 Open Access
 Authors : Aarti Kishor Shahane , Madhuri N. Mangulkar , Manish S. Dixit
 Paper ID : IJERTV10IS070357
 Volume & Issue : Volume 10, Issue 07 (July 2021)
 Published (First Online): 07082021
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Study the Behavior of Multistory Building with Consideration of NonStructural Element
Aarti Kishor Shahane (1), Madhuri. N. Mangulkar (2), Manish. S. Dixit (3)
1( P G Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, Marathwada Institute of Technology, Aurangabad)
2, 3 ( Associate professor, Civil Engineering Department , Marathwada Institute of Technology, Aurangabad)
Abstract – Nonstructural elements are not a part of the main loadresisting system. Nonstructural elements are those elements within a building that are not considered to be part of either the primary or secondary structural systems. Because of that these nonstructural elements are often neglected from the structural design point of view. Performance of past earthquake is clearly defined the absence of nonstructural elements it has resulted in poor performance in life of buildings. In absence of design provisions for nonstructural elements and their attachments which result in huge loss of human lives and structural damage. Nonstructural elements such as sign board, ceiling, Architectural elements such as, parapets, cladding systems, sign boards, etc. and Mechanical equipment such as, for example, boilers, piping systems, fire protection systems and Electrical equipment such as electric motors, light fixtures, etc. Indian seismic code IS 1893 (Part 1, part 2, part 3 and part 4): 2002 does not have specific provisions on design of nonstructural elements and their connections or attachments.
This paper shows the application of a displacement sensitive element like sign board through solved example. And shows different parameters such as base shear, displacement, Mass Participation, time period, Node Displacement, Beam Displacement and Effect of nonstructural Element (Sign board) of the building by using Staad software.
Keywords – Nonstructural element, Seismic analysis.
I. INTRODUCTION

General
The behavior of a building during earthquake depends on its overall shape, size and geometry. The seismic performance of both regular and irregular shape buildings, depends on the height of building along with other important structural parameters The design of every structure subject to seismic movement should consider that the nonstructural elements in building such as ceilings, panels, windows and doors as well as equipment, mechanical and sanitary installations. Nonstructural elements should be designed to resist the seismic forces or seismic relative displacement depending on their nature. During an earthquake, the nonstructural elements are subjected to large relative displacements depending on their nature. These are three types of risk associated with the earthquake damage of nonstructural elements: loss of life or injury to building occupants, loss of property especially in commercial buildings, loss of function of an important building or lifeline structure. for example, fire resisting system, communication facilities, telecom Centre.

Nonstructural element: –
The design of every structure subject to seismic movement should consider that the nonstructural elements in building such as ceilings, panels, windows and doors as well as equipment, mechanical and sanitary installations. Nonstructural elements should be designed to resist the seismic forces or seismic relative displacement depending on their nature. Serval parameters have been considered, for example, dynamic amplification of the component relative to the fundamental period of structure; ductility, redundancy, and energy dissipation capacity of the element and its attachment to the structure; vertical location of the element in the building importance and weight of the nonstructural elements itself.
Classification of Nonstructural element [1]: –

Acceleration sensitive

Deformation sensitive

Both deformation and acceleration sensitive.
1.2.1 Acceleration sensitive: –
Acceleration sensitive nonstructural elements should be designed according to the force provisions. Acceleration sensitive nonstructural components are vulnerable to sliding, overturning, or tilting. Mechanical and electrical components are generally acceleration sensitive.
Design Seismic Force: –
Design seismic force, , on the nonstructural element should be calculated using the following expression [1]
= . 0.10 ( 1 ) where,
Z = zone factor given in IS 1893 (part 1): 2016
x = height of point of attachment of the nonstructural element above the foundation
h = height of the structure
= component amplification factor
= component response modification factor
= importance factor of the nonstructural element
= weight of the nonstructural element.
For vertical nonstructural elements, , will be the horizontal force, and for horizontal nonstructural elements, , will be the vertical force.
Connection: –
Connection and attachment shall be bolted, welded, or otherwise positively fastened without consideration of frictional resistance produced by the effect of gravity.

