Stabilization of Marine Clay by Using Copper Slag

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Stabilization of Marine Clay by Using Copper Slag

G. R. Ashwin kumar*, T. Thivakar,

M. Pradeep Kumar, J. Raj,

U.G Final year student

Nadar Saraswathi College Of Engineering And Technology Theni.

Abstract- Marine clay is a type of clay found in coastal regions around the world. The most common problem in marine clay areas is the settlement and heave of house footings that are three feet deep or less. During dry periods, the soil loses moisture and shrinks which causing a gap under the footings. The house then settles resulting in cracked masonry walls, interior cracks in plaster, and warped door and window frames. Foundations that have settled during dry periods will often return to near the original position after rainfall replenishes the soil moisture causing the soils to swell again. After several cycles, the rebound of the foundation may become progressively less resulting in larger cracks. The main aim of this paper to improve the engineering characteristics of marine clay. Marine clay can be densified by mixing it with cement or similar binding material in specific proportions. In this paper Marine clay can be stabilized using copper slag. This method is usually adopted in highways where marine clay is used as a sub grade soil.

Key words Marine clay, copper slag, stabilization.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Site feasibility study for geotechnical projects is of far most beneficial before a project can take off. Site survey usually takes place before the design process begins in order to understand the characteristics of subsoil upon which the decision on location of the project can be made. The following geotechnical design criteria have to be considered during site selection.

    • Design load and function of the structure.

    • Type of foundation to be used.

    • Bearing capacity of subsoil.

      In the past, the third bullet played a major in decision making on site selection. Once the bearing capacity of the soil was poor, the following were options:

    • Change the design to suit site condition.

    • Remove and replace the in situ soil.

    • Abandon the site

      The current practice is to modify the engineering properties of the native problematic soils to meet the design specifications. Nowadays, soils such as, soft clays and organic soils can be improved to the civil engineering requirements. This state of the art review focuses on soil stabilization method which is one of the several methods of soil improvement.

      Soil stabilization is to improving soil strength and increasing resistance to softening by water through bonding the soil particles together, water proofing the particles or combination of the two (Sherwood, 1993). Usually, the technology provides an alternative provision structural solution to a practical problem. The simplest stabilization processes are compaction and drainage (if water drains out of wet soil it becomes stronger). The other process is by improving gradation of particle size and further improvement can be achieved by adding binders to the weak soils (Rogers et al, 1996). Soil stabilization can be accomplished by several methods.

      Copper slag

    • Copper slag is a by-product obtained during the production of copper metal, which can be used as pozzolana in the production of cementing materials.

    1. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF COPPER SLAG

      Table: Physical properties copper slag

      Physical properties

      Copper slag

      Particle shape

      Irregular

      Appearance

      Black & glassy

      Type

      Air cooled

      Specific gravity

      3.91

      Percentage of voids

      43.20%

      Bulk density

      2.08 g/cc

      Fineness modulus

      3.47

      Angle of internal friction

      51° 20

      Hardness

      6-7 mohs

      Water absorption

      0.3 to 0.4%

      Moisture content

      0.1%

      Fineness

      125 m2 /kg

    2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COPPER SLAG Copper slag samples were analyzed for constituent

      oxides including minor oxides and heavy elements besides mineral phases.

      Table: Chemical properties copper slag

      Chemical Component

      % of Chemical Component

      SiO2

      25.84

      Fe2O3

      68.29

      Al2O3

      0.22

      CaO

      0.15

      Na2O

      0.58

      K2O

      0.23

      LoI

      6.59

      Mn2O3

      0.22

      TiO2

      0.41

      SO3

      0.11

      CuO

      1.20

      Sulphidesulphur

      0.25

      Insoluble residue

      14.88

      Chloride

      0.018

  2. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

    The marine clay soil copper slag is mixed on different proportions and a series of laboratory tests were conducted on samples containing various percentages of copper slag, i.e., 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, by weight of the dry soil. The following tests were conducted on marine clay soil and copper slag mixes as per relevant IS codes of practice.

    The Experiments Conducted are:

      • Grain-size Distribution

      • Liquid Limit

      • Plastic Limit

      • Plasticity Index

      • Procter compaction

      • Direct shear

      • Differential Free Swell (DFS) Test.

      • CBR Test

  3. TEST RESULTS

    The Various tests are conducted on marine clay soil mixed with copper slag in different proportions as per relevant IS Code of practice.

