- Open Access
- Authors : Himanshi Kashyap , Abhishek Singh Rana , Aditya Tiwari
- Paper ID : IJERTV8IS120341
- Volume & Issue : Volume 08, Issue 12 (December 2019)
- Published (First Online): 01-01-2020
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Studying the Effect of Silica Fumes on Mechanical Properties of Pervious Concrete
Himanshi Kashyapa Postgraduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering,
Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, 140413, India
Abhishek Singh Ranab
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, 140413, India
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, 140413, India
Abstract: – Today, concrete is the most widely used construction material throughout the world. But with the increase in the use of concrete, environment is also being affected. Other than issues like carbon emission by concrete, decrease in groundwater table level is also an important issue that should not be overlooked. Bitumen roads or impermeable roads do not allow the rainwater to penetrate through them as they are highly dense. Due to which stormwater is wasted that leads to decrease in groundwater table level. This study discusses the effect of partial replacement of cement with silica fumes on mechanical properties of pervious concrete. The ratios of replacement of silica fumes vary from 10% to 30% and curing period has taken are 7dayes and 28days. The main features of this research were to record the effects of different ratios of silica fumes on the mechanical properties of pervious concrete.
Keywords: Pervious concrete; silica fume; mechanical properties; pozzolana
Pervious concrete pervious concrete is a hunk of concrete with high porosity that is used for applications that allow stormwater to penetrate and reduce the runoff and recharge the underground water level. It is made of very little or no small aggregates. The paste of concrete covers the aggregate and water is allowed to pass through the concrete. It is used parking areas, roads with light traffic, housebound areas and greenhouses. It is a good example of sustainable construction, which is used by builder to enhance water quality. The main ingredients are cement, coarse aggregates, and water with little or no fine aggregates. The water-cement ratio is 0.28 to 0.40 and void content is 15% to 25%. The right amount of water in the concrete is important. A low water-to-cement ratio increases the concrete's strength, but too little water can cause surface failure. A proper water content creates a wet-metallic appearance for the mixture. Pervious concrete has a typical strength of600 1,500 pounds per square inch (4.110.3 MPa) although it is possible to achieve strengths of up to 4,000 psi (28 MPa). Due to the unique structure, slump and air content measurements do not apply to pervious concrete. During the winter, using permeable concrete for pavements will make them safer for pedestrians as water will not pool
on the ground and freeze, resulting in extreme icy conditions. The use of permeable concrete can also make roads safer for cars as reducing the accumulation of standing water would reduce the possibility of aquaplaning and porous roads will also reduce tire noise. Cleaning can be achieved by wetting the concrete surface or sweeping the vacuum. If roads are made with pervious concrete, it can pass stormwater at a rate of 3 to 5 gallons /minute/ square foot of area, exceeding the flow rate required to reduce the wastage of stormwater in most rain events. The rainwater can be collected under the pavement or allow in a coarse gravel layer. Because the road itself serves as a drainage zone, lot of the usually polluted runoff with impermeable pavements is avoided. As the water flows into open pavement cells, aerobic vortex bacteria contribute to the destruction of harmful pollutants and chemical agents.
A pervious concrete pavement can:
Reduce the quantity of untreated runoff to storm sewers.
Recharge the groundwater directly to protect the aquifer levels.
Flow more water to the roots and landscaping of the plant, so irrigation is less needed.
Mitigates the impacts of aquatic pollution and destroys fragile habitats.
Elimination of emissions of hydrocarbons from asphalt and sealants.
Because the paves in the front of the roof are vivid in color, and the framework of the open cell, pervious concrete floors do not absorb heat and retain it. The open void structure of the perpendicular paving allows the paving to cool down earth temperatures.
Pozzolanas, can be described as materials that, although not cemented in themselves, contain components that, in the presence of water, combine with lime to form solid, insoluble compounds with
cementing properties. Mainly volcanic dust and ash products are natural pulpits.