Deformation sensitive: –
Nonstructural components are regarded as deformation sensitive when they are affected by supporting structures deformation, especially the interstorey drift. Good performance of deformation sensitive nonstructural elements can be ensured in two ways:

by limiting interstorey drift of the supporting structure in case of important nonstructural elements

by designing the element to accommodate the expected lateral displacement without damage.

Seismic relative displacement: –
Seismic relative displacement equations are provided to support the selection and design of cladding, stairwells, piping systems, sprinkler systems, and other components that are connected to the building at multiple levels.

For two connection points on the same structure A, one at a height hx, and other at a height hy, seismic relative displacement shall be determined as:
= xA yA ( 2 )
is not required to be taken as greater than R (hx hy) xA = deflection at building level x of structure A due to design seismic load determined by elastic analysis, and multiplied by response reduction factor (R) of the building as per IS 1893 (part 1): 2016
yA = deflection at building level y of structure A due to design seismic load determined by elastic analysis, and multiplied by response reduction factor (R) of the building as per IS 1893 (part 1): 2016
Hx = height of level x to which upper connection point is attached
hy = height of level y to which lower connection point is attached
aA = allowable storey drift for structure A calculated as per
7.11.1 of IS 1893 (part 1): 2016 hsx = storey height below level x.

For two connection points on separate structures A and B, or separate structural systems, one at height, hx , and the other at a height, hy , shall be determined as:
= xA + yB ( 3 ) is not required to be taken as greater than
R( hx
where,
yB = deflection at building level y of structure B due to design seismic load determined by elastic analysis, and multiplied by response reduction factor, R, of the building as per IS 1893 (part 1): 2002,
aB = allowable storey drift for structure B calculated as per IS 1893 (part 1): 2016.
1.3.3. Both acceleration and deformation sensitive: –
Some components may be both acceleration and deformation sensitive. They must be analyzed for both forms o response, that is, design seismic force and seismic relative displacement.
2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 Design philosophy and design provisions in various seismic codes
Goutam Mondal and Sudhir K Jain [1], In this study is concerned with the contains proposed provisions for inclusion in IS 1893, detailed commentary of the proposed clauses as well as some solved examples of the seismic design of nonstructural elements. This paper also shows the application of these provisions for equipment, equipment supported on vibration isolator, and for a displacement sensitive element like sign board through. solved examples
Goutam Mondal and Sudhir K Jain [2] In this paper, Design of nonstructural elements for buildings: A review of codal provisions .This paper reviews the design philosophy and design provisions of several international seismic codes and compares design lateral forces recommended in these codes. (Eurocode 8, UBC 1997, IBC 2003, NZS 4203:1992
and IS 1893)
Eurocode 8[3] This code requires very important and dangerous nonstructural elements to be analysed by making a realistic model of the relevant structures and using floor response spectra. The design provisions in Eurocode 8 take into account ground motion, structural amplification, soil factor, and selfweight, flexibility and importance of the nonstructural element.
Uniform Building Code (UBC) [4] This code describe The Uniform Building Code (UBC) recommends design seismic forces, Fp, for elements of structures and their attachment, permanent nonstructural components and their attachment, and the attachments for permanent equipment supported by a structure. Attachments of furniture and floor or roof mounted equipments weighing less that 181 kg are exempted from this requirement. Attachments include anchorages and bracing system.
International Building Code (IBC) [5] International Building Code 2003 recommends that the nonstructural element should be designed to satisfy both seismic force and seismic relative displacement requirements. IBC 2003 also recommends minimum design seismic relative displacement , between two connections of a component having multiple connections same structure and two connection points on separate structures. The effect of seismic relative displacements shall be considered in combination with displacements caused by other loads as appropriate.
New Zealand Code (NZS) [6] The New Zealand code specifies seismic forces on all parts of structures, including permanent nonstructural components and their connections, and the connections for permanent services equipment
supported by the structures. This code also recommends that the connection for regular structure should be designed by capacity design concept.
