To Find Out the Problem of Students Drop-Out in Lower Primary School At Mawten Village South West Khasi Hills District Meghalaya: A Case Study.

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To Find Out the Problem of Students Drop-Out in Lower Primary School At Mawten Village South West Khasi Hills District Meghalaya: A Case Study.

Banlumlang Lyngkhoi

Research Scholar North Eastern Hill University

Abstract

:- Mawten village, a village on a hill top and is one of the largest village located in Mawkyrwat area under South West Khasi Hills District Meghalaya. The village is inhibited only by the Khasis. It was bounded on the North by Mawkyrwat village, to the south by Mawkohphet village and Hill and village on the east by Rangmaw, Domjyrti and Pyndenmawlieh and on the West by Nonglang village. Mawten village a home of 340 houses has it total population of 2216 a record of 2010.The village has its total area of 54 sq. Km. Mawten villages although is a large village but its lacking behind in many fields. Among the literacy rate of the people which is about 80.64 %. Mawten village has 5 Lower Primary Schools, 3 secondary Schools. Most of the student study in the school is on adjuring location like Mawkyrwat, Mawlangwir and Shillong. Out of 100% about 60% of its population depends on livestock for their livelihood and 20% agriculture and 20% on secondary sectors of the economy.

INTRODUCTION:

The term wastage was use to denote all kind of waste in the field of education. But now it is used in the restricted and technical sense. At present it denotes the cases where a child leaves the school without acquiring a fairly stable literacy which is the goal of Primary Education or elementary education. For Example, a child who had passed the third class of a primary school and spent about a year in the fourth class generally acquires a stable literacy. Consequently every child who leaves school before completing his course is termed wastage because he is not likely to receive any lasting benefit from such schooling.

STEP TO AVOID WASTAGE:

  1. Under the school health services, pupil may be given nutritions by the introduction of mid-day meals.

  2. Fresh admission should be made at the beginning of the school year only, that within the two months from the date commencement of the session of the school.

  3. As far as possible, provision should make for encouraging the starting of pre-primary school to admit children of below 6 years of age.

  4. Provision of part time schooling may be made for the benefit of children who cannot attend the school during regular hours on account of domestic and economic disabilities.

  5. Improvement of the professional competence of teacher may be made by providing pre-service and in service training facilities. Necessary guide book and literature should also be provided. Teacher should also be trained in the first aid and health service.

  6. Adequate and attractive school building should be provided. Necessary equipment and teaching aids should be supplied.

  7. Teacher pupil ratio may be maintained at such a level as to ensure adequate individual attention to be paid to each individual child in class.

  8. Effective supervision and inspection may be provided.

  9. Special provision should be made for educating the mentally retarded children by opening special institutions in each State and at District level.

  10. Rules and regulations with regard to admission should be properly implemented.

    CAUSES OF WASTAGE:

    Economic causes: This property of the parents is the greatest obstacle in the way for education of the children. A large number of parents with draw their children from schools, because they depend upon child labour. Though education is free for the tribal students, still the parents are so poor that are unable to provide their children the school uniform, stationary and books for proper education.

    Social causes: A large number of students in West Khasi Hills District drop outs before the completion of lower primary education due to the lack of interest. Most of them are generation learners. The parents want them to work at home and in the field. They are not conscious of

    their future career as well as the importance of education. The scheduled castes and tribes do not realize the value of education in different cause of education. The people who are engaged in higher occupational services and business send their children to school for a longer period while the people engaged in occupation like farmer, factory worker and wage-earners withdraw their children early. Literate and educated parents like their children to remain in schools for a longer period than the illiterate ones. Another social factor is tradition and cultural background of the parents. The tradition compels the parental opposition to the education of girls in some areas the education of girls is more perfect.

    Educational causes: A large number of elementary school has in sufficient and unattractive school buildings in adequate equipments, overcrowded classes and indifferent teachers. About 30% wastage is due to educational causes. Curriculums are heavy and irrelevant to the day- to the day life. Above all our examination system is responsible for irregular attendance and drop-outs. Most of the village in the region and sparsely populated and they are in accessible and hilly so there are not even Primary School, if their is Primary Schools the enrolment is very poor.

    The growth of education reveals many points of fundamental interest for the political future of India. The largely increased that the old time apathy of the masses is breaking down. There has been a social and political awakening of the women of India and expressed demand on their behalf for education and social reform. Throughout the whole educational system there is waste and ineffectiveness in the primary system, which form our point of view should be designed to produced literacy and the capacity to exercise and intelligent vote to the waste is appealing so far .We can judge the vast increase in the number of primary school produce no commensurate increase in literally, for only a small proportion of those who are at the primary stage reach class IV in which the attainment of literacy may expected. The wastage in the case of girls is even more serious than in case of boys.

