Study and Analysis of Economic Conditions of Two Talukas using Geo-Informatics Technology

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV3IS080887

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Study and Analysis of Economic Conditions of Two Talukas using Geo-Informatics Technology

Puneet Choudhary **, Aditya Sharma**, Krunal Patel*, Paru Thakkar*, Manoj Pandya*

* Bhaskaracharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-informatics,Gandhinagar

** BITS Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa Campus, Vasc0-Da-Gama, Goa

Abstract – This paper mainly focuses behind the role of irrigation in the socio-economic development of rural areas along with other parameters like education, health- care facilities, connectivity etc. In this project villages of two talukas, Anand and Limbdi are compared using Geo- Informatics software, Quantum GIS. The method used for the analysis is Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), in which pair wise comparisons are made. Finally an index is generated for each village. Villages are compared within the taluka and between other villages of other taluka. As per the results most of the villages of Limbdi taluka have a lower index value because of low level of irrigation as compared to Anand (where most of the area is irrigated). Finally, we have suggested the measures for proper utili- zation of large wastelands present in Limbdi taluka so as to provide an alternative source of income and employ- ment to rural people and thus improve the village econo- my.



Development is the process of economic and social trans- formation that is based on complex cultural and environmen- tal factors and their interaction. Land, labour and capital (Physical and Human) are the inputs required for growth. But however history has shown water has been an important fac- tor of settlement. For example even though Land is required for cultivation, water is required for the crops. Capital in the form of industries and educational institution setup where there is availability of water. And also we know that water is the most basic need of life.

Using this as our base we thought of comparing the two talukas Anand (a very well irrigated taluka) and Limbdi (not so well irrigated compared to Anand) in terms of some devel- opment parameters so as establish a relation between devel- opment and availability of water/ level of irrigation.

Purpose of the Research

In rural India because of improper planning farmers rely mainly on rains and whenever there is a delay in rain it leads to crop failure. Also the farmers are seasonally employed be- cause they either grow kharif crop or Rabi Crop leading to poverty. Also there is a huge amount of wasteland available in these areas which have not been properly utilized. Thus we will be suggesting the ways for the better use of these wastel-

and and redistribution of public funds along with skill devel- opment to provide conditions for overall socio-economic de- velopment of these areas (mainly for Limbdi since Anand is better off).


Our project is Study and Analysis of Economic Conditions of two Talukas using Geo-Informatics Technology, which is basically the study of economic conditions of the rural areas of Gujarat and its relation to the level of irrigation and availa- bility of water supply in those areas. In this project we will be comparing two talukas of Gujarat namely Anand and Limbdi and their villages and comparing the level of development in these areas. We need to show by developing an indicator that in rural India irrigation and water availability are the major factors leading to their overall development like schools, hos- pitals, and better availability of basic amenities of life and a comparatively higher proportion in the number of literates as compared to rural areas which are less irrigated and have large number of wastelands.


To compare the villages we developed an indicator using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). However the draw- back of the process is that AHP can incorporate only fifteen parameters of development. Secondly there might be some exception that is even though some villages might be less irrigated they might be more developed. This might happen due to other factors such availability of more number of schools, amenities, hospital. Also some of the data was not available with us so we had to put a dummy variable. We did that by giving equal weightage to all the villages.


The methodology used in this project is quite different from that generally applied in similar contexts. Generally analysis is based on the raw data available but in this project we used Geo-Informatics technology combined with the census data and other data sets provided by the government and based on this combined data results were evaluated. Suggestions were provided as per the evaluated results.


Using open-source software Quantum GIS and the vector and raster data about the geography of the areas being com- pared, Geo-Spatial maps were generated and parameters such

as total area the talukas, individual village area, irrigated land area in individual villages etc. were calculated and data sheets are generated.

The diagram below illustrates the work done for Anand using QGIS for different villages.


Using the data sets generated from the two software, the census data about the total population, population of people in different age groups, sex, demographics, literates, labour pop- ulation etc. are finally combined for each area for their analy- sis.


