- Open Access
- Authors : Qi Jiaqing
- Paper ID : IJERTV10IS060280
- Volume & Issue : Volume 10, Issue 06 (June 2021)
- Published (First Online): 26-06-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Study on the Adaptability of Technical Skills Talents Training Mode and Quality Management in China
Sichuan Vocational College of Art
366 Xingyi Avenue, Hesheng Town, Wenjiang District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province
Abstract–When China's economic transformation and upgrading enters the accelerated development, it analyzes the current situation and problems of high-quality technical and skilled personnel education in higher vocational colleges, explores the reasons affecting the training of them, and proposes solutions, and provides advice for the talent cultivation of higher vocational colleges in the new
period.Efforts should be made to realize the deep integration and effective links between higher vocational colleges and the government, enterprises and industries, and enhance the operability and social applicability of the talent training mode.
Key words- Technical skills; talent training mode; quality management; adaptability
With China's industrial structure, employment structure, economic structure, and the deepening reform of higher vocational education talent training and the connotation construction of higher vocational colleges, the new concept and practical operation failed to fully reflect the social demand system system, and the old system and concept were gradually eliminated along with the pace of reform. At the critical moment when the old and new ideas are missing, higher vocational colleges need to deal with the challenges brought by the changes of employment structure, industrial structure and economic structure in the new era, and cultivate talents according to the market demand under the conditions of market economy. The talent training mode is closely related to the quality management level of talent, which is suitable for the talent training mode of higher vocational colleges, and can effectively promote higher vocational colleges into the track of benign development. Through the research of high-quality technical and skilled talents, a kind of talent training mode is explored to accelerate the training and development and is of great significance to export more high-quality technical talents.
Current Situation of Talent Training Mode in Higher Vocational Colleges at home and abroad
Training Model of Higher Vocational Education
First, employment orientation and people-oriented orientation, give full play to their respective roles.We
should pay great attention to employment-oriented and people-oriented development. Japan attaches great importance to the application of general education in the talent training mode, mainly through the setting of comprehensive courses and general courses. The US talent training model is to vigorously advocate technology courses.
Second, the talent training system is perfect and the main subjects are diversified.We will establish a complete training system for vocational education talents. Under the macro guidance of the country, we should make full use of the advantages of industry associations and enterprises to build a multi-school running pattern with the main national running and other subjects as the supplement. Like the Community College in the United States.
Third, students have many internship and training opportunities.More emphasis on the coordination between schools and enterprises and industries, practice and theoretical teaching, knowledge learning and post training, to provide students with more practical learning opportunities.
Fourth, the access system of educators is complete and the high quality of workers.While paying great importance to talent training, it also attaches great importance to the quality of educators, and has the corresponding pre-job training and access requirements before entry. For example, Australian TAFE teachers require not only the university education major and teacher qualification certificate, but also 3-5 years of professional practice work experience, to pass the level 4 vocational certificate.
Fifth, the talent training system is perfect, well connected.A set of complete training system has been formulated to the national macro-control and to the specific implementation of vocational colleges. For example, Australia has formed the main framework of vocational education through the national qualification framework system and training package, and unified stipulated the qualification standards of higher vocational education to ensure standardization, standardization and systematization.
Sixth, financial security emphasizes the diversification of financing channels.The funds for German "dual system" vocational training are jointly guaranteed by public finance and private economic investment, and the public finance is mainly provided to vocational training institutions in the form of a central fund. Funding for US vocational training is provided by the federal government, the state government, and the local governments.
Seventh, talent training is closely combined with the industrial structure and economic structure.For example, the German "dual system" project is adjusted accordingly according to the latest vocational change, and then formulated the corresponding curriculum standards; Singapore's "teaching factory" mode is to introduce advanced teaching equipment into the enterprise environment and effectively integrate, to form an integrated mode of school, enterprise and training center.
Eighth, the government's overall planning and social support functions are sound.In developed vocational education, the government plays an important role in overall planning and coordination. Germany's implementation organization of vocational education personnel training and the management and supervision of training units are guaranteed in the form of legislation.
(2) Talent Training Mode of Higher Vocational Education in China
Progress has been made in the training of higher vocational education talents in China, and a number of relatively mature training models have been gradually formed. Mainly focuses on:
First, in the professional setting, the market demand is oriented.Higher vocational education adheres to the main battlefield of regional economic construction, to the front line of production, service and management, and determines the professional setting according to the actual vocational positions according to the market needs.
Second, in the curriculum mode, theory and practice pay equal emphasis.Special attention is paid to practical teaching, emphasizing hands-on, brain movement and hand-brain use, and establishing an open multi-functional practice training base with simulated vocational positions, so that students can practice in the real professional environment and cultivate hands-on ability.
Third, in the teaching team, to the direction of "double-oriented" development.The construction of a high-quality "double-teacher" teachers is the key to the quality of higher vocational education personnel training.