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY

      Table: Specific gravity of soil sample (IS: 2386 Part3)

    2. ATTERBERG LIMITS

      Table: Atterberg limits

      V+C.S %

      0

      5

      10

      15

      Wl

      28

      26

      25

      23.5

      Wp

      14.7

      18

      18.70

      17.9

      w

      19.30

      19.30

      19.30

      19.30

      Ip

      13.30

      8

      6.3

      5.6

      Il

      34.58

      16.25

      9.52

      25

      Ic

      65.40

      83.75

      90.47

      75

      Where,

      V+ C.S vadakadu + copper slag Wl- liquid limit

      Wp- plastic limit Ip- plasticity index Il- liquidity index

      Ic- consistency index

      Consistency

      Consistency index (%)

      Unconfined compressive strength(qu) (KN/m2)

      Characteristics of soil

      Very soft

      0-25

      <25

      First cn be pressed in to soil

      Soft

      25-50

      25-50

      Thumb can be pressed in to pressure

      Medium (firm)

      50-75

      50-100

      Thumb can be pressed with pressure

      Stiff

      75-100

      100-200

      Thumb can be pressed with great difficulty

      Very stiff

      >100

      200-400

      The soil can be readily indended with thumb nail

      Hard

      >100

      >400

      The soil can be readily indended with thumb nail

      Table: Consistency in terms of consistency index and unconfined compressive strength (qu)

      Compare the above table with atterberg limits value the unconfined compressive strength (qu) of clay

      Table: unconfined compressive strength (qu)

      (qu)

      0

      5

      10

      15

      V+C.S

      50-

      100

      100-200

      100-

      200

      100-

      200

    3. PROCTER COMPACTION

      Table: max.dry density of soil

      Soil location

      Specific

      gravity (G)

      Soil classification

      Vadakadu

      2.38

      Organic soil

      Both soil is same

      Mandapam

      2.10

      rmax

      3)

      (KN/m

      0

      5

      10

      15

      V+C.S

      2

      2

      2.1

      2.2

      Soil location

      Specific

      gravity (G)

      Soil classification

      Vadakadu

      2.38

      Organic soil

      Both soil is same

      Mandapam

      2.10

      rmax

      3)

      (KN/m

      0

      5

      10

      15

      V+C.S

      2

      2

      2.1

      2.2

      CBR

      0

      5

      10

      15

      V+C.S

      5

      8

      11

      7

      CBR

      0

      5

      10

      15

      V+C.S

      5

      8

      11

      7

    4. CBR TEST

CBR

Value

Sub grade& Strength

Comments

3% and less

poor

Capping is required

3%-5%

Normal

Widely encountered CBR range capping considered according to road category

5% – 15%

Good

Capping" normally unnecessary except on very heavily trafficked roads.

CBR

Value

Sub grade& Strength

Comments

3% and less

poor

Capping is required

3%-5%

Normal

Widely encountered CBR range capping considered according to road category

5% – 15%

Good

Capping" normally unnecessary except on very heavily trafficked roads.

Table: CBR value

VI. SCOPE OF THE FUTURE WORK

  1. The tests are conducted to improve the properties in pavement.

  2. The further tests like ,

    1. Direct shear test is used to calculate shear parameter cohesion and frictional resistance of soil.

    2. Plate load test is used to calculate the differential settlement.

    3. Standard penetration test is used to calculate the safe bearing capacity of soil.

  3. It helps to make a strong foundation in structures present in the marine clay.

Table: CBR For Commonly Found Sub-Grade Conditions

Compare the CBR value with Sub-Grade Conditions 10%, of copper slag got more than 5% of CBR value,

V. CONCLUSION

Based on extensive laboratory tests conducted on marine clay mixed with copper slag from 0% to 15% by weight of dry clay. The following conclusions can be drawn:

  1. The liquid limit values of the samples are decreasing with the inclusion of copper slag into the marine clay soils. It has been found that the liquid limit decreased from 31% to 22% on adding of 0% to 20% copper slag in it.

  2. There is significant increasing in CBR value by the % of 10 & 15 mixed with copper slag.

  3. From the above laboratory investigation it can be concluded that the industrial waste like copper slag has a potential to modify the characteristics of expansive clay like marine clay soil and to make it suitable in sub graded soil by addition of 10%, 15% of copper slag.

VII. REFERENCES

  1. Mandeepsingh, anupammittal. March 2014 a review on the soil stabilization with waste materials

  2. M. K. Rahman, s. Rehman& o. S. B. Al-amoudiApril 2011, literature review on cement kiln dust usage in soil and waste stabilization and experimental investigation

  3. Dr d dhiggins September 2005 soil stabilisation with ground granulated blastfurnace slag

  4. Thomas l. Brandon, jonathan j. Brown, w. Lee daniels, thomas l. Defazio, George m. Filz, james k. Mitchell (23 February 2004),

  5. Jared musselman and clintonforsha (15 5.January 2009). Rapid stabilization polymerization of wet clay soils

  6. Dr. Robert M. Brooks December 2009 soil stabilization with fly ash and rice husk ash

  7. Christopher M. Geiman, May, 2005. Stabilization of soft clay sub grades in Virginia Phase I laboratory study

  8. Susan rafalko, November 27, 2006. Rapid soil stabilization of soft clay soils for contingency airfields.

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