Water Quality Analysis of River PAMBA using WQI Method and GIS Mapping

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Water Quality Analysis of River PAMBA using WQI Method and GIS Mapping

Subha Lekshmi 1, Athira Somarajan2, Merlin Daniel3, Vishak Sasidhar 4

1Assistant Professor ,

234 Student Civil Department,

Musaliar College of Engineering & Technology, Pathanamthitta

Abstract : River Pamba is the third longest river in the South Indian state of Kerala. One of the most famous pilgrim centre in South India , Sabarimala dedicated to Lord Ayyappa is located in the banks of Pamba. During pilgrimage season, pilgrims use river water for various sanitary purposes and the water gets contaminated. This paper deals with the water quality analysis of River Pamba in three stages before, during and after pilgrimage season and assess the water quality using Water Quality Index method and GIS mapping. The parameters analysed are pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Total Acidity, Total Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Coliforms and E-coli.

Keywords- pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Chloride, Total alkalinity, Total acidity, Total Hardness, TDS, Coliforms, E- coli,pilgrim season,GIS mapping, River Pamba, Water Quality Index,

    1. NTRODUCTION

      River Pamba is one of the major source of drinking water in Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha District of Kerala. Around thirty lakh people depend on this river and its tributaries for their different needs. The pilgrim season at Sabarimala starts from November to January every year. During this period, the water gets polluted more due to the sanitary activities done by pilgrims. So the water quality analysis should be done to check the extent of pollution.

      Fig 1. River Pamba

      1. OBJECTIVES

        • To assess the water quality of River Pamba at different wards of Perunad panchayath.

          1. SCOPE

            The water samples were collected and analysed- before , during and after pilgrimage season. Later on the next years, this information will be useful for taking pollution preventive measures before pilgrimage season starts. This method can be extended to the areas where Pamba river flows and affected by the pilgrim season . This methods helps to determine the polluted areas.

          2. METHODOLOGY

            Samples were collected from 14 wards of Perunad Grama panchayath. The selected wards are Mukkam(S1),Perunad(S2),Madathummoozhy (S3) Puthukkada(S4),Arayanjilimon(S5),Thulappally

            (S6), Naranamthodu (S7), Sabarimala(S8), Manakkayam (S9), Kannanumon (S10), Nedumon

            (S11), Mampara (S12), Kakkad(S13), Madamon (S14).

            The water was tested for pH, Turbidity,

            Conductivity, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Total Acidity, Total Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Coliforms and E-coli.

            TABLE 1 DESIRABLE LIMITS OF PARAMETERS

            Parameters

            Remarks

            pH

            6.5 8

            Turbidity

            1 NTU

            Alkalinity

            200 mg/L

            Acidity

            150mg/L

            TDS

            500mg/L

            Total Hardness

            200mg/L

            Chloride

            250mg/L

            Coliforms

            Zero

            E-coli

            Zero

            After finding the values of these parameters, Water Quality Index of each point is calculated. The calculation of WQI is done using Weighted Arithmetic Mean Method.

            =1

            =1

            =1

            =1

            WQI is calculated by the following equation:

            To analyse the water quality before, during and

            after pilgrimage season using WQI method and

            WQI=

            /

            (1)

            GIS mapping.

        • To check whether the water quality is within the standards, and hence suitable or not for domestic

        and other purposes.

        • Wn = k/sn (2)

          Wn = unit weight for nth parameter

          Sn = standard permissible value for nth parameter

          k = proportionality constant.

          qn=100 (vn-vi) / (vs-vi) (3)

          vs = Standard value, vn = observed value, vi = ideal value

          In most cases vi=0 except in certain parameters like pH

          q pH = 100 (v pH 7.0) / (8.5 1.0) (4)

          TABLE 1 SUITABILITY OF WQI FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

          Range

          Remark

          0-25

          Excellent

          26-50

          Good

          51-75

          Bad

          76-100

          Very bad

          100 & above

          Unfit

          • GIS Mapping is done using Arc GIS.

            1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

              1. Test Results

                The test results of water samples collected from different wards of Perunad grama panchayath before pilgrimage season are shown in TABLE 3.