Different economic indicators were generated using the information collected and different areas were then evaluated based on these indicators and were compared to know their level of economic development. The method used for the comparison is called Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Using the AHP method an index value was generated to com- pare the villages. AHP was used to compare villages among the same talukas and also the villages in two different talukas.


Fig1: Anand Taluka Village Boundary


The index value thus generated using AHP was then used to compare it with the ratio of total irrigated area to total area of each village so as to verify whether the final results were

Using Google Earth software the wasteland areas were marked for individual villages and total wasteland area was calculated. This calculated data was then combined with the information generated from QGIS to calculate the proportion of irrigated area and wasteland area out of total available area. Following image is imported from Google earth for a village called Jambu in Limbdi.

FIG2: Google Earth Showing Wasteland

In this image area in yellow shade is waste land.

those intended or not. Index value was compared to the ratio instead of total irrigated area of each village because the total area of each village differed to a large extent and we intended to compare the level of irrigation of each village not the total area actually irrigated.


Villages were visited to get a clear picture of what actually can be done and how exactly can the wasteland be utilized properly.


Suggestions were given about the allocation of public funds and development of basic infrastructure in the backward areas so as to attain an overall development as the areas with the natural level of irrigation and availability of water sources. Mainly suggestions are based on the proper utilization of was- teland, setting up industries, small businesses and skill devel- opment.

Parameters used for Analysis

The parameter we considered are as follows along with their weights assigned for AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Method):

Table 1: Parameters of Developmnt

Drinking Water: 9

  • Proper drinking water is one of the basic necessity for hu- man life plus its availability also shows the level of develop- ment in the area.

  • It is the most important requirement for a healthy popula- tion, whether it is skilled or unskilled, literate or illiterate, rich or poor etc.

  • Also history shows that most of the developed areas were located near fresh water bodies to support the subsistence of population.

    Connectivity: 7

  • Proper connectivity is one of the most important indicator for development of an area.

  • Proper connectivity especially through road transport in rural area signifies that the produce of the farmers can easily reach the towns and cities nearly. This enables them to re- ceive a suitable and fair price for their crops.

  • It also enables other employment opportunities for the lo- cals in nearby towns and cities.

  • Easy transportation of fertilizers, seeds and equipments.

  • Enable other services like proper functioning of healthcare centers, easy travel of teachers and other professional to rural areas for skill development.

  • With proper connectivity locals can use easily use the ser- vices prevalent in urban areas like banking, hospitals, schools, entertainment services etc.

    Electricity: 7.5

  • We can assume almost no development without electricity. Now it seems to be almost impossible to assume life without electricity.

  • It brings with the fulfilment of basic household as well as agricultural needs.

  • It provide proper irrigation through tube wells.

  • It also allows the threshing, winnowing, separation and other services locally.

  • It also provides a lost cost alternative to the machinery based mainly on fossil fuels etc.

  • It fulfils basic household needs such a TV, refrigeration, mixer grinders, washing machines etc. It basically automates most of the manual work in a typical house. The time saved due to this automation can be used for other productive pur- poses.

  • It provide lighting at night and thus enables a secure envi- ronment.

    Education Facilities: 6

  • Children are the future of tomorrow. We need to educate them. Also we need to educate the people so that no one can take undue advantage of them.

  • In todays world literate population forms the backbone of the economy.

  • Education will also help them to understand that how could they increase their crop productivity.

  • It helps to increase human capital and bring alternative source of employment.

    It is given less weightage because its effects cannot be seen in a short term period.

  • Although it brings an overall development to the rural economy, most of the literates try to migrate to urban areas for better employment opportunities, not affecting the devel- opment of rural areas much.

    Health Facilities: 8.25

  • It is one of the most basic necessity of any region, whether be rural or urban.

  • Health services like CHC, PHC, SC etc. provides cheap healthcare services.

  • It also brings other opportunities like medicals stores, vac- cinations, awareness about basic sanitation etc.

  • It brings skilled labour to these areas and also provide em- ployment to local people.

  • Ensures a healthy working labour force and citizens.

  • Raise general awareness among locals.

  • It is given a high weightage because it is one of the most basic necessity of any society.

    Amenities: 7

  • Amenities include warehouses for crops, factory, cyclone shelter, aganwadi etc.

  • Farmers require a warehouse to store their crop

  • Also they can act as areas of protecting the cattle in times of disasters.

  • However it is not the most basic need of live.

  • Thus has been given a weight of 7.

    Poverty Level: 8

  • It defines how much can people spend per day or simply their economic condition.

  • Poverty level directly signifies the level of development in any area.

  • This parameter is of high importance, especially in rural areas as it defines the overall economic development of that area.

  • It also signifies the capacity of farmers and others locals to produce their products and their ability to purchase and ex- pand what they are doing.

  • If an area is very poor it also restricts innovations and im- provements, large no. of innovations and basic structural im- provements are observed in places where economic status is quite good.

  • This is one of the reason for such a high level of growth in urban areas as compared to rural. This is the reason that po- verty level is given such high weightage.

    Irrigation Structure: 8.5

  • It defines the mode of irrigation used. For example tube wells, canals, rivers, local bodies like ponds, lakes, check dams etc.

  • Though monsoon is one of the biggest factor for the total irrigation in any area, but it is not always sufficient due to its uncertainty. It also varies to a great extent from time to time and region to region.

  • Alternative sources of irrigation are very important for overall agriculture because it can ensure a timely sowing and harvesting of crops.

  • Areas where tube wells are not restricted generally have a far better level of irrigation than areas that totally depend upon monsoon.

  • Presence of canals have shown a great improvement in the overall level of irrigation in most of the areas and it can be easily seen in comparison of Anand with Limbdi.

  • Development of local water bodies like ponds, lakes and check dams ensures better irrigation for a small area around it. Also these water bodies can be efficiently used for rearing cattle and for fisheries.

  • Agriculture is the backbone of the rural economy and pro- vides subsistence to majority of Indian population so it is highly important to support it by developing an advanced irri- gation structure.

    Population Density: 5

  • It can be defined as the total population living on an unit area of land. Usually defined in terms of number of people living per square kilometer of area.

  • Usually urban areas have a very high level of population density as compared to rural areas due to lack of availability of land.

  • A very low level of population density signifies a low level of development, while a very high level can cause congestion problems.

  • In our analysis a higher population density signifies a high- er development, but it is not a very crucial factor for rural development. Thats why it has been assigned a significantly lower weight.

    Wasteland Area: 4.5

  • Wasteland refers to the area which is naturally not cultiva- ble, also most of the time if it is cultivated artificially it how produce a very high yield.

  • Only a very few types of trees and shrubs can be grown on a wasteland.

  • The more the wasteland in a rural area, less will be the cul- tivable area and thus less produce.

  • Wasteland can be effectively be used for non-agricultural purposes such as setting up industries, building of settlements etc.

  • It has been assigned very less weight as most of the wastel- and negatively impact rural economy unless they are used for other productive purposes.

  • Effect on growth on the level of wasteland present in an area can be easily seen in most of the villages of Limbdi Ta- luka, where there is a very large area of wastelands. While at the same time economy of villages in Anand is significantly higher as on an average more than 90% of the area is irrigated and a very less wasteland area is present.

    Main / Marginal Workers Ratio: 8.75

  • Mainworkers refers to the workers that work throughout the year, while marginal workers refer to those that work of less than 183 days a year.

  • This ratio defines the no. of workers that work throughout the year to those that work for nearly half the year.

  • This parameter is of great significance because more the no. of main workers more will be their contribution towards the rural economy throughout the year. If in a village there are more no. of marginal workers then they will remain unem- ployed for nearly half the year and wont contribute much towards the village economy.

  • This also defines the type of population and how much ca- pacity they have to use alternative sources for their production rather than being dependent only on the natural resources.

  • Because of their high contribution towards the development of the rural area, this parameter is assigned a high weight.

    Sex Ratio: 4

  • Sex ratio of an area is defined as the ratio of total female population to total male population of an area.

