        In future attempts, a timer can be made to run in correspondence to the 3-D browsing session. Based on the total time taken, certain conclusions can be drawn out :

        1. If time taken tends to zero, it might be an attempt made by an automated hacking process.

        2. If time taken is very large, it may well be possible that another user is attempting to copy the users actions, step by step.

          This further check will provide more accuracy to the 4-D password system.


      To realize and understand how far an authentication scheme is secure, we have to consider all possible attack methods. We have to study whether the authentication scheme proposed is immune against such attacks or not.

          1. Keylogger:

            In many cases, the attacker fits unseen software called a keylogger, which is planned to capture all answers typed through the users keyboard and output them as a stream in a text file. This way the attacker finds out the users password by browsing through the file. But here, since the nature of password is not textual, this attempt will be a total failure.

          2. Well Studied Attack:

            In mandate to launch such an attack, the attacker has to obtain information of the most possible 3D password distributions. This is very difficult because the attacker has to study all the present verification systems that are used in the 3D environment. It requires a study of the users selection of objects for the 3D. Furthermore, a well studied attack is very hard to accomplish.

            The 3D environment has a number of objects and types of object answers that vary from any further 3D virtual environment. Consequently, a wisely modified study is required to initialize an actual attack. Even then, the probability of a successful attack is tremendously rare.

            With a 4-D password, there is the additional procedure of defining the motion as well. The chances that an attacker can guess the motion, out of thousands of possible human movements, is going to be as hard as it sounds. Plus, both the gesture and the 3-D password need to guessed correctly. So chances of a successful attack in this case are bleak, to mention the least.

          3. Shoulder Surfing Attack:

            An attacker uses a camera to record the users 3D password or tries to watch the genuine user while the 3D password is being accomplished. The attack is the utmost effective type of attack alongside 3D passwords and some other graphical passwords. Though, the users 3D password might have biometric data or textual passwords that cannot be grasped from behind. So, we ensure that the 3D password should be performed in a secure place where a shoulder surfing attack cannot be performed. Also, with the 4-D password, the nuances of the gesture, even if visible to the attacker, may not be emulated successfully, and also the physique will have to match with the user, since the system would compare it with the earlier recording.

          4. Timing Attack:

            The Foe notices how long it takes the genuine user to perform correct log in using 3D Password which gives a warning of 3-D passwords size. This attack cannot be successful since it gives the attacker mere hints. Also this would lend the attacker no help in finding out the extra gesture; which is exclusive of the 4D password only.

          5. Brute Force Attack:

            The foe has to try all likely 3D passwords. This kind of attack is extremely tough for the following reasons.

            1. Time required to login may vary from 20s to 2 min therefore it is very time consuming.

            2. Cost of Attack: 3D virtual environment contains biometrics recognition objects and token based objects. The attacker has to forge all possible biometric information and forge all the required tokens.


      A .4-D Password Differentiators:

      1. Flexibility: 4D Passwords permits Multifactor Verification. Biometric, graphical and textual passwords can be embedded in 4D password technology.

      2. Strength: This scenario provides almost unlimited passwords possibility .Hence the strength.

      3. Easy to Remember: Can be remembered in the form of short story.

      4. Privacy: Planners can choose validation patterns that safeguards the users privacy.

      1. Application Areas:

        1. Critical Servers: Many organizations are using critical servers that are secure by a textual password. 4D password validation scheme offers sound re-placement of the textual passwords.

        2. Banking: Almost all the Indian banks started 3-D password service for security of buyer who wants to buy online or pay online.

        3. Nuclear and military Facilities: 4D password has a very large password space and since it combines


          in one authentication system, it can be used for providing security to nuclear and military facilities.

        4. Airplanes and Jet Fighters: Since airplanes and Jet planes can be misused for religion and political agendas, they should be protected by a powerful authentication scheme.

        5. ATMs, Desktop and Laptop Logins, Web Authentication.

        6. The Cloud: Cloud computing is an internet-based model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. It provides various services over internet such as software, hardware, data storage and infra- structure. The 4D password scheme, if successfully implemented here can make the cloud much safer and reliable.


      Cloud computing provides various internet-based, on demand services like software, hardware, server, infrastructure and data storage. To provide privacy services to the intended customer, it is a better option to use strong password generation and authentication technique. The addition o f gesture recognition technique would esure that the strict authentication and authorization is possible. This is the future work of our research. Our future work will be carried out in adding multi-dimensional password generation method to multi- level authentication technique.

      Also to build strong algorithm for gesture recognition is the future work of our research paper


As the 3D authentication scheme suffers from many weakness such as shoulder surfing attack, timing attack etc., there is the possibility of hacking the 3D password. The 4-D Password scheme makes the existing scheme even more secure and powerful.

The 3D Password is easily hackable by using shoulder surfing attack. Hence a better multi-layer authentication scheme has been proposed in this paper i.e. the 4D password.

The 4D password scheme combines features of all the present validation systems like text and graphics passwords, biometric scanning techniques, token recognition schemes and adds two new features i.e. it

uses a virtual 3 D environment and a gesture recognition system.

It is fully customizable as per the user wishes i.e. the user has freedom of choice as of what type of authentication scheme will be part of their 3D password.

It is also a very powerful against attacks. The first two layers text and graphics can be easily broken via conventional brute force and shoulder surfing techniques. The 3D layer is tougher to crack but the addition of motions makes it tougher since motions are based on an individual person and his physique which is something the attacker cannot replicate. Also

4D Password scheme ensures that the user is physically present to access the system and hacker is not hacking the system remotely. We need to create algorithms to implement such schemes and make them available to user


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