Strengthening of Black Cotton Soil Against Liquefaction using Onion Peel

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Strengthening of Black Cotton Soil Against Liquefaction using Onion Peel

S. Karthikeyan. Faculty

Department of Civil Engineering Assistant Professor

DMI College of Engineering , Chennai

B. Selvarani Faculty

Department of Civil Engineering Assistant Professor

DMI CollegeofEngineering, Chennai

Abstract- Soil liquefaction is one of the primary geotechnical failure.Soil is basically susceptible to detrimental volumetric changes due to the occurrence of changes in moisture.There were many methods available to control the expansive nature of the soils. Onion peel is a thin, light weight, strong, often translucent paper. Hence in this study onion peel powder and onion ash have been used to stabilize the black cotton soil and the properties of soil have been compared with the black cotton soil.The results showed that there was an increase in Bearing capacity of soil ,Shear strength and Unconfined compressive strength in Black cotton soil due to the addition of Onion peel ash and also all the properties of soil were improved.Hence it is concluded that the Onion peel ash can be effectively used in the Black cotton soil for stabilization.

keywords :(Liquefaction, Cohesion, Bearing Capacity, Shear Strength, Onion Peel, Onion Ash)

  1. INTRODUCTION

    In India many types of soil are available and the major available soil is Black cotton soil.Our country has 80 to 90% of agricultural lands The remaining 10 to 20% of lands are utilized for Building activities.Increasing population requires more space for Buildings,roads etc.Hence the characteristics of Black cotton soil should be improved to greater extent to suit the increasing development.Generally Black cotton soil have more Shrinkage and swelling.Hence the Black cotton soil should be stabilized in such a way to increase its characteristics.Many methods and materials are available for soil stabilization.In this study Onion peel powder and ash have been used for stabilizing the Black cotton soil.By using the Onion peel powder and ash ,the day to day wastes are effectively used and the pollution is minimized

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW

    A lot of research work has been done worldwide in the direction of utilizing of onion peel ash and powder into the soil stabilization technique. The test results revealed that there was an increase in direct shear values and compaction test values. Swami et al (2002), Baser et al (2009) and Biswas et al (2012) studied the use of rice husk ash with lime in subgrade soil of pavement. They found that 3% of lime added to clayey soil with rice husk ash improved the CBR value and compaction value. Sabat et al and Nanda et al (2011) studied the efficiency of using the potato peel on expansive soil.They found that the Direct shear test and UCS values obtained was increasing substantially due to the addition of these two material with expansive soil.

    Choudhary et al (2011) reported the improvement in direct shear test values of expansive soil subgrade by utilizing geo synthesis.Palanippan et al (2009) and Agarwal et al has investigated that building waste powder was effective waste material in the soil stabilization which improves the index and engineering properties like LL,PL,SL, compaction, swelling characteristics. Zhang et al (2013) found the effect of sweet lime peel ash on strength and durability of stabilized expansive soil using bio mass ash . Parte Shyam Singh et al and Yadav RK et al (2014) studied the effect of rice husk ash on properties of black cotton soil. MuthuKuamar M et al, Tamil Arasan V.S et al ( april 2015) studied the stabilization of expansive soil with Orange peel ash. In this study experiments were carried out for different percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% & 25%) and at 20% the compaction and strength characteristics improved.

  3. MATERIALSAND METHODS

    A.Soil Sample

    The soil sample taken for the present study were collected from Highway Research Station at a depth 1.5m. The sample is mainly blackish in appearance. Disturbed soil sample were collected.

    Properties of soil can vary place to place and sometimes the soil does not meet the design requirements and simultaneously the import of soil from far sources is very costly. In the case , civil engineer is left with only option , to use the locally available materials which may suitable for the soil stabilization

    The behavior of clayey soil is very unpredictable because of its fine grained composition with clay mineral fraction and high water retention capacity due to exchange property. It is liable to considerable settlement due to its swelling behavior. It causes more damage to the pavements and lights buildings than any other natural hazard including flood and earthquake. If we explain the clay in the engineering terms, it is fine grained soil which having particle size below 2 micron. The behavior of the soil extensively depends upon the water content. Two main parameters are liquid limit and plastic limit . These Parameters are used to calculate the another important parameter called as plasticity index (PI). The absorbed water is the main cause of plasticity in the clay. The absorbed water depends upon the clay minerals in the soil.

      1. NION PEEL ASH AND POWDER

        Fig: 1. Onion Peel, Peel Powder and Ash

        Onion is a worldwide available material and every day the onion wastes are being generated in many ways which have been effectively used in this experimental study.onion peel ash increases strength in black cotton soil as well as in expansive soil.

  4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

    This study focused on stabilization of Black cotton soil using onion peel powder and ash to improve the properties of soil so as to make the soil suitable for construction.The study aimed to change engineering properties of black cotton soil which causes permeability, poor compaction, heaving and viscous fluid when wetted

    .the study did not cover field trial for earth fill dam embankment construction and the duration that onion peel ash and powder as soil additives will take to decay in the treated soil.

    B)LIQUID LIMIT OF STABILIZED SOIL :

    Fig: 2. Liquid limit test

    Table 1. Comparison Of Liquid Limits Of Onion Peel ash And Powder

    STABILIZER

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    RED SOIL

    ONION PEEL POWDER

    40%

    37%

    33%

    27%

    26%

    ONION PEEL ASH

    40%

    46%

    45%

    48.5%

  5. METHODOLOGY:

    The various test were conducted on soil stabilization using additives are

        1. Specific gravity IS2720(part 3) 1980

        2. Liquid limit &Plastic limitIS2720(part5)1970

        3. Direct shear test_ IS2720(part 13)1986

        4. Unconfined compression test IS2720

          Fig:3 Comparison Of Liquid Limits Of Onion Peel ash And Powder

          (part 10)1991

        5. Permeability_ IS

    2720(part 2)1973

    1. PLASTIC LIMIT

      Table 2. Comparison Of Plastic Limits Of Onion Peel ash

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

    The Specific gravity,liquid limit, plastic limit,permeability, direct shear and unconfined compression tests were carried out for the Black cotton soil and with the addition of both onion peel ash and powder

    A)SPECIFIC GRAVITY:

    Specific Gravity of Red Soil = 2.7 Specific gravity of Black cotton soil = 2.57 Specific gravity o onion peel powder = 2.9 Specific gravity of onion peel powder = 3.2

    And Powder

    STABILIZER

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    RED SOIL

    ONION PEEL POWDER

    50

    42.85

    33.3

    23

    18.75

    ONION PEEL ASH

    50

    42.85

    40

    25

    Fig:4.Comparison Of Plastic Limits Of Onion Peel And Powder

    1. SHRINKAGE LIMIT

      Table 3. Comparison Of Shrinkage Limits Of Onion Peel

      And Powder

      STABILIZER

      0%

      10%

      20%

      30%

      RED SOIL

      ONION PEEL POWDER

      2.87

      1.9

      1.6

      1.4

      0.88

      ONION PEEL ASH

      2.87

      1.2

      1.1

      1

      Fig:5.Comparison Of Shrinkage Of Onion Peel ash And Powder

    2. STANDARD PROCTOR

      1. ONION PEEL POWDER

        Table 4. Optimum Moisture Content and Maximum Dry Density For Onion Peel Powder

        Stabilizer Onion Peel Powder

        0%

        10%

        20%

        30%

        RED SOIL

        OMC

        45

        40

        32

        20

        12%

        MDD (g/cc)

        1.69

        1.71

        1.79

        1.9

        2.3

        Fig:6.Optimum Moisture Content For Onion Peel

        Powder

        Fig:7. Maximum Dry Density For Onion Powder

      2. ONION PEEL ASH

      Table 5. Optimum moisture content and Maximum Dry Density for Onion Peel Ash

      Stabilizer Onion Peel Powder

      0%

      10%

      20%

      30%

      RED SOIL

      OMC

      45

      37

      28

      14

      12%

      Maximum Dry Density (g/cc)

      1.69

      1.77

      1.86

      1.98

      2.3

      Fig:8.Optimum Moisture Content For Onion Peel Ash

      Fig:9.Maximum Dry Density For Onion Peel Ash

    3. DIRECT SHEAR

    Table 6. Comparison Of Direct Shear Test Of Onion Peel Ash And Powder

    Stabiliz er

    Parame ter

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    Red Soil

    Onion Peel Powder

    Cohesi on (Kg/C m2)

    1.11

    3

    0.1.

    1

    097

    0.88

    0.44

    5

    21

    24

    26

    30

    36

    Onion Peel Ash

    Cohesi on(Kg/ Cm2)

    1.11

    3

    0.88

    0.56

    0.51

    0.44

    5

    21

    26

    29

    33

    36

    G)UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    Table 7. Comparison Of UCCTest Of Onion Peel Ash And Powder

    STABILIZER

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    RED SOIL

    ONION PEEL POWDER

    2.47

    3

    3.16

    3.69

    4.13

    ONION PEEL ASH

    (-KPa)

    2.47

    2.64

    2.85

    3.15

    H) BEARING CAPACITY

    Table 8. Comparison Of Bearing Capacity Of Onion Peel Ash And Powder

    STABILIZER

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    RED SOIL

    ONION PEEL POWDER

    BC((kg/Cm2)

    153310

    143612

    202123

    232123

    337188

    ONION PEEL ASH

    BC((kg/Cm2)

    163310

    193612

    302123

    332123

    Fig:10.Comparison Of Bearing Capacity Of Onion Peel Ash And Powder

  7. CONCLUSION:

    Specific gravity is increased in both onion ash &Powder.Liquid limit was slightly decreased by onionpowder.Plastic limit decreased both in onion ash &onion powder.UCC &Direct shear both showed high increasein strength but onion ash is slightly Increased. Onion ash has higher bearing capacity compared to onion powder.Onion ash has better resisting capacity, shear strength compared to onion Powder. So Onion ash is Capable to resist the liquefaction,collapse, Building subsidenceof soil compared to onion Powder.

  8. REFERENCE

  1. Brooks, R.M., 2009. Soil stabilization with flayash and rice husk ash. International Journal_of Research_ and Reviews_ in Applied Sciences, 1(3): 209-217.

  2. Carreon, G.D., 2006. Stabilization of marginal soils using recycled materials. Theses and Dissertations. Paper 2473.

  3. Carraro, J.A.H., J. Dunham-Friel and M. Smidt, 2008. Use of Scrap Tire Rubber_ in Road & Bridge Construction with Expansive Soils.

  4. Hejazi, S.M., M. Sheikhzadeh, S.M. Abtahi and A. Zadhoush, 2012. Research of soil _reinforcement using natural and synthetic fibers. Construction & Building Materials, 30: 100-116..

  5. Kowalski, T.E., D.W. Starry and J.W. America, 2007. Modern Soil Stabilization Techniques. October 14-17, pp: 1- 16.

  6. White, D.J.2005. Fly Ash Soil Stabilization for Non-Uniform Subgrade Soils. Iowa State University. Volume- I: Engineering Properties &Construction Guidelines

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