- Open Access
- Authors : D. K. Jawad , Dr. A. Ramesh
- Paper ID : IJERTV8IS120180
- Volume & Issue : Volume 08, Issue 12 (December 2019)
- Published (First Online): 20-12-2019
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Sliding Wear Test and Also SEM Study on Epoxy Reinforced Glass Fibre Composite Along with the Fillers of Black Granite Powder, White Granite Powder as Well as Stone Powder
1D. K. Jawad, 2Dr. A. Ramesh 1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, JJTU, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan-333001.
Abstract: SEM assessment in addition to wear test on Epoxy composite reinforced Glass fibre alongside the fillers of Black Granite Powder, White Granite Powder as well as likewise Stone Powder with considering 10 test instances of 3 alternatives of 5%, 10% as well as additionally 15% weight per-cents of fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to analyze the composite microstructures. A risky research study on Sliding Wear test conducted to determine the wear, coefficient of friction as well as additionally friction force through taking advantage of a wear testing machine as well as additionally the wear methods of reinforced Epoxy together with Glass fibre in addition to filler matrix were really examined as well as additionally the specific wear costs of the Glass epoxy composite together with as well as additionally without fillers were really reviewed.
Key words: Epoxy, Glass fire, Black Granite powder (BGP), White Granite powder (WGP), Stone powder (SP), Wear, Specific wear rate, Coefficient of friction, Sliding Distance.
Polymer is actually an artificial all natural material features little particles recognized as monomers, Epoxy is actually a functional course of particle including one air atom adhered along with pair of carbon atoms and also these carbon atoms actually have actually bound through various other methods, glass fibre being composed very little fibre coatings of glass and also granite as well as stone powder are actually the commercial wastefulness gotten after grinding the granite and also rocks.
Epoxy material reinforced along with artificial fibres including glass fibre is actually anenormous accomplishment in the business of materials. The combos of polymer based upon composite materials have actually begun brand new methods for the polymer assembly and also have actually permitted the manufacture of brand new items along with ideal properties .
Fillers of Granite and also Stone grains happened under the course of ceramic, these are actually included the kind of powder that indicates featuring remarkably little surfaces and also each surface kind as a clear that connections properly along with Glass fibre Epoxy as well as improves mechanical properties including tensile, flexural, impact, hardness toughness as well as likewise improves the perspective security, protection to wear, operate at heats, enduring protection.
It is actually typically acknowledged to make use of the SEM devices is actually direct to function; it is actually a notable component in the research of mini constructs at the failing aspect of the all evaluated examples .
There are actually comprehensive specialized requests through which friction and also wear are crucial factors to consider. Polymer composites having various fillers as well as supports .
Among the necessary features of materials are actually wear and also friction. Wear is actually determined as the damage to a strong area, typically pertaining ongoing reduction of material, because of moving activity in between that area as well as speaking to drug or even compounds . To boost the friction as well as wear properties of polymer materials is actually to enhance their hardness, tensile, impact as well as flexural durabilities as well as to minimize their attachment to the getting in touch with component material for this normally making use of the fibre encouragements along with the glass fibre as well as ceramic fillers in the powder kind .
2.1. Work Sample Preparation:
A Teflon glass mould of measurements 300 Ã— 200 Ã— 3 mm3 has actually readied, reduced the called for dimension of glass fibre at that point use the silicon mould launch spray on the internal surface area of Teflon glass mould and after that use 1st coating of Epoxy as received Fig.1, insert the 1st level of glass fibre on it as well as use the 2nd coating of Epoxy on glass fibre as received Fig.2 at that point insert the 2nd coating of glass fibre on Epoxy insert and afterwards administer the 3rd level of Epoxy on Glass fire afterwards activity enable sample to become treatment at area temperature as much as 48 hrs after that take out the sample coming from the mould as received Fig.3 and afterwards based upon ASTM specifications reduced the called for dimensions of examples due to the utilizing vertical band viewed machine.
Fig.1 Cutting the Glass fibre and applying the first layer of Epoxy
Fig.2 Pasting the first layer of Glass fibre and applying the second layer of Epoxy
Fig.3 Pasting the second layer of Epoxy and curing the sample at room temperature
Fig.4 Composites without fillers and all composites
Wear test procedure:
Fig.5 Pin on disc Wear testing Machine
Fig.5 demonstrates a pin-on-disk wear testing machine, in which the wear tests were actually carried out. During the course of the test, the wear, friction coefficient as well as friction force was actually tape-recorded and also graphed.
To explain the tribological practices of polymer materials busy, conventional tests are actually made use of. The pin-on- disc test, some of the best often made use of test setups.
Mathematical Formula for Sliding wear test:
The specific wear rate WS of the material to be optimized, by using the equation
Where m is the mass loss before and after sliding, L the sliding distance, the density of the composite, and FN is the normal load.
SEM analysis procedure:
After the tensile test, the tensile fracture areas, theused surface areas of the composites and also the counter skins are actually covered along with a slim level of gold and after that reviewed making use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as displayed in Fig.6.
Fig.6 Scanning Electron Microscopic machine
The SEM browses a high-energy electron beam throughout the surface area of a specimen and also determines among a lot of signs coming from the communication in between the beam as well as specimen.
The SEM photos are actually boring as they mirror the electron on each pixel. They could be colourless to enhance graphic improvement of substances with adjustments in graphic strength .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Notations of Experiment Results are shown in the Table.1.