Fourth, the evaluation of talent training work.After the promulgation of the> Notice on <Talent Training Assessment Program (Trial) issued by the Ministry of
Education, many experts and scholars began a new round of exploration. The most representative is Wang Chengfa's talent evaluation system. He put forward suggestions on how to organize the talent evaluation work, and make it standardized and systematic.
Understanding of Talent Training Model and Talent Quality Management in Higher Vocational Colleges
Cultivating talents refers to higher vocational colleges to promote the development of physical and psychological aspects of human morality, intelligence, body, beauty, labor and other aspects through purposeful, planned and organized education and teaching activities. Talent training mode is the construction style and operation mode of the training process to achieve the training goal. It mainly includes professional design, curriculum mode, teaching content, teaching methods, operation management and other constituent elements. The quality of talents and the quality of higher education, teaching quality, service quality and management quality jointly constitute the quality of colleges and universities, and each quality index is both independent and related to each other. Talent quality management is the effective supervision and control of the teaching process in the teaching management process. The basic elements of talent training mode and talent training quality guarantee are interrelated and constitute an organic whole. Historically, higher vocational colleges have not only a general talent training mode, but also have a set of their own mechanism to ensure the quality of talents.
Understanding of high-quality technical and technical personnel.For a long time, people have a one-sided and utilitarian tendency in understanding the training of high-quality technical skills in higher vocational education, ignore the overall and comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of people, and ignore the improvement of students ' comprehensive quality. However, technical and skilled personnel mainly work at the grass-roots level, which is for the technology application, technology management and service of the first line of production, and also have certain requirements for their knowledge, ability and quality. It is generally believed that the three most important abilities of high-quality technical skills in higher vocational colleges are hands-on ability, on-site adaptation ability, and natural science knowledge.
Understanding of the higher vocational personnel training mode.The concept and connotation of talent training mode in higher vocational colleges can be summarized into three categories: narrow, general and general. In the narrow sense, it believes that the talent training mode of higher vocational colleges is the organizational style and operation mode of talent training activities adopted under the realization of the high-quality goal of technical skills and talent training in higher vocational colleges. Broadly speaking, the talent training mode is not only the design and construction of the training process, but also the management of the training process. The generalization said that the talent training mode of higher vocational colleges is the education mode of higher
vocational education, which expands the definition of the connotation of talent training mode to the whole scope of educational activities.
Understanding of the social adaptability of the professional setting.The high-quality technical talents trained by higher vocational colleges can be basically recognized and welcomed by the society. At present, school courses and majors meet the needs of society and economic development and the needs of industrial structure adjustment. However, the number of people fully adapted still accounts for a very small proportion, and people still have great expectations for professional setting in the training of high-quality technical and skills.
The dual understanding of the teachers.At present, most people believe that the construction of "double-teacher" teachers is an important factor in the success of high-quality technical and skilled personnel. Only when professional teachers have a solid theoretical foundation, rich practical experience, and a "double-teacher" quality can higher vocational colleges cultivate talents who master the necessary basic theory and strong practical skills. People are not satisfied with the current construction of "double-teacher" teaching team is high, believing that a group of personnel with both theoretical and practical ability can be hired from the industry and enterprises to the school for teaching activities, and establish a "double-teacher" teacher team mainly full-time and supplemented by part-time work.
Understanding of the quality management of talents.The fundamental purpose of talent quality management is to help universities find ways and models of talent training. Talent training quality management has a distinct efficiency characteristics. Through management, we can find the advantages and deficiencies timely, summarize and improve the experience, promote the improvement of education quality and satisfaction, and achieve the "win-win" of the country, society, enterprises, universities and students. But the specific meaning of talent quality management, how to evaluate and manage talent quality is very vague.
Elements affecting the quality of talent training.The quality of talent training is restricted by a variety of factors. According to different levels, it can be divided into the internal and external factors that affect the quality of talent training. Internal influencing factors include the quality of students and teachers, teaching content and methods, organizational form, etc. External influence factors include school factors, family factors, and social factors. It is believed that the main factors affecting the quality of talent training are curriculum major setting and talent training mode, student factors and so on.
Problems and Reasons in the Training Mode of High-quality Technical Skills
First, the curriculum system design is unreasonable.The logical starting point of the curriculum system development lacks a detailed and real data basis of
workplace research. Most curriculum systems of higher vocational colleges are developed, and the unreasonable distribution of research enterprises and the job representative are not strong. The elements of knowledge, skills and humanistic quality are separated, and the internal logic of factor reconstruction, which is lacking. Some higher vocational colleges still adopt the subject-oriented and academic curriculum construction mode. The practical teaching design in the curriculum system is unreasonable. Practical teaching and theoretical teaching have not been organically integrated. For example, some colleges mainly arrange most of the practical teaching time in the internship stage before graduation; the proportion of practical teaching hours for the whole teaching did not meet the established requirements.