    Hartog Committees Report quality has been sacrificed for the sake of quantity. The Committee, therefore, wanted to improve the quality of education at all levels instead of increasing the number of school and colleges. The committee pointed out that Primary education is essential and a rural problem is due to poverty illiteracy and conservation of the rural people they are unable to appreciate the value of education and do not send their children to school. Physical obstacle such as absence of roads in the hilly areas, unsuitable climate, law density of population, epidemics, seasonal illnesses are obstacle to education. Barrier of caste, religion, communal differences and linguistic differences also add to the problem. All these problems have created severe wastage in primary education. In the opinion of the committee in adequate inspecting staff, unsuitable curriculum, in effective teaching, wastage and stagnation, relapse into illiteracy, absence of adult education, unsatisfactory distribution of

    Primary schools in adequate use of the existing schools

    ,single teacher school ,existence of many incomplete schools, were responsible for this wastage. So, the committee recommends that instead of following a policy of hasty expansion and improvement should be followed.

    REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

    Das (1970) made an important investigation ito the problem of wastage and stagnation at the primary level in the district of Sibsagar Assam. A proforma and information sheet and opinonnaire were used to collect information. The study revealed that the rate of wastage (dropout) is higher among boys (15.22%) than among girls (12.88%). The important findings on the causes of wastage are (i) poverty of parents and guardians (ii) irregular attendance long absence of pupils (iii) involvement of children in domestic and other activities (iv) absence of parent teacher relationship (v) unattractive school environment (vi) lack of facilities for home study (viii) defective teaching methods.

    Nasavi (1971) conducted a survey on wastage and stagnation in primary education amongst the tribals of Gujarat which revealed that the following were the main causes for such problem: (a) economic backwardness (b) illiterate parents (c) untrained and inefficient teacher (d) unsuitable curriculum and medium of instruction (e) non- stimulating school environment.

    Sharma and Sapra (1969) survey on wastage and stagnation in primary and middle in India. The study revealed that: (a) more dropouts are reported from small size families. (b) Dropouts are usually from nuclear families who suffered the death of one or both parents. (c) Dropouts are usually older in age and come from families of low income groups. (d) Some of the parents are sensible to the physical facilities available at the school and perceive no need for education of their children. (e) Illness, mental retardation, economic, backwardness, social maladjustment home problem, etc are some of the factors for dropping out from the schools.

    NEED OF THE STUDY:

    Nowadays everyone is giving importance to education. Government is also encouraging education. Unfortunately, we are observing the drop-out in the Lower Primary School. So many researchers have taken studies of find reason and make suggestion on dropout in lower primary education but they did not find a suitable solution to decrease the dropout in the primary level. So it is still a burning problem in the area of primary education. So, the study has been taken on the problem that is drop-outs in Primary Schools.

    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

    To find out the problem of students dropout in lower primary school at mawten village mawkyrwat.

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

    1. To assess the problems of drop-outs in lower primary school in the village.

    2. To find out the reasons for drop-out in the village of lower primary schools.

    3. To suggest measures to avoid or reduce drop out in lower primary schools in the village.

METHODOLOGY:

The main focus of the present study is to find out the problems of the drop out students in the village, the study aim at the extraction of the information through questionnaire and interviews scheduled from the lower primary school in Mawten village.

PRESENT STUDY:

The present study, studies the problem underlying the drop out students of Mawten village. Student mostly drops schools due to some problems like lack of motivation, illiteracy of the parents, slow in their performance and poverty.There might be some other reasons underlying their drop out.

POPULATION:

The population in the present study comprises of all the students in lower primary school in Mawten village.

It is official recorded in the year 2010, the populations are 200 out of these 105 males and 95 are females.

SAMPLE:

The candidates has taken up a representative sample for the present study it includes 40 drop outs students from 3 lowers primary school in the villages which formed the sample.

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES:

In the present study the following tools were developed by the candidates to collect the necessary data for the study are questionnaire and interviews.

PROCEDURES:

The candidates before constructing the questionnaire has identified the areas where the information is needed based on these need, the candidates prepared the questionnaire to elicit the information from the need of the 40 students who drop out their study. The questionnaire was in such a way that the respondents were expected to accurate the responses to both open ended and closed question. The questionnaire was developed by the candidates based upon the objective of the study.

ANALYSIS OF DATA:

The data were collected from both primary and Secondary sources were finally tabulated and analysis in term of percent (%).

Table 4.1: Showing the percentage of student going to schools:

Go to school

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

36

90

No

4

10

From table 4.1 it revealed that 90% of the respondents state that the student are going to schools where as only 10% the student are not going to schools.

Table 4.2: Showing the location from home to schools:

Location of the school and distance from house

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

22

55

No

18

45

Table 4.2 was found that 55% of the respondents state that the location of the school are near from house, where as 45% the location of the school is far from the house.