Indian Standard IS 1893 (Part 1): [7] Different codes assume that floor acceleration varies from the ground to the roof linearly; the acceleration at the roof is generally assumed as two to four times that at the ground level. In most of the seismic codes, a response modification factor is also included to account for the over strength and inelasticity of the nonstructural element and/or its connections. In general, the design seismic force specified in the above codes should be applied for the nonstructural element if its mass and/or stiffness does not affect those of the main structure significantly. When the mass and/or stiffness of the nonstructural element affect significantly those of the supporting structure, structure and nonstructural element should be analysed together considering the flexibility of the elements and its support
Goutam Mondal and Sudhir K Jain [8], In this study is concerned with the contains proposed provisions for inclusion in IS 1893, detailed commentary of the proposed clauses as well as some solved examples of the seismic design of nonstructural elements. This paper also shows the application of these provisions for equipment , equipment supported on vibration isolator, and for a displacement sensitive element like sign board through solved examples.
Suresh L. Dhanani, Sumant B. Patel, Snehal V. Mevada [9], this research paper a numerical study has been carried out to investigate the seismic response of nonstructural elements. The time history analysis has been performed to obtain the displacement and acceleration of nonstructural elements which is placed on various floor of threestory asymmetric building. It is found that the displacement of nonstructural elements is minimum at center of first floor.
It is observed from literature survey that the reviewed the design philosophy and design provisions on nonstructural elements contained in several international seismic codes. One paper reviews and compares the design provisions of nonstructural elements in different seismic codes and provides a basis of making a draft code for Indian scenario. The paper contains proposed provisions for inclusion in IS 1893, detailed commentary of the proposed clauses as well as some solved examples of the seismic design of nonstructural elements. In Eurocode 8 code requires very important and dangerous nonstructural elements to be analyzed by making a realistic model of the relevant structures and using floor response spectra. In Uniform Building Code (UBC) This code described The Uniform Building Code (UBC) recommends design seismic forces, , for elements of structures and their attachment. New Zealand Code (NZS) code also recommends that the connection for regular structure should be designed by capacity design concept. In Indian Standard IS 1893 Different codes assume that floor acceleration varies from the ground to the roof linearly; the acceleration at the roof is generally assumed as two to four times that at the ground level. In most of the seismic codes, a response modification factor is also included to account for the over strength and inelasticity of the
nonstructural element and its connections. In general, the design seismic force specified in these codes (Eurocode 8, UBC , IBC , NZS) should be applied for the nonstructural element if its mass and stiffness does not affect those of the main structure significantly. When the mass or stiffness of the nonstructural element affect significantly those of the supporting structure, structure and nonstructural element should be analyzed together considering the flexibility of the elements and its support.
The Provisions of seismic relative displacement should be included for displacement sensitive elements that are attached to the structure at multiple points, for example, piping system, stairwells, cladding, etc. And It is necessary to define clearly the displacement sensitive and force sensitive elements. Amplification of lateral force that increases with the increase of vertical location of the nonstructural elements should be included for the design of the nonstructural elements and their attachments. The Importance factor for various types of nonstructural elements should be defined clearly. A parameter should be included to take care of flexibility of the nonstructural elements. And a modification factor should be considered that represents ductility, redundancy, and energy dissipation capacity. Codes generally recommend that the nonstructural elements should be designed for much higher seismic coefficient values than the supporting building itself. Most of these codes provide simplified method to obtain design seismic force which depends on the response of its supporting building, size and weight of the element, relative location of the element in the building, flexibility of the component, etc.

OBJECTIVES
To study the different parameters of the buildings such as base shear, displacement, time period with respect to Nonstructural element such as sign board.

PRELIMINARY DATA CONSIDERED FOR THE
ANALYSIS:

Material Properties:
Assuming, G+18 number of storey are considered. The Plan is having Dimension is 30.36X17.15 m. M30 grade of concete and Site location is Delhi which is in zone IV And the Height of Each Story is 3.0m. Having Inner and outer Wall thickness is 0.15 m. Slab Thickness is 0.125 m. Frame Type is Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame (OMRF) and Soil Type is medium or stiff soils. Also, considering Grade of steel is Fy500.
Columns Details for G+18 building (column dimension)

Foundation to 6th floor 300x750mm

7th floor to 14th floor 300x600mm

15th floor to 18th floor 300x530mm
Beams Details for G+18 building (Beam dimension)

Foundation to 6th floor 300x750mm

7th floor to 14th floor 300x600mm

15th floor to 18th floor 300x530mm



The basic parameters considered for the Analysis and design

Live load in floor area is 3kN/m2

Dead load is 10.5 kN/m2

Floor finish load is 1.5 kN/m2

Stair case loading is 3 kN/m2


Earthquake parameters considered

Zone is IV (DELHI)

Soil type is Medium soil

Zone factor is 0.36

Static Time period is Based on IS 1893

Importance factor is 1.5
Following fig shows the nonstructural element resting on the roof of the building as
[ sign board] by using point load in the Staad pro model .Fig.01 G+18 storey structure
Following fig shows the plan shows the Loading plan view of nonstructural element resting on the different floor of the building as [ Sign Board] by using area load in the Staad pro model.
Fig.02 Floor plan of nonstructural element resting
Fig.03 Nonstructural element resting on different floors

PROBLEM FORMULATION

Details of the pole
Hoarding board
Size of board is 3mx6m

Section is used 0.05m x0.05m pipe (for bracing)

Signage is hanged on 0.038m x 0.05m pipe covered with ACP panels.

Steel Column of diameter 0.35m is provided to support the frame of hoarding.

Type of Structure: Steel Structure.


Wind calculation
Preliminary data:
Wind Load As per IS 875 Part 3 (2015) Risk Coefficient (K1) is 1
Terrain or Height Factor (K2) is 0.91 Topography Factor (K3) is 1
Basic wind Speed (Vb): 39m/s (Delhi)
Design Wind Speed (Vz): Vb x K1 x K2 x K3 = 39x1x0.91×1
= 35.49 m/s (IS: 875 PT3, Sec5.3) ( 4 )
Design Wind Pressure (pz): 0.6(Vz)Â² =0.6 x (35.49) Â²
= 755.72 /1000= 0.755kN/mÂ² ( 5 )
After considering the above wind load data the structure is analyzed using staad pro software.
Area of Hoarding is 3x6m
(Design wind pressure) X (Area of hoarding) = 0.755 x (3×6)
=13.59kN
Dividing this load and applying on node points = 13.59/32=
0.424 kN
Applying UDL at the plate (Width of plate=0.1m)
= 0.755×0.1=0.0755 kN/m
Applying this load in Staadpro Software.
Parameters
Vz = design wind speed at height z, in m/s;
K1 = probability factor (risk coefficient) (Cl. 6.3.1)In the design of structure a regional basic wind speed for terrain is consider.
K2 = terrain roughness and height factor (Cl. 6.3.2) Selection of terrain categories is mainly depending on the effect of obstructions which constitute the ground surface roughness.
K3 = topography factor (Cl. 6.3.3) The effect of topography is to accelerate wind near the summits of hills or crests of cliffs, escarpments or ridges and decelerate the wind in valleys or near the foot of cliffs, steep escarpments, or ridges.
C. Design of a large sign board attached to a building
Problem statement:
A neon sign board is attached to a 18storey building in Delhi (Seismic zone IV). It is attached by two anchors at height 10.0m and 6.0m. from the elastic analysis under design seismic load, it is found that the deflections of upper and lower attachments of the sign board are 45.0mm and 35.0mm, respectively. Find the design relative displacement.
Solution:
Since sign board is a displacement sensitive nonstructural element, it should be designed for seismic relative displacement.
hx = height of level x to which upper connection point is attached, 10.0m
hy = height of level y to which lower connection point is attached, 6.0m
Deflection at building level x of the structure A due to design seismic load determined by elastic analysis = 45mm Deflection at building level y of the structure A due to design seismic load determined by elastic analysis = 35mm
Response reduction factor of the building R= 5 (special RC moment resisting frame, table7 of IS 1893 (part 1): 2002
Design the connections of neon board to a accommodate a relative motion of 50mm
2) Alternatively, assuming that the analysis of building is not possible to assess deflections under seismic loads, one may use the drift limits
Maximum interstorey drift allowance as per Clause 7.11.1 of IS 1893 (part 1) :2002 is 0.004 times the storey height, that is:
( 7 )
= 5 (10,0006,000) (0.004) mm
= 80mm
The neon board will be designed to accommodate a relative motion of 80mm.
Fig.04 Sign board
Fig: 05 Staad Pro Model of sign board after applying point load of 0.424kN
( 6 )
= (225175) mm = 50mm
Fig:06 Staad Pro Model of sign board after applying point load of 0.0755 kN/m
Fig. 07 building after applying two sign boards at columns with shear wall