  • In most parts of the world a higher sex ratio signifies an urban population, educated and aware population.

  • Ideally this ratio should be equal to 1, but in most part of the India its less than one.

  • Though higher sex ratio defines an educated urban popula- tion in rest of the world, in India a different trend can be seen according to recent surveys. In India it is seen that in most developed areas the sex ratio is significantly lower than that of many rural areas.

  • Also the sex ratio alone does not play a very important role in village economy.

  • Due to these reasons it is assigned a very low weight in economic parameters.

    Literate / Illiterate Population Ratio: 7.75

  • This ratio defines the total literate to illiterate population in a village.

  • It is significant because higher the literate population, high- er will be the human capital and thus higher intangible re- sources associated with it.

  • A literate population can take wise decisions both personal- ly and professionally. They have a knowledge of advanced techniques and are aware of current technology being used.

  • A literate population open the doors for employment oppor- tunities other than traditional agricultural jobs.

  • Through their knowledge they can increase the yield, get better and fair prices for their products and can make in- formed decisions.

  • Also a literate family inspires the next generation to be lite- rate and they are more open to innovations and other oppor- tunities.

  • A literate population can also bring in other jobs and ser- vices to the village itself, which can highly contribute to vil- lage economy.

  • High development of urban areas can be attributed to its large literate population. That is why this factor is assigned a high weight as it can also help a lot in agricultural develop- ment.

Analysis and Results

Using AHP method we compared villages for the level of economic development on the basis of thirteen parameters that were taken into consideration. The data for the two talu- kas for all the parameters were not available, so we had used only the data that was available. Rest all other parameters were allotted equal weight as parameters in AHP must have some weight allotted to them.

Using AHP an index value was generated for the analysis of the data. The sum of the index values for all the entities being compared sum up to one, as it becomes easier to compare them.

Initially we have compared the villages within the same taluka and then all the villages of both talukas combined were compared together. In comparison within the same taluka we could identify the backward areas of that talukas but it will not serve the purpose we are seeking fully. So both the talukas were compared together and comparisons were made and re- sults were almost same as we expected.

The AHP index values along with the fraction of area irri- gated for Anand taluka.

Table 2: AHP value for Anand

From the above image it can be seen that the villages with low AHP index values have lower percentage of irrigated area as compared to the villages with high AHP index. There are a few exceptions where the level of irrigation is high but it have lower AHP index value. We may accrue this discretion in the results to the unavailability of data for various high weight parameters or to other factors other than level of irrigation. But result for most of the villages is consistent with the objec- tive of the project.

The AHP index values along with the fraction of area irri- gated for Limbdi taluka.

The same analysis was done for Limbdi also and results here were more consistent than Anand because Limbdi has very less irrigated area as compared to Anand. For the low index values its about 2-10 % of total area, whereas most of the villages in Anand taluka had more than 70% of their total area irrigated.

Table 3: AHP value for Limbdi

FIG3: image showing Limbdi and Anand talukas together for combined anal- ysis.

Here is the analysis of villages of Anand and Limbdi com- bined. (Calculations Shown in Appendix)

Table 4: Comparison of Anand and Limbdi

The Excel sheet above describes the AHP analysis when all the villages of Anand and Limbdi talukas were combined. From the irrigated area calculated using QGIS it is clear that most of the area in Anand is irrigated while Limbdi has very less area irrigated as compared to Anand and large wastelands are present in Limbdi. As per the objective of the project a rural area with high level of irrigation should be far well off than the area with very low level of irrigation.

Above analysis clearly shows that for the lowest 22 AHP in- dex values for development, only two villages of Anand talu- ka are present while rest 20 villages belong to Limbdi taluka, accruing its low level of development because of lack of irri- gation facilities which in turn had led to its poor economic conditions.

Not only this, among the next 23 AHP index values only 6 villages belong to Anand, while rest 17 belong to Limbdi. Out of the 59 villages of Limbdi taken into consideration 37 of them belong to the lowest 46 AHP index values, clearly showing the poor economy in the villages of Limbdi. Also along with their AHP values their percentage of irrigated areas can be clearly seen which is very high for Anand while very low for Limbdi.