Table 4.3: Showing the reasons of going to schools:

Reason of going to school

No. of response

Percentage (%)

To gain knowledge

21

52.5

Meeting new friend

10

25

Teacher are very good

9

22.5

In the table 4.3 above it showed that 52.5% of the respondents attending school to gain knowledge, 25% of the respondents attending school to meet a new friends, where as 22.5% of the respondents attending school because teachers are very good.

Table 4.4: Showing reasons of not going to school:

Stop going to school

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Not having a good health

28

70

Heavy work at schools

7

17.5

Poor family

4

10

No class V in our school

1

2.5

In table 4.4 it was found that 70% of the respondents stop going to school because of not having a good health, 17.5% of the respondents indicates that due to heavy work at school, 10% due to poor family, 2.5% of the respondents state that they have stop going to schools because there was no class V in the school to continue.

Table 4:5: Showing completion of homework:

Finish homework/ class work

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

40

100

No

0

0

From table 4.5 it was found that majority (i.e. 100%) of the respondents completed their homework and class work given by the teachers.

Table 4:6: Showing teachers performance:

Like the performance of teachers

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

35

87.5

No

5

12.5

Fast

5

12.5

Slow

0

0

Average

0

0

Table 4.6 above it revealed that 8.5% of the respondents like the performance of the teachers while only 12.5% of the respondents did not like the performance of the teachers because they are very fast while teaching.

Table 4:7: Showing the use of teaching aids:

Teaching without teaching aids

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

38

95

Yes

2

5

The table 4.7 above it shown that 95% of the respondents indicates that the teacher teach them by using teaching aids, where as 5% of the respondents reveals that the teachers teach student without teaching aids.

Table 4:8: Showing that adequate facilities provide in the school:

Adequate facilities

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

34

85

No

6

15

It was shown in the table 4.8 that 85% of the respondents indicate that the school provides adequate facilities and 15% of the respondents reveal that they do not provide adequate facilities in the school.

Table 4.9: Showing fears as the cause of not going to schools:

Fear of going to school

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

40

100

Yes

0

0

In the table 4.9 above it revealed that majority (i.e. 100%) of the respondents state that they have no fear of going to

school.

Table 4:10. Showing causes of drop-outs:

Problem facing in school

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Teacher are on leave for long time

18

45

Lack of uniform

14

35

Teaching are not using correct method

7

17.5

Lack of lady teacher

1

2.5

From table 4.10 it was found that 45% of the respondents state that the problem they are facing in school is because teacher are on leave for long time, 35% of the respondents state that because of lack of uniform, 17.5 of the respondents state that while teaching teacher do not used correct method and 2.5% of lack of lady teacher.

Table 4.11: Showing drop-outs of students is caused when the teacher are not aware of student problem.

Teacher are not aware of student problem

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

32

80

Yes

8

20

In table 4.11 above it revealed that 80% of the respondents states that teachers are not aware of student problems while 20% of the respondents state that teacher are aware of the student problem.

Table 4.12: Showing causes of drop-outs is because the teacher teaches the syllabus which is not suited.

Teaches syllabus which is not suited.

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

40

100

Yes

0

0

In table 4.12 above it indicates that majority (i.e.100%) of the respondents are not happy if the teacher teach them with the syllabus which are not suited.

Table 4.13: Showing causes of drop-outs:

Problem that are not interested in school

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Give a lot of homework

15

37.5

Vast syllabus

14

35

Frequent change of syllabus

11

27.5

From table 4.13 it reveal that 37.5 % of the respondents indicate that the problem that are not interested in school because teachers give a lot of homework, 35 % of the respondents state that due to the vast of syllabus and 27.5 % of the respondent stated that due to the frequent change of syllabus.

Table 4:14: Showing misbehavior at school:

Practice any misbehavior at school

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

36

90

Yes

4

10

Indulging in bad company of friends

4

10

Indulging in any form of sending tobacco/drug etc.

0

0

Any other

0

0

From the table 4:14 above it showed that 90% of the respondents expressed that they never done any misbehavior at schools. Only 10% of the respondents expressed that they practice misbehavior at schools like indulging in bad company of friends.

Table 4:14: Showing correction of work to the teachers:

Teacher check their homework/ class work

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

29

72.5

No

11

27.5

Table 4.14 above it revealed that 72.5% of the respondents state that the teacher check the homework and class work regularly where as 27.5% of the respondents state that the teacher do not check the homework or class work regularly.

Table 4.15: Showing regularity of school attendance:

Going to school regularly

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

31

77.5

No

9

22.5

Table 4.15 it revealed that 77.5% of the respondents indicates that they are going to school regularly where as 22.5% of the respondents state that they are not going to school regularly.

