Underwater Wireless Communication

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Underwater Wireless Communication

Aswathy P M

Computer Academy Coordinator Carmel College ,Mala

Abstract The signals that square measure wont to carry digital knowledge via underwater channel square measure the acoustic waves as a result of they will cover long distances and therefore the radio signals as magnetic force waves don't seem to be used as a result of they cover short distances. From the past several decades, cabled submersibles were wont to discover the large and hydrothermal vents, cabled submersibles compete a serious role within the underwater communication and to beat the issues in those, the underwater wireless communication came into existence.

Index Terms- Underwater wireless communication networks (UWCNs), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), international Positioning System (GPS), Frequency hopping unfold spectrum (FHSS), direct sequence unfold spectrum (DSSS), underwater device positioning (USP)

I. INTRODUCTION

Securing Underwater Wireless communication Networks (UWCNs) area unit deep-seated by sensors and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) that move to perform specific

applications like underwater observance Coordination and sharing of data between sensors and AUVs create the supply of security difficult. The aquatic surroundings is especially liable to malicious attacks thanks to the high bit error rates, giant and variable propagation delays, and low information measure of acoustic channels. Achieving reliable repose vehicle and sensor-AUV communication is very troublesome thanks to the quality of AUVs and therefore the movement of sensors with water currents. The distinctive characteristics of the underwater acoustic channel, and therefore the variations between underwater detector networks and their ground primarily based counterparts need the event of economical and reliable security mechanisms.

II . NECESSITY

Breaking of wires

Significant cost of deployment

  1. TECHNOLOGIES

    At, present we are using the wireless technology and the underwater wireless technology is a farthing to imagine; but the researchers are working on it and within the underwater wireless technology the acoustics waves square measure used rather than magnetic attraction waves. The acoustic channels have the subsequent characteristics:

    • Severe multipath and

    • Low speed of sound propagation

    • Frequency-dependent propagation loss

      When a proof is propagated through acoustic channel then it's received by the receiver through an instantaneous path or surface reflection or bottom reflection and this happens because of ray bending of the acoustic waves. The acoustic modem applied science offers two types of modulation and they are as follows: offers 2 styles of modulation and that they are as follows:

    • phase shift keying (PSK) with non-coherent detection

    • Frequency shift keying (FSK) with coherent detection

      With the event within the modem subject area, detector subject area and transport subject area the ocean engineering is moving towards integration of those tools into autonomous

      networks. As per the applications, the Underwater

      network topologies area unit 2 sorts and that they area unit as follows:

    • Centralized network topology

    • Decentralized network topology

      Frequency Shift Keying as applied to UAC

      FSK is the earliest form of modulation used for more advanced forms of UAC by acoustic modems. The earliest forms of UAC prior to FSK have been by percussion of different objects underwater and this method has been used to measure the speed of sound in water.

      FSK sometimes employs 2 distinct frequencies to modulate knowledge. as an example, Frequency F1 to point bit zero and frequency F2 to point bit one. thence a binary string will be transmitted by alternating these 2 frequencies counting on whether or not it's a zero or one. The receiver will be as straightforward as having analogue matched filters to the 2 frequencies and grade detector to choose if a one or zero was received. This is often a comparatively simple sort of modulation and thus utilized in the earliest acoustic modems. but additional refined rectifier

      victimization Digital Signal Processors (DSP) will be utilized in the current day.

      The biggest challenge FSK faces within the UAC is multi-path reflections. With multi-path(particularly in UAC) many sturdy reflections will be gift at the receiving hydrophone and therefore the threshold

      detectors become confused, therefore severely limiting the employment of this sort of UAC to vertical channels. Adaptive equalization tries to model the highly reflective UAC channel and subtract the effects from the received signal. The success has been limited due to the rapidly varying conditions and the difficulty to adapt in time.

  2. WORKING

    The signals that square measure accustomed carry digital info through AN underwater channel don't

    seem to be radio signals, as electro-magnetic

    waves propagate solely over extraordinarily short distances. Instead, acoustic waves square measure used, which might propagate over long

    distances. However, AN underwater acoustic channel presents a communication system designer with several difficulties. The 3 identifying characteristics of this channel square measure frequency- dependent propagation loss, severe multipath and low speed of sound propagation. None of those characteristics square measure nearly as pronounced in land- based radio channels, the very fact that creates underwater wireless communication extraordinarily tough, and necessitates dedicated system style

    Fig 1.Performance analysis of underwater-wireless communication

  3. APPLICATIONS

    The applications of the underwater wireless communication are as follows:

    it's additionally utilized

    in pollution management and climate recording.

    • It also has the application in the detection of the objects on the ocean floor.

    • Underwater wireless communication is also used in environmental monitoring and collecting of oceanographic information.

    • it's the applying in underwater

      archaeology, search and rescue machines and defense..

    • It is also used in seismic monitoring, pollution monitoring and ocean currents monitoring.

    • The underwater wireless communication is used

      in the equipment monitoring and control and also in the autonomous underwater vehicles(AUV).

    • It is also used in remotely operated vehicles (ROV).

    • It also has the application in the acoustic navigation technology for multiple autonomous underwater vehicles.

    • It is used in solar-powered autonomous underwater vehicles.

    • It is also used in Environmental monitoring like climate recording, pollution control, prediction of natural disaster harbor protection.

    VI .ADVANTAGES &DISADVANTAGES

    Advantages are:

    • To detect pollution monitoring

      The increasing pollution in water makes it more difficult to guarantee the fundamental right to water. With the draining of oil, minerals, chemical products, phosphate and nitrate into water. Most causes of water pollution. That is we developed a completely decentralized ad-hoc sensor network for the ocean pollution detection.

    • It avoid data spoofing

      Spoofing means malware or attack. It avoid unauthorized access, third party cannot steal the data or hack the network. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves that used for longdistance communication. It is a high transmission power.

      Disadvantages are:

    • Point to point communication

      Point to point communication is a connection between two nodes or two end-points.it is not a point to multipoint communication because if the use of led or laser.

    • Battery power is limited.

      It cant be easily recharged by non-conventional energy resources like solar energy. So under water sensor nodes are battery driven.

    • Propagation delay

      Propagation delay suggests that quantity of your time that the signal travels from sender to receiver. It can be Computed because the magnitude relation between link length and propagation speed.

      • Multipath and fading problem

    Fading channel may be a channel. Multipath weakening affects most kinds of radio communication links in one type or another. Multipath weakening will be detected on several signals across the frequency spectrum .it is additionally cause distortion to the radio signals these square measure vary long.

    • High bit error rate

    The bit error rate is that the range of bit errors per unit time. The bit error magnitude relation is that the range of bit errors divided by the full range of transferred

    bits throughout a studied time in travel.

    1. CONCLUSION

      These networks square measure utilized by hydrocarbon grid that's inbuilt the

      ocean. they're additionally utilized by fish catcher;

      they connect their ship with this network for normal update associated with weather. Submarine works strictly on the affiliation of those networks. Defense like navy additionally used this network for safeguarding country border. Theses

      network square measure used for weather fore casting, pollution management,

      guarding ocean animals, analysis associated with the ocean animals, finding new species etc.

    2. REFERENCES

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  3. Chirdchoo, N., Soh, W. S., & Chua, K. C. (2008, September). MU-Sync: a time synchronization protocol for underwater mobile networks. In Proceedings of the third ACM international workshop on Underwater Networks (pp. 35-42).

  4. Cheng, W., Teymorian, A. Y., Ma, L., Cheng, X., Lu, X., & Lu, Z. (2008, April). Underwater localization in sparse 3D acoustic sensor networks. In IEEE INFOCOM 2008-The 27th Conference on Computer Communications (pp. 236-240). IEEE.

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  7. Liu, Y., Jing, J., & Yang, J. (2008, October). Secure underwater acoustic communication based on a robust key generation scheme. In 2008 9th International Conference on Signal Processing (pp. 1838-1841). IEEE.

  8. Song, H., Zhu, S., & Cao, G. (2007). Attack- resilient time synchronization for wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 5(1), 112-125.

  9. Tian, C., Liu, W., Jin, J., Wang, Y., & Mo, Y. (2007, July). Localization and synchronization for 3D underwater acoustic sensor networks. In International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing (pp. 622-631). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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