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Result
This paper shows the application of a displacement sensitive element like sign board through solved example. And shows different parameters such as base shear, displacement, Mass Participation, time period, Node Displacement, Beam Displacement and Effect of nonstructural Element (Sign board) of the building by using Staad software.

Modal Time period

It is the modal time period of vibration. Time of 4seconds.
In G+18 building with consideration two sign boards (Nonstructural element) then the maximum model
Table 1. Modal time period
Modes (1) 
Modal Time Period (Secs) (2) 
1 
1.4311 
2 
3.8248 
3 
1.9102 
4 
6.3216 
5 
1.2759 
6 
1.1010 
Fig 08. Modal time period
Fig.09 Modal Time Period in 3D view
time period is 6.3216 secs. obtained. 2. Mass Participation in Z
The effective mass participation factor represents the percentage of the system mass that participates in a particular mode.
In G+18 building with consideration two sign boards then the maximum Mass Participation in Z direction is 84.540% obtained.
Modes (1) 
Mass participation factor in z (%) (2) 
1 
18.496 
2 
67.929 
3 
67.954 
4 
68.035 
5 
84.526 
6 
84.540 
Modes (1) 
Mass participation factor in z (%) (2) 
1 
18.496 
2 
67.929 
3 
67.954 
4 
68.035 
5 
84.526 
6 
84.540 
Table 2. Mass participation in Z
4. Node Displacement
Node displacement is the overall motion of the object or the minimumdistance between the starting point of the object and the final position of the object at node. In G+18 building with consideration of Nonstructural element building Node Displacement values for X, Y and Z direction are obtained. And maximum nodal displacement is 106.169mm
Mass Participation ( %)
Mass Participation ( %)
80 67.929 67.954
70
60
50
40
30 18.496
20
10
Fig. 10 Mass Participation in Base shear Base shear is an estimate lateral force on the base of t activity. It is calculated u soil material. In G+18 building with non shear values for X, Z 24413.39KN and in zdirec Direction (1) 
Z for Different Mode 120 106.169 of the maximum expected 100 he structure due to seismic 80 76.088 sing the seismic zone and 60 48.722 40 structural element the base 20 are more. In xdirection 0 tion 24301.25KN. X Y Z Directions Base Shear (kN) Fig. 12 Node Displacement details in X, Y and Z direction (2) 
Base shear X 
24413.39 KN 
Base shear Z 
24301.25 KN 
Fig. 10 Mass Participation in Base shear Base shear is an estimate lateral force on the base of t activity. It is calculated u soil material. In G+18 building with non shear values for X, Z 24413.39KN and in zdirec Direction (1) 
Z for Different Mode 120 106.169 of the maximum expected 100 he structure due to seismic 80 76.088 sing the seismic zone and 60 48.722 40 structural element the base 20 are more. In xdirection 0 tion 24301.25KN. X Y Z Directions Base Shear (kN) Fig. 12 Node Displacement details in X, Y and Z direction (2) 
Base shear X 
24413.39 KN 
Base shear Z 
24301.25 KN 
0
3.
68.035
84.5
84.526
0
Directions (1) 
Node Displacement (mm) (2) 
X 
76.088 
Y 
106.169 
Z 
48.722 
Directions (1) 
Node Displacement (mm) (2) 
X 
76.088 
Y 
106.169 
Z 
48.722 
Table 4. Node displacement
4636.74
4636.74
Base Shear (kN)
Base Shear (kN)
Table 3. Base shear
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
6181.38
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
6181.38
Base Shear in X Base shear in Z direction direction
Base Shear in X Base shear in Z direction direction
Fig. 11 Base shear in X and Z
diplacement (mm)
diplacement (mm)
Fig. 13 Node Displacement details in 3D view
5. Beam Displacement
Beam displacement is the overall motion of the object or the minimum distance between the starting point of the object and the final position of the object at beam.In G+18 building with consideration two sign boards Beam Displacement values for X, Y and Z direction are obtained. And maximum Beam displacement is 851.78mm
Types of load (1) 
Displacement (mm) (2) 
DL 
718.203 
LL 
43.209 
EX 
714.313 
EY 
851.78 
1000
800
1000
800
600
600
400
200
0
400
200
0
Displacement (mm)
Displacement (mm)
Table 5. Beam Displacement
718.203
851.78
714.313
DL
718.203
851.78
714.313
DL
Beam displacement (kN)
Beam displacement (kN)
43.209
LL EX
43.209
LL EX
EY
EY
Fig. 14 Beams Displacement details
7.CONCLUSION
The main aim of this research was to study the behavior of multi storey building with consideration of Nonstructural element such as sign board.in this paper two sign board are considered on two columns. Then the behavior of building parameters such as base shear, displacement, Mass Participation, time period, Node Displacement, Beam Displacement and Effect of nonstructural Element (Sign board) of the building by using Staad software.
Following conclusions are drawn based on the result discussed in the previous chapter:

In G+18 building with consideration two sign boards (Nonstructural element) then the maximum model time period is 6.3216 secs. obtained.

Maximum Mass Participation in Z direction is 85.255% obtained

Base shear is calculated using the seismic zone and soil material. In G+18 building with nonstructural element the base shear values for X, Z are more. In xdirection 24413.39KN and in zdirection 24301.25KN

Node displacement is the overall motion of the object or the minimum distance between the starting point of the object and the final position of the object at node. In G+18 building with consideration of Nonstructural element building Node Displacement
values for X, Y and Z direction are obtained. And maximum nodal displacement is 2612.87mm

Beam displacement is the overall motion of the object or the minimum distance between the starting point of the object and the final position of the object at beam. In G+18 building with consideration two sign boards Beam Displacement values for X, Y and Z direction are obtained. And maximum Beam displacement is 14.836mm.

It also necessary to analyses the structure with consideration of nonstructural Elements due to that the additional load is acting on structure and we get better behavior of the building.
8.REFERENCES

Goutam mondal, Sudhir k jain, proposed draft for IS 1893 on design of nonstructural elements.The Indian Concrete Journal October 2005

Goutam mondal, Sudhir k jain, Design of nonstructural elements for buildings: A review of codal provisions.The Indian Concrete Journal August 2005.

Indian standard criteria for earthquake resistance design of structures, IS:1893 (Part 1): 2002, Part 1 General provisions and buildings (fifth revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

Northridge Earthquake Reconnaissance Team, Earthquake Spectra, Supplement to Volume 11, April 1995, Northridge Earthquake Reconnaissance Report, Vol 1.

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Uniform building code, UBC, International Conference on Building Officials, Whittier, California, USA 1997

Tentative Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for Buildings, ATC306, Applied Technology Council, Redwood City,
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International building code, IBC, International Code Council, USA 2000

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Annotated images from the Bhuj, India Earthquake ofJanuary 26,
CDRom, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland 2001

GILLENGERTEN, J.D. Design of nonstructural systems and components. The Seismic Design Handbook (Naeim, F., editor), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Second Edition, 682721, 2003.

NEHRP commentary on the guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, Building Seismic Safety Council, FEMA 274, National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. 1997