Table 4.16: Showing failure of students in exam:

Failed in any class

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

24

60

Yes

16

40

Class I

10

25

Class II

3

7.5

Class III

2

5

Class IV

1

2.5

In table 4.16 it showed that 60% of the respondents state that they did not failed in any class where as 40% of the respondents state that they failed in their class i.e. 25% in class I, 7.5% in class II, 5% in class III and 2.5% in class IV.

Table 4.17: Showing other problem uncounted by student:

A problem experience when you are a student

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Difficulties to understand

20

50

Indifferent teacher

13

32.5

Inadequate equipment

4

10

Unsuitable curriculum

3

7.5

The table 4.17 above it indicates that 50% of the respondents state that the students experience problem in school because of the difficulties to understand, 32.5% are indifferent teacher and 10% due to inadequate equipment and 7.5% of unsuitable curriculu.

Table 4.18: Showing reaction when dropped out:

When you stop going to school how do you feel

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Feel free from difficulties

24

60

Happy

9

22.5

There is problem in job seeking

7

17.5

Table 4.18 above it reveal that 60% of the respondents state that they feel free from difficulties when they stopped going to school, 22.5% state that they are happy and 17.5% state that there is problem in job seeking so they often complete their study.

Table 4.19: Showing awareness program to help drop outs of students in primary school:

Awareness program

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

31

77.5

Yes

9

22.5

The table 4.19 above it showed that 77.5% of the respondents state that there is no program to help dropped out students in primary school where as 22.5% state that there should be some program to help the students dropout in primary school.

Table 4.20: Showing the previous school days:

Your school before is good

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

37

92.5

Yes

3

7.5

In table 4.20 it was found that 92.5% of the respondents state that the school before is not good where as 7.5% of the respondents state that the school before is good.

Table 4.21: Showing the problem of the parent:

Problem of parent

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

31

77.5

No

9

22.5

Parent illiteracy

4

10

Lot of homework

3

7.5

Huge amount of fees

2

5

The table 4.21 above it revealed that 77.5% of the respondents state that parents attitudes toward education is positive where as 22.5% of the respondents state that parents attitude toward school is not positive 10% of the respondents state that because of parents illiteracy, 7.5% giving a lot of homework and 5% of huge amount of fees.

Table 4.21: Showing the difficulties in subject:

Difficulties in any subject

No. of response

Percentage (% )

Yes

39

97.5

No

1

2.5

From the table 4.21 above shown that 97.5% of the respondents state that they have difficulties in there subject where as 2.5% of the respondents state that they did not have difficulties in any subject.

Table 4.22: Showing that work is more value than education:

Being employed have more benefit than education

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

34

85

Yes

6

15

In the table 4.22 above it revealed that 85% of the respondents expressed being employed is more benefited than education whereas 15% of the respondents state education is more benefitted.

4.23: Showing the responsibility taken by the parents at home:

Responsibilities taken by parents

No. of response

Percentage (%)

Yes

40

100

No

0

0

The table 4.23 above it indicates that majority i.e. 100% of the respondents state that the parents are taking their responsibilities to their children at home.

Table 4.24: Showing dropped out student in school:

Children dropped school due to the loss of parents

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

21

52.5

Yes

19

47.5

The table 4.24 above it revealed that 52.5% of the respondents state that the student dropped out the school by some reason while 47.5% of the respondents state that because of the loss of parents.

Table 4.25: Showing the problem of the student to the teacher:

Teacher understand students problems

No. of response

Percentage (%)

No

33

82.5

Yes

7

17.5

The table 4.25 above shown that 82.5% of the respondents state that teachers understand their problem while 17.5% of the respondents state that teachers did not understand their problem.

CONCLUSION:

Even though the governments have provided special funds and encouragement in the village for the students like compulsory education, free coaching class, free supplies of materials, and free education for childrens. Still there are many other difficulties which lead to drop out of the students in mawten village. Major problems for these are illiteracy, parents were found to be so poor in knowledge and information for how education is needed and importance for their children. Apart from these poverty is one of these major problems; parents were at risk, for low economic condition. Others problems are such as lacks of nearby schools, lacks of transportations, communication

and many more. All these were the main reason which makes students to drop out in the areas.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

  1. Dash B.N. (2003); History of education in India, Dominant Publisher and distributors. New Delhi 110002.

  2. Nasavi. M.I (1971): Survey on Wastage and Stagnation in Primary Education amongst the Tribal of Gujarat.

  3. Buch M.B.(ed) (1986): Third Survey of Research in Education 1978-83, N.C.E.R.T, New Delhi,

  4. Das.R.C (1970): A Study of the Problem of Wastage and Stagnation in Primary Education; The centre of Advanced Study in Education, M.S. University, Borada.

  5. Rao. D.R (2004); Problem of Primary School Drop-out, Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi -110002.

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