AHP index values showing poor economic conditions of vil- lages of Limbdi.

Table5: Comparison of Anand and Limbdi

The analysis above shows development index correctly can also be verified by the fact that the municipalities have got higher AHP values than most of the other villages as munici- palities are far more developed than the villages, in terms of education, connectivity, infrastructure, healthcare facilities etc.

Analysis shows that most municipalities got the highest AHP index values.

Table6: Comparison of Anand and Limbdi

Suggestions for Proper Utilization of Wasteland

Most of the wasteland in our analysis is present in the vil- lages of Limbdi taluka, while almost all the area of the villag- es of Anand Taluka is irrigated. As we can see from the anal- ysis done using AHP method that most of the villages of Anand are more developed in terms of number of schools, healthcare units, population density etc. Because Limbdi has lack of proper irrigation structure and water bodies it is eco- nomically backward than Anand as irrigation plays a very crucial role in rural development.

The economic structure of Limbdi can be improved by proper utilization of waste land for various purposes. Our analysis suggest following measures that can be taken:-

  1. Setting up small scale industries or cottage industries in these areas which will require manual and unskilled labour so as to provide employment in tese areas and improve the liv- ing conditions.

  2. In most of the areas there is no proper utilization of large flocks of cattle that is present in these villages. Cattle provide an alternative source of income to farmers. These wastelands can be used to set up small dairies which can properly utilize the large number of cows present in these areas.

  3. As this area remains dry most of the time, small scale in- dustries which require less or no water to operate would be the best option for utilization of these wastelands. Example setting up of bag industry.

  4. One aspect that we analyzed is that the number of water bodies present in the area are not sufficient for the proper irri- gation. During our visit, we have seen that all lands we sowed but farmers were waiting for the rain. If the total rainfall is less or delayed then most of the crops will be destroyed and it will economically hit these villages.

    So we suggest the building of canals to these areas so as to provide an alternative source of irrigation.

    Also because there is a restriction on tube wells due to low level of ground water, construction of canals or proper con- struction for rain water harvesting systems is extremely im- portant. Also wastelands can be effectively used for this pur- pose.

  5. Since Villages have a large number of cattle, biogas plants could be setup to support household and small scale indus- tries.

  6. Building up of warehouses to store grains and protect it from pest and rains.

  7. Development of grazing lands.

  8. Farmers Training Centre could be developed in villages presented at a location easily accessible to nearby villages. For example near Jambu, Parnala etc.

  9. Setting up of seasonal industries to provide employment at times when no crop is being grown as these lands are culti- vated only once and remain unemployed for rest of the months.

  10. Setting up of schools and dispensaries.


This project highlights the role of irrigation and economic conditions necessary for the socio-economic development of rural areas using Geo-Informatics technology and satellite images. The objective of doing this project was to analyze how highly irrigated areas are more developed than that of sparsely irrigated areas and suggestion for the proper utiliza- tion of wasteland for the development of these areas were given.

Economic indicator using the AHP was developed. When only villages in Anand taluka and villages only in Limbdi taulka were compared no major conclusions could be drawn. However when both were compared together it was found that that Limbdi village had low value calculated by the AHP me- thod and Anand village in general had a higher value com- pared to Limbdi.

However there were some exceptions. These could be pos- sibly because some places were not villages but had devel- oped into small towns that is they were Municipals. Some other reasons could be that people in that villages had got more support from the government or were literate. It could also be because of many other factors that affect development like number of schools, hospitals, operation land holdings etc. Also due to unavailability of some data and by putting dum- my variable by assigning all the villages an equal value the result would have been affected.


We are grateful to Mr. T.P. Singh, Director (BISAG) for giving us this opportunity to work under the guidance of renowned people of the field of Geo-Informatics System and Applications, also providing us with the required resources in the company. We would like to express our gratitude toward BITS Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa Campus for providing us with such a great internship opportunity.


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