Table 1. Notations of the prepared samples
Black Granite Powder
White Granite Powder
100% of Glass Epoxy
5% of Black Granite Powder and 95% of Glass Epoxy
5% of White Granite Powder and 95% of Glass Epoxy
5% of Stone Powder and 95% of Glass Epoxy
Wear test results:
After wear testing procedure, machine produces the wear testing end result, Coefficient of friction and also frictional
force. Also imperceptible volume of wear struck all the examples, along with thefillers 10% of BGP, 5% of WGP and also SP revealed much better wear protection properties with that said of that glass fibre Epoxy without fillers.
Fig.7 Wear of samples with respect to the time at normal load of 30N and speed of 500RPM
Fig.7 portrays wear of examples in Âµm relative to the machining opportunity around the 300 few seconds. It has actually monitored BGP as well as WGP along with percents of 10 and also 5 revealed much better end results. The max wear cost strikes 15% of BGP along with the analyses of 147Âµm as well as minimal wear cost strike 10% of BGP along with the analysis of 30Âµm amongst all the test examples. Glass fibre Epoxy along with as well as without fillers are actually possessing good wear protection properties also 147Âµm is actually a minimal wear and also is actually about identical to 15% of 1mm.
Fig.8 reveals the Wear of examples based upon Sliding span, the optimum wear took place to 15% of BGP as well as minimum required wear was actually to 10% of BGP.
All the examples possessing reduced coefficient of friction, the perks of reduced coefficient of friction are actually much less raucous effective, lowered wear, stretch the functional lifestyle as well as likewise much better working efficiency.
Fig.8 Wear of samples Vs. Sliding Distance at normal load of 30N and speed of 500RPM
Fig.9 presents Coefficient of friction versus Sliding range at an ordinary load of 30N as well as rate 500RPM the max coefficient of friction documented as 0.35 to 15% of SP as well as lowest coefficient of friction tape-recorded in between
0.2 to 0.25 and also the examples are actually 10% of BGP, 5% of WGP as well as likewise glass Epoxy without filler
Fig.9 Coefficient of friction Vs. Sliding Distance at normal load of 30N and speed of 500RPM
Fig.10 portrays Specific Wear Rate versus gliding Distance next to administering the usual load of 30N and also specified the velocity of 500RPM, it has actually presented the optimum specific wear pace falls to 0.0004 mm3/N-m of the 15% of BGP Glass fibre Epoxy sample at 500m of Sliding Distance as well as minimal specific wear pace has to do with 0.0001 mm3/N-m of the 10% of BGP Glass Epoxy sample at 500m of Sliding Distance, 0.0002 mm3/N-m indicated due to the sample of glass fibre Epoxy without filler and also the fillers of 5% WGP Glass fibre Epoxy sample recoded the much better Specific wear pace as 0.00015mm3/N-m.
Fig.10 Specific Wear Rate of samples Vs. Sliding Distance at normal load of 30N and speed of 500RPM
The Specific wear speed at a variety of bunches of 30N, 40N, 50N and also at a velocity of 500RPM relative to all examples as displayed in Fig. 16 the max specific wear pace concerns 0.004mm3/N-m indicated to a sample of 15% BGP Glass fibre Epoxy as well as the lowest specific wear speed falls to the 0.004mm3/N-m indicated to a sample of 10% BGP Glass fibre Epoxy
Fig.11 Specific Wear Rate of samples regarding to weight % of Samples at 30N, 40N, 50N and speed of 500RPM
SEM analysis Results:
Fig.12 SEM images of glass fibre Epoxy without filler and with 5% of Black granite powder.
Fig.13 SEM images of glass fibre Epoxy with 10% of and with 15% of Black granite powder
Fig.14 SEM images of glass fibre Epoxy with 5% and 10% of White granite powder
Fig.15 SEM images of glass fibre Epoxy with 15% of white granite powder and with 5% of Stone powder
Fig.16 SEM images of glass fibre Epoxy with 10% and 15% of Stone powder
Fig.12 reveals 50Âµm settlement microstructure picture at the fracture component tensile evaluated specimen of Epoxy without filler it portrays Epoxy bound along with Glass fibre, where Epoxy is actually freely paired along with glass fibre constitutes a much less thick as well as much less clear microstructure as well as makes up a spherulite microstructure as well as additionally portrays 5% BGP bound along with Epoxy and also glass fibre constitutes a clear as well as thick building.
Fig.13 reveals the 50Âµm settlement photo at the fracture component tensile evaluated specimen of 10% and also 15% of BGP fillers along with Glass fibre Epoxy, a transparent
concept of glass fibre as well as Epoxy along with 10% of BGP makes up a solid connect of additional heavy as well as a lot better clear microstructure, in upcoming picture being made up 15% of BGP constitutes a heavy clear microstructure.
Fig.14. presents the 50Âµm settlement graphic at the fracture component tensile checked specimen of5% as well as 10% of WGP fillers along with Glass fibre Epoxy. In 5% of WGP constitutes a clear and also heavy microstructure, on the contrary the following photo of 10% WGP reveals the crystal clear viewpoint of glass fibre as well as effectively bound along with epoxy constitutes an extra and also a lot better thick clear microstructure.
Fig.15 reveals the 50Âµm settlement picture at the fracture component tensile evaluated specimen of epoxy, the 15% of WGP constitutes a clear and also thick microstructure, the following photo of 5% SP reveals the crystal clear presence of glass fibre as well as effectively adhered along with epoxy constitutes an extra as well as a lot better heavy clear microstructure.
Fig.16 presents the 50Âµm settlement picture at the fracture component tensile assessed specimen of 10% as well as 15% of SP fillers along with Glass fibre Epoxy. It portrