Structural Optimization of ATV chassis Using FEA Analysis

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV12IS100026

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Structural Optimization of ATV chassis Using FEA Analysis

Tejas sunil Parve. Swanand S. Pachpore

Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

Dr. Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University, Dr. Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University, Maharashtra, India. Maharashtra, India.

Adityaraj Dilip Kate Pradeep V Jadhav

Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

Dr. Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University, Bharati Vidyapeeth University College of Engineering Maharashtra, India. Maharashtra, India.

Abstract The primary supporting structure of a vehicle is its chassis. In static as well as dynamic conditions, it supports all of the vehicle's stresses. Channel sections, tube sections, and box sections are the three types of sections used to accomplish this, depending on the structural requirements. In the work that is being given, the author made an effort to construct and optimise a tube frame chassis that is secure, comfortable, and as light as is practical. CAD software was used for the initial design of the chassis, and FEA concepts were used for the rollover analy-sis and weight reduction. The outcome of the effect study was found to be significant and can be used in both prototype and actual manufacturing.

Keywords Chassis,Weight Optimization, Rollover Analysis, Impact Analysis


    The vehicle's space frame or chassis is referred to as the roll cage. The roll cage connects the engine train, control, and suspension systems, among other crucial functions. Since the driver must be comfortable in order to operate the vehicle effectively, driver ergonomics and safety come first [1]. Important design elements that affect desirable attributes like weight distribution and suspension functionality include mounting points and overall frame shape. The roll cage must also be lightweight and sturdy enough to support all of the weights placed on it. In the case of a collision with a structure or an accident with another vehicle, as indicated in fig. 1[2][22], it must also be able to protect the driver and important vehicle components.

    Figure 1: Roll-Cage of Vehicle [2]

    The safe design of the chassis was found to be essential because, in the case of a violent inci-dent, it should have little impact on the local environment and have no long-term detrimental effects on the community. As a primary goal, the author of the article in question has tried to present a robust and dependable All Terrain Tubular chassis that can withstand a range of loading situations, including static and dynamic loadings, and can safeguard the driver and vital vehicle components when colliding with other cars or hard objects [3]. Along with the primary goal, the author also designed an off- road vehicle chassis with the right tube diameter, wall thickness, and material to withstand a range of stress situations to have a high [4] Factor of Safety, the least amount of weight, and a reasonable cost[20].


  1. Fixing Minimum Dimensions of Roll Cage: The minimum dimensions of the roll cage were decided taking the driver into consideration. Since the primary task of the roll cage is to protect the driver in case of any accident, driver comfort ability was given paramount importance. The roll cage should be able to accommodate a person of height comfortably.

  2. Base Model Selection: The design parameters were space considerations, manufacture-ability, safety Features, cost, quality, weight, better ergonomics, pleasing aesthetic looks as already stated in design goals. Also, a torso of the driver was modelled in accordance with the anthropometric charts developed.

  3. Comparison of models based on specified criteria: To compare the models, and to come out with a final base model, a table of comparison was thought off. This table was made taking some parameters into consideration like weight, height of Centre of gravity, etc. Results of the FEA analysis were also taken into consideration for finalization of the optimized model with different approaches [17].




    Figure 1: Methodology for Structural Analysis [15]


      The materials indicated in table I below are used to construct the chassis or roll cage. Steel grade[5], [6] must be chosen for the chassis under consideration since it is widely available in a variety of grades and sections, has a high elongation, and is ductile by nature. Because of its geometric property to withstand stress and deform uniformly independent of their axis, circles and round tubes were chosen[23]. Because there is a tension between safety and performance, the author's study focuses primarily on the weight to strength ratio. Strength and weight must be carefully managed. Instead of solely depending on the strength of the material, the design must be designed to achieve structural rigidity [7], [8].

      Ground Clearance

      < 200 mm

      Overall Vehicle Width

      < 820mm

      The conceptual models illustrated in fig. 3 are taken into account with the design parameters specified in the preceding sections, given the material and vehicle constraints.[25]

      Figure 3: Conceptual Chassis Models (3 Variants)

      To assess the models and come up with a final base model, a table of comparison, as seen in table II, was created. Weight, center of gravity height, and other factors were taken into con- sideration when designing this [9], [10].




      Steel (Properties as per Design Data Guide)

      Cross Section

      Tubular (Circular)



      Overall Vehicle Length

      < 2500 mm

      Table II: Weight comparison of Chassis

      Both the general frame geometry and particular tube geometries received a lot of design con-sideration during the original design phase of the chassis. The total frame size was decreased as much as possible to conserve weight [11]. To increase their effectiveness in force resolution, members that are primarily loaded in tension or compression are also resolved. They were designed with certain tube forms, like the front and rear damper mounts, to manage the stresses that would be placed on them[24]. The conventional shock tower form used in many desert buggy designs had an influence on the curved hoop shape of the rear damper mount member[21]. As indicated, the goal is to resolve the immediate damper force in a single compo-nent with only a few bracing elements adding additional stiffness shown in fig.4.


      Initial Weight (Kg)







      Figure 4: Elements of the Chassis

      Based on material characteristics such carbon content, a decision matrix has been plotted for the available grades of steel as shown in Fig. 5 to help determine the right grade of

      material for the chassis. Chromoly AISI 4130 has been chosen because of its weldability, availability, yield strength, elongation, and tensile strength [12][16].

      Figure 5: Decision matrix for material

      Figure 6: FE Model and Properties


Load of 33 KN was applied for front impact; maximum stress was determined to be 330 MPa; and FoS was determined to be 1.39, which is determined to be safe as shown in fig. 7.

Figure 2: Frontal Impact Boundary Condition and Results

Similar results were reported for side and rear impacts, where a load of 13.75 N was applied, and the maximum stresses were found to be 179.9 MPa and 2.57 MPa and 1.587

MPa and 2.57 MPa, respectively[16]. A load of 2.773 KN was applied for the heave test, and the maximum stress was determined to be 141.1 MPa, with a FoS value of 1.25. A load of 9750 N was ap-plied for the roll-over test, and the maximum stress and force were both determined to be 111.7 MPa and 3.908, respectively, as shown in Fig. 8.

and distribute load to other areas.[22] Additionally, the wall thickness and tube size were adjusted until each one was under uniform strain[23]. As indicated in fig. 9, unnecessary large- diameter members that experience little stress are swapped out for smaller-diameter members that can bear the applied stresses. Designs with FOS values much above 1.25 are made in a way that keeps the value of FOS within a narrow range but above 1.25, and the results are compared in table III.

Rear Impact Boundary Conditions

Rear Impact Test Displacement

Side Impact Boundary Conditions

Side Impact Test Displacement

Figure 4: Optimized Chassis with reinforced Members




Front Impact



Considerable as


Rear Impact



more than 1.25


Side Impact




Heae Test




Roll Over




Front Bump




Rear Bump




Torsional Rigidity



Sr. No Parameter/Test

FOS Values Result

Hleave Test Boundary Conditions

Heave Test Displacement

Table I: Result Comparison

Weight optimization was done since, after installing the reinforced members, it was discov-ered that the weight had gone up by 4%, or 3.15 kg, as shown in Fig. 10.

Rollover Boundary Conditions

Roll over Displacement

Figure 3: Various Boundary Conditions and Results Obtained

With the use

of finite element analysis and chassis

optimization, the safety, rigidity, stress distribution, and weight of the frame were all improved. Each FEA simulation targeted certain tubes or components to optimize the tubular structure. Each study focused on high stress are-as and reduced them by adding bracing elements to change stiffness

A) Old Frame B) New Frame

Figure 5: Chassis with Reinforced Members


Following conclusions can be drawn from the carried out FEA study of the chassis in the pre-sented article, which was examined for a variety of standard load cases.

  1. By using virtual design and analysis to their fullest potential, designers were able to build designs that satisfied requirements for safety, durability, and maintainability.

  2. Design goals were met, producing a finished item that could withstand the rigorous of off-road driving while yet providing the driver with the necessary comforts.

  3. The weldability of the improved chassis structure was further examined and found to be substantial.

  4. FOS was more than selected and the weight was also optimized by 23.90%.


[1] K. K. Dubey et al., Design and Development of All-Terrain Vehicle Roll Cage, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 1149, no. 1, pp. 012021, 2021, doi:10.1088/1757- 899x/1149/1/012021.

[2] A. Vishwakarma et al., Design & Analysis of Truck Chassis Frame Using Cae Tools, no. 09, pp. 756761, 2021.

[3] S. H. Abdullah, Computational Analysis for Optimisation of Baja SAE Roll Cage, IJSRD – International Journal for Scientific Research & Development, vol. 6, no. 04, pp. 13951399, 2018.

[4] A. B. Seelam, A. K. Aaqif Ahmed, K. H. Sachidananda, Buggy role cage Analysis and design, International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 589599, 2020, doi:10.18280/ijsse.100502.

[5] G. Angadi, S. Chetan, Design and analysis of roll cage, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1943, 2018, doi:10.1063/1.5029578.

[6] B. E. S. S. Aakash et al., Design and analysis of roll cage chassis, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 33, no. xxxx, pp. 44504457, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2020.07.709.

[7] S. Sivaraj et al., Structural Analysis of Ladder Chassis Frame for car UsingAnsys, vol. 4, no. 3, 2016.

[8] R. Soundararajan et al., A novel approach for design and analysis of an all-terrain vehicle roll cage, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 45, no. xxxx, pp. 22392247, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2020.10.224.

[9] A. Singh, V. Soni, A. Singh, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Structural Analysis of Ladder Chassis for Higher Strength, Certified Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 253 259, 2014.

[10] K. S. Nagrik, Design , analysis and comparing for a different cylinder head of C . I . Engine, vol. 3, no. April, pp. 10801086, 2017.

[11] V. Patel, V. V Patel, R. I. Patel, Structural analysis of a ladder chassis frame Structural Analysis of Automotive Chassis Frame and Design Modification for Weight Reduction View project Ragadia sadiq View project Structural analysis of a ladder chassis frame, World Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2012, no. 4, pp. 508, 2012.

[12] J. P. Srivastava et al., Numericalstudy on strength optimization of Go-Kart roll-cage using different materials and pipe thickness, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 39, no. xxxx, pp. 488492, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2020.08.217.

[13] M. R. Monika S. Agrawal, Finite Element Analysis of Truck Chassis, International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology, pp. 19491956, 2013.

[14] A. H. Kumar, V. Deepanjali, Design & Analysis of Automobile Chassis, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJESIT), vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 187196, 2016.

[15] Gajinkar, A.D.m, "Topology Optimization of Foot Pedal Using Generative Design Approach", International Journal of Contemporary Architechture, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021).

[16] Pachpore, Swanand Sudhir, M. K. Botre, Ratnakar R. Ghorpade, and Pradeep V. Jadhav. "Knowledge Based Engineering and Its Application in Engineering: A Review." International Journal for

Scientific Research and Development 8, no. 1 (2020): 453-463.

[17] Galande, Avinash, S. S. Pachpore, Pradeep V. Jadhav, Ratnakar Ghorpade, and Mandar M. Lele. "Investigation and assessment for specific volume of Gutta-Percha as a biomaterial in RCT." Materials Today: Proceedings 72 (2023): 741-747.

[18] Suman, Atul Shanker, and Vedansh Chaturvedi. "A Review on Thermal Analysis of Engine Cylinder Block with Fin using modified geometry." (2019).

[19] Nagrik, Kunal S., M. S. Rajpurohit, N. M. Merchant, and Swanand S. Pachpore. "Design analysis and comparing for a different cylinder head of CI Engine." International Journal Of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovation In Technology 3 (2017): 1008.

[20] Saklecha, Janhavi, Swanand Pachpore, Omkar Kulkarni, and Ganesh Kakandikar. "Comparative analysis of parameters affecting micro- forming process." Engineering Review: Meunarodni asopis namijenjen publiciranju originalnih istraivanja s aspekta analize konstrukcija, materijala i novih tehnologija u podruju strojarstva, brodogradnje, temeljnih tehnikih znanosti, elektrotehnike, raunarstva i graevinarstva 43, no. 2 (2023): 0-0.

[21] Saklecha, Janhavi, Swanand Pachpore, and Omkar Kulkarni. "Generation of Isometric Projections in MATLAB." In Techno- Societal 2016, International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Societal Applications, pp. 927-936. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2022.

[22] Pachpore, Swanand, Pradeep Jadhav, and Ratnakar Ghorpade. "Process parameter optimization in manufacturing of root canal device using gorilla troops optimization algorithm." In Computational Intelligence in Manufacturing, pp. 175-185. Woodhead Publishing, 2022.

[23] Yadav, Siddharth, and Swanand Pachpore. "Design Automation for IC Engine Cooling System using Application Programming Interface." International Journal of Computational & Electronic Aspects in Engineering (IJCEAE) 3, no. 2 (2022).

[24] Pachpore, Swanand Sudhir, Pradeep Jadhav, and Ratnakar Ghorpade. "Challenges in the development of a new obturation device: A questionnaire survey." (2020).

[25] Shinde, Rishil S., Swapnil Rathod, Tushar Ekar, Shubham Bhongade, and S. S. Pachpore. "Development of API for Estimating Torsional Strength of Shaft through Knowledge-Based Engineering Approach." International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 7, no. 7 (2020): 1209-1214.