                TABLE 3 TEST RESULTS BEFORE PILGRIM SEASON

                47

                Site

                pH

                Turbidity

                EC

                TDS

                Total Acidity

                Total Alkalinity

                Total Hardness

                Chloride

                Coliform

                E-coli

                S1

                5.94

                1.1

                74

                34

                10

                20

                20

                8

                1100

                20

                S2

                6.5

                1.4

                65

                21

                11

                22

                16

                6

                540

                17

                S3

                6.06

                8

                37

                20

                16

                24

                16

                4

                1100

                29

                S4

                5.45

                6.1

                52

                36

                14

                19

                22

                12

                960

                24

                S5

                6.1

                1.7

                44

                41

                10

                20

                18

                10

                890

                13

                S6

                6.45

                2.5

                40

                50

                12

                22

                14

                6

                1090

                19

                S7

                5.59

                6

                64

                27

                11

                23

                19

                12

                460

                10

                S8

                5.57

                1.3

                55

                30

                10

                20

                24

                6

                400

                15

                S9

                6.12

                7.8

                32

                51

                14

                24

                15

                7

                750

                21

                S10

                6.3

                5

                47

                43

                12

                18

                20

                4

                680

                18

                S11

                5.81

                4.1

                51

                32

                14

                21

                22

                10

                980

                24

                S12

                5.75

                1.3

                74

                10

                18

                18

                5

                460

                28

                S13

                5.63

                1.1

                76

                28

                10

                22

                26

                8

                870

                16

                S14

                6.21

                5

                69

                31

                10

                19

                24

                4

                800

                15

                Remarks

        • Low pH in all wards (less than 6.5) except Perunad, which showed a value of 6.5.

        • Turbidity is within the desirable limits in all wards, but for drinking purpose, it is not safe (should be less than 1NTU).

        • TDS, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity, acidity is within the desirable limit.

        • E-coli and Coliforms are present

          The test results of water samples collected from different wards of Perunad grama panchayath during pilgrimage season are shown in the TABLE 4

          Hardness

          Hardness

          TABLE 4 TEST RESULTS DURING PILGRIM SEASON

          Site

          pH

          Turbidity

          EC

          TDS

          Total Acidity

          Total Alkalinity

          Total

          Chloride

          Coliform

          E-coli

          S1

          7.1

          6.1

          80

          40.4

          9.3

          20.5

          28

          12

          1500

          41

          S2

          7.6

          7.2

          68

          34

          10

          23.1

          25

          10

          950

          30

          S3

          6.9

          10.4

          41

          29

          11.5

          25.4

          26

          9.3

          1320

          48

          S4

          7.54

          9.8

          63

          45

          10.3

          21

          29

          14.6

          1200

          40

          S5

          7.4

          7.3

          49

          48

          9.1

          20.6

          24

          13.3

          1100

          32

          S6

          7.45

          8.7

          51

          55

          11.1

          22.4

          21

          8.09

          1400

          39

          S7

          6.6

          9.9

          68

          39

          10.5

          25.6

          25

          15.2

          960

          28

          S8

          7.3

          12.1

          63

          41

          9.6

          25

          34

          12.1

          1650

          41

          S9

          7.9

          11.3

          45

          60

          13

          26

          20

          19.2

          900

          42

          S10

          7.74

          8.2

          50

          49

          11.5

          19.4

          21

          10

          1250

          40

          S11

          6.9

          7.7

          68.6

          41

          12.4

          23

          26

          13.2

          1400

          42

          S12

          6.89

          6.1

          79

          52

          8.6

          20.1

          20

          14.2

          1080

          44

          S13

          7.09

          5.4

          81

          32

          9.2

          24

          30

          13.6

          1350

          36

          S14

          7.81

          9.5

          72

          44

          9.4

          20

          29

          9.4

          1150

          29

          Remarks

        • pH, TDS, Total acidity, Total alkalinity, Total hardness, Chloride is within the limit.

        • The value of turibidity is high compared to the values in before pilgrimage season.

        • E-coli and coliform are present and have greater value compared to before pilgrimage season.

          The test results of water samples collected from different wards of Perunad grama panchayath after pilgrimage season are shown in the table 5.

          TABLE 5 TEST RESULTS AFTER PILGRIM SEASON

          Site

          pH

          Turbidit y

          EC

          TDS

          Total Acidity

          Total Alkalinit

          Total Hardness

          Chloride

          Coliform

          E-coli

          S1

          7

          6

          82

          41

          9.5

          21

          26

          11.5

          1520

          50

          S2

          7.3

          6.8

          69

          36

          10.6

          25

          23

          9

          990

          35

          S3

          6.7

          9.6

          43

          31

          12

          26

          25

          9.1

          1400

          50

          S4

          7.4

          8.9

          64

          47

          10.5

          21.5

          25

          13.2

          1290

          45

          S5

          7.1

          7.1

          51

          61

          9.6

          21

          21

          12

          1200

          38

          S6

          7.2

          8.4

          52

          57

          11.9

          23.6

          20

          7

          1490

          42

          S7

          6.3

          9

          70

          43

          10.8

          25.9

          22

          14

          1010

          31

          S8

          7.25

          11.9

          65

          46

          10.1

          26

          29

          12

          1800

          49

          S9

          7.5

          10.6

          46

          61

          13.5

          27

          19

          18.9

          990

          48

          S10

          7.6

          7.8

          54

          50

          12

          20.5

          19

          9.5

          1300

          43

          S11

          6.6

          7.3

          69

          42

          13.1

          24.2

          24

          13

          1450

          44

          S12

          6.8

          6

          81

          55

          8.9

          21.1

          18

          13.9

          1100

          49

          S13

          7

          5.1

          82

          34

          9.8

          25.4

          26

          13.3

          1400

          40

          S14

          7.6

          9

          73

          45

          9.9

          21.3

          24

          9

          1250

          35

          Remarks:

        • Ph, Total acidity, Total alkalinity, EC, TDS, Chloride is within the limit.

        • Turbidity is above the limit and there is a slight decrease in the value compared to during pilgrimage season.

        • E-coli and coliform content increased.

          1. Water Quality Index

            • Calculation of Wn

              TABLE 6 CALCULATED VALUES OF Wn

              Sl.no

              Parameter

              Sn

              1/Sn

              Wn=k/Sn

              1

              pH

              8.5

              0.117

              0.216

              2

              Turbidity

              5

              0.2

              0.368

              3

              EC

              400

              0.0025

              0.004

              4

              TDS

              500

              0.002

              0.0036

              5

              Total Acidity

              150

              0.00667

              0.0122

              6

              Total Alkalinity

              200

              0.005

              0.00921

              7

              Total Hardness

              200

              0.005

              0.00921

              8

              Chloride

              250

              0.004

              0.007368

              9

              Coliform

              10

              0.1

              0.1842

              10

              E-coli

              10

              0.1

              0.1842

              TOTAL

              0.542

              1

              The value of = 1/ ( 1 ) =1.845

              TABLE 7 CALCULATION OF WQI

              Sl.no

              Station

              WQI

              Before pilgrim

              During pilgrim

              After pilgrim

              1

              Mukkam

              2086.78

              2885.291

              2936.499

              2

              Perunad

              1043.76

              1867.21

              1942.766

              3

              Madathumoozhy

              2152.39

              2598.24

              2746.218

              4

              Puthukkada

              1880.13

              2364.43

              2530.718

              5

              Arayanjilimon

              1689.14

              2145.02

              2334.37

              6

              Thulapally

              2069.44

              2721.54

              2886.988

              7

              Naranamthodu

              930.59

              1898.96

              1994.177

              8

              Sabarimala

              794.97

              3208.66

              3497.35

              9

              Manakkad

              1490.63

              1831.748

              1997.596

              10

              Kannanumon

              1332.94

              2447.57

              2540.015

              11

              Nedumon

              1897.08

              2714.73

              2811.755

              12

              Mampara

              926.82

              2117.27

              2163.82

              13

              Kakkad

              1660.24

              2594.20

              2690.346

              14

              Madamon

              1549.76

              2253.729

              2442.15

              Average WQI

              1689.81

              2403.49

              2536.76

              Since the Water Quality Index of Pamba river was in the range of 1000 3000 which is above 100 in all the 3 seasons(before , during and after pilgrim season), the water is unfit for human consumption. High value of WQI may be due to the large amount of coliform present in the river water.

          2. GIS Mapping

          Fig 3.Map before pilgrim season

          Fig. 2. Boundary map

          Fig 4.Map during pilgrim season

          Fig 5. Map after pilgrim season

          The GIS map is obtained using IDW Interpolation method. The map is plotted with X axis as longitude, Y axis as latitude and Z axis as WQI. In fig 3,4 and 5, the shades of different colours shows intensity of WQI within the selected boundary. The green colour shows areas with comparatively less WQI and red colour shows areas with high WQI.

          1. CONCLUSION

In Pamba River, all physic-chemical and biological parameters were fluctuated in the three seasons and in different stations. Raised values of certain parameters like turbidity, total coliform , e-coli clearly indicated pollution of Pamba River. From the test results, it is clear that certain parameters crossed the permissible limit. The high

amount of coliform count may be due to the human excreta during pilgrim season. Low discharge of river water during and after pilgrim season is also a factor the increased amount of coliforms. The increased turbidity observed during pilgrim season may be due to the input of organic matter and sewage effluents into the river. The high value of WQI in all places is due to the high value of coliform content.

Remedies to reduce the level of pollution:

  • Proper collection and mangament system for different types of waste generated during pilgrim season.

  • Proper latrine facilities should be provided at places where pilgrims used to take rest, bathing etc.

  • Also, a certain level of water should be maintained by releasing water from storage dams.

  • Turbidity can be reduced by stopping the usage of soaps while pilgrims take bath in the river water.

  • Powdered roots and shoots of Vetiveria Zizanioides (phytoremediation using plants) can be used for removing bacterias and pollutants.

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