Second, the teaching methods and teaching methods are old.In the choice of teaching methods, it mainly relies on the traditional classroom teaching methods. Teaching of practical training and simulation is often a mere formality. For example, the practical training in the enterprise is limited to students ' internship, the learning form and content can not be deep, and the lack of effective guidance of professional teachers. In terms of teaching content, the teaching content failed to be effectively constructed based on the post knowledge, work skills, professional quality and so on. In the assessment method, or to the traditional examination paper examination as the main body. The assessment of students ' practice teaching link is not clear and specific, and the evaluation standard is not rigorous, especially in the assessment and implementation of the enterprise practice link can not be implemented.
Third, the practice teaching system is not perfect.The relationship between practice teaching and theory teaching in the talent training mode is vaguely unclear. In the development process of curriculum system in higher vocational colleges, how to correct design theory and practice, and how to locate the relationship between them have no unified standard and definition, nor have they form a more perfect development form. In the talent training mode, the teaching evaluation system of training is not perfect, and there are still disadvantages in the practice, especially the practice, and the lack of effective monitoring methods.
Fourth, the lack of skills practice teaching teachers.The number of teachers in some higher vocational colleges is relatively insufficient, and the structure is unreasonable. Most of them come from traditional undergraduate colleges, receiving subject-oriented education and academic, design and engineering talents.Some teachers have no systematic vocational education theory, no practical vocational and technical work experience, no operation experience in the first line of production, and can only go from books to books, from theory to theory. I do not know the actual technology,
operation procedures and needs of production, and students ' practice teaching only stays in the laboratory or practice workshop, which inevitably affects the education and teaching level and development prospect of high-quality technical and skilled personnel in higher vocational colleges.
First, the philosophy of running schools lags behind the social needs.How to do higher vocational colleges run schools is now widely recognized and influential by the academic circle is the school-enterprise cooperation mode and collectivized running mode. However, no matter school-enterprise cooperation or collectivization, they are still in the exploration stage, and have not formed a better theoretical system, and the practical cases have not been widely recognized by the society. On the one hand, the reason is the lack of institutional system at the national level, and on the other hand, it is the difficulty of constructing the responsibility boundary between schools and the interest distribution mechanism between schools and enterprises.
Second, the channels of education funds are single.In the process of running schools, education funds are seriously insufficient, the first is the total amount of education funds investment is insufficient. Although China's increasing investment in higher vocational education in recent years, compared with ordinary undergraduate education, local governments in higher vocational education is still significantly low in investment. Secondly, the source of education funds is single. At present, education funds in higher vocational colleges have a single source, mainly undertaken by the government and students. Under the circumstances of financial constraints and tuition control, the investment in higher vocational colleges increased slowly, affecting the improvement of the quality of education.
Third, the teaching quality monitoring system is not perfect.The quality monitoring of talent training in Chinese higher vocational colleges is mainly conducted from two aspects, including the internal monitoring of the teaching quality in the form of teaching supervision, etc. Both aspects are lacking. Firstly, monitoring in both aspects belongs to monitoring within the education system and the results lack of authenticity due to interest correlation factors. Secondly, these two aspects are mainly aimed at student monitoring during the school period, missing in some links. Such as student internship, the authenticity, accuracy, effectiveness of monitoring is not high. Finally, the training of highly skilled personnel in Chinese higher vocational colleges involve the government, schools, enterprises, families, etc. Because there is no participation mechanism and platform, these subjects basically do not participate.
Countermeasures and Suggestions for Talent Training and Talent Management
(I) Enhance the practicability of talent training
First, the market-oriented professional setting to meet the needs of social needs.In professional setting majors, we should closely combine the reality of social development and timely reflect the demand of the talent market. We should take market demand as the goal and open corresponding majors according to the needs of social development and local economy, so graduates can be competitive.
Second, with the industry needs as the core, emphasizing the practical curriculum.Higher vocational colleges to cultivate skilled talents, directly point to vocational positions or technical application positions, and must meet the career direction requirements of the specific industry, profession or type of work. In the course setting, the engineering and technical personnel of the enterprise should be hired to form a professional committee to analyze the relevant technical fields and posts (groups), determine the ability and quality that they should have in the training of highly skilled personnel, grasp the specific connotation and requirements of knowledge, and then formulate the teaching content.
Third, integrate the vocational skills grade certificate system into the curriculum system.Chinese higher vocational colleges mainly emphasize academic education and emphasize the all-round development of morality, intelligence, intelligence, sports and beauty, while the national vocational qualification standards emphasize the requirements of employment. Due to the inconsistent requirements, vocational qualifications and vocational skill grades were not included in the teaching program. Vocational colleges of higher learning should further promote the "double certificate" system that attaches equal importance to vocational education academic certificates and vocational skills grade certificates, unify the talent training standards and vocational qualification standards, so that higher vocational colleges can take the road of running schools on their needs.