Pozzolana cannot eliminate all problems of durability but it can help solve some of them if properly applied. The principal conclusion on the strength of the horn can be outlined below the impact of pozzolanic materials. In particular, pozzolans improve the resistance to environmental attacks by increasing the permeability, absorption, and diffusiveness of ions. Pozzolana does not adversely impact the depth of carbonation if concrete is compared with the same strength. When substituting pozzolanic materials for Portland concrete, tolerance to pure and acidic waters is definitely increased. Pozzolana decreases the spread of aggressive ions like chloride into concrete. In both ordinary Portland cement and sulphate resistant Portland cement, naturally occurring pozzolana, fly ash and silica fumes decrease expansion, mass alteration as well as strength loss when contained for sodium sulfates. If the pozzolanic content replaces ordinary Portland cement, the loss of mortaring capacity exposed to magnesium sulfate solutions is slowed. Up to 25 percent of hydrated Portland cement is made of calcium hydroxide (lime), and lime does not add to the strength and toughness of the concrete. Pozzolana combines with lime the substance responsible for holding together the concrete to produce additional calcium silicate hydrate.
By consuming the excess lime: The concrete strength is increased
The thickness of the concrete is increased
The efflorescence level decreases
Typical pozzolana include: Metakaolin
VCAS (vitrified calcium alumino-silicate)
Silica fumes is the most reactive, with metakaolin close to silica fumes in terms of reactivity. Fly ash is less reactive, especially during the first few days of curing when less calcium hydroxide is produced. Generally, the finer the pozzolana particles are, the more reactive they are. Silica fumes is the finest with most particles having an average of 0.3 m (microns), metakaolin has an average of about 4 m, Portland cement has an average of about 15 m, and fly ash has an average of about 70 m.
Fineness: the specific surface of Portland-pozzolana cement shall not be less than 300 m2/kg when tested using the air permeability method described in IS 4031 (Part 2): 1988.
Soundness: When tested by Le Chatelier method and autoclave test as described in IS 4031 (Part 3): 1988, untreated Portland-pozzolana cement Average drying
shrinkage of mortar bars shall not be extended by more than 10 mm and 0.8%, respectively.
Setting period: The setting time of Portland-pozzolana concrete, when measured using the Vicat apparatus method described in IS 4031 (Part 5): 1988, shall be 30min (Minimum) for the initial set time and 600min (Mximum) for the final set time Compressive strength.
Silica fumes, also known as micro silica, is an amorphous (non-crystalline) polymorphic silicon dioxide, silica. This ultrafine powder consisted of spherical particles with an average part diameter of 150 nm, collected from the production of silicone and Ferrosilicon alloys. The main field of application is as high-performance concrete pozzolanic material. Silica fume is an ultrafine substance of fewer than 1 m in diameter with a mean of approximately 0.15 m spherical particles. This reduces it to about 100 times the average cement particle. The bulk density of silica fume varies from 130 to 600 kg / m3 and depends on the degree of silo densification. The general intensity of the silica fume is normally between 2.2 and 2.3. Silica fumes are added to Portland concrete in order to improve its properties, particularly its resistance to compression, bending, and abrasion. Such changes are both caused by the mechanical improvements induced by the application of a very thin powder to the cement paste mix and the pozzolana reactions between the silica fume and free calcium hydroxides in the pulp. Silica fume has an effect on different characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete:
Workability: The slump loss is directly proportional to the introduction of silica fume with time to increase the silica fume content because the large surface area is added in the concrete mix by its inclusion. The combination remains highly stable, though the slump decreases.
Segregation and bleeding: the fume of silica reduces bleeding greatly since the wetting of the large silica fume layer absorbs free water and therefore also decreases the amount of free water remaining in the bleeding mix. Silica fume also blocks the pores of the fresh cement to prevent the water from entering the surface within the concrete. If silica fume is applied to cement, initially it stays inert. When Portland concrete and water in the mix begin to respond (hydration), two chemical compounds create the key chemical reactions. The Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH), which is the crystallizing force, and the Calcium Hydroxide (CH), a by-product that is also called free chalk, which only drops on pores that are usable as a filler or leaching plaster. Pozzolana reactions occur between silica and CH, which in many of the voids surrounding hydrated cement particles creates additional CSH. This additional CSH not only enhances the compressive, bending and attachment strength of the concrete but also provides a dense matrix, especially in areas where deleterious materials will remain as small vacuums.
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