Fourth, to cultivate practical ability as the goal, pay attention to the cultivation of comprehensive professional ability.The aim is to make the students become independent professional and technical personnel through the necessary basic theoretical education and sufficient vocational training.
Fifth, adhere to the concept of student-oriented, the implementation of flexible and diversified and personalized teaching mode.Using international flexible and diverse teaching methods, change the blind classroom teaching, and develop to the direction of independent learning, independent practice and organized learning and practice, practical base, virtual laboratory, network classroom to study and practice, research and practice, to improve their comprehensive professional ability.
Sixth, pay attention to the construction of teachers, strict teacher qualification standards.The training of high-tech and skilled personnel is to build a "double-teacher" faculty team that is the key to its distinctive characteristics, reasonable structure and high quality. Through various channels, increase the proportion of teachers should be taught to provide effective teacher guarantee for the training of high-tech skilled personnel.
Seventh, emphasize the cooperation between industry and learning, and communicate with enterprises and schools.Higher vocational colleges should take the initiative to strengthen two-way exchanges and cooperation with enterprises, establish modern laboratories and research rooms, jointly build application-oriented research institutes and master studios with enterprises, jointly carry out technological innovation, produce technological achievements, and provide technical and intellectual support for enterprises.
Establish a perfect standard system
First, to establish a target system.Mainly refers to the training objectives and specifications. The training goal refers to the purpose of education or the specific training requirements of schools of all kinds, focusing on solving the direction problem of the training of higher vocational education talents, and distinguishing higher vocational education from ordinary higher education and secondary vocational education. The training specifications are the provisions of the knowledge, ability and quality structure of talents, which are reflected in the professional teaching plan, which mainly solves the quality problems of talent training, and is the embodiment of the training objectives.
Second, we will improve the content mode system.Mainly refers to the professional setting, curriculum system, teaching content, teaching methods and means, training methods, etc. Professional setting refers to the discipline categories set up, which reflect the specifications and employment direction of talent training. The curriculum system is analyzed according to the vocational activity system, and then designed according to the education rules and students ' cognitive rules, with the system of higher vocational teaching itself. Teaching content should coexist in theory and practice, and highlight the practice. Higher vocational colleges should strengthen the training of practice skills, so that students have a certain basic theoretical knowledge and specialized knowledge, and can master the skills needed to work in the professional field, with good professional ethics. Training pathway refers to the sum of training forms and create a teaching environment taken to achieve specific training objectives or teaching objectives.
Third, we will improve the security system.The guarantee system mainly refers to teachers, training base, teaching management and teaching evaluation. The training
of highly skilled personnel needs advanced equipment training bases and "double-teacher" teachers with practical experience as the guarantee. On the one hand, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of the "double-teacher" teachers, on the other hand, build a training base, strengthen the skills, and create a teaching environment conducive to obtaining vocational qualifications.
(III) Identify reasonable talent quality management objectives
First, to establish a reasonable school-running orientation and talent training goals.Higher vocational colleges should target the market needs to determine the school goals, take the development goals, service objects, competitors as the main reference objects, and finally establish their own unique and "quality image" as the core appearance, show the differences, and ensure the sustainable, stable and healthy development of the school.
Second, strengthen the construction of teachers.The construction of teachers is the key to ensure the quality of talent training. The improvement of the quality of talent training in institutions of higher learning must rely on their teachers. To strengthen the construction of teachers in higher vocational colleges, we need to have new ideas and perspectives, and explore the establishment of high-quality teachers according to the new mechanism.
Third, we will reform the curriculum system setting and professional setting.The core of building the quality guarantee system of talent training in higher vocational colleges is to build an applied curriculum system. The so-called applied curriculum system here is the one designed to cultivate talents with applied knowledge structure and practical ability.
Fourth, strengthen the practical teaching link.The disadvantages brought by a single talent training mode have promoted colleges and universities to explore the successful industry-university-research model. It is cooperated by colleges and enterprises to cultivate students, especially suitable for the training of applied talents. However, the development time of higher vocational colleges is short, all aspects are not mature enough, the scientific research strength is not very strong, the focus should be on "learning" and "production".
Fifth, improve the talent evaluation and investigation system and the graduate information feedback system.Higher vocational colleges should build a comprehensive quality monitoring system, that is, the quality of students-teaching process quality, teaching management quality-graduate quality, and examine and reflect on the teaching quality of the school with the final "product" quality. Establish a teaching quality management system and rules and regulations, establish a teaching quality supervision system, improve the teaching quality
evaluation projects and indicators in the school, and establish a high-quality teaching quality management team with special evaluation knowledge. Short-term evaluation and long-term evaluation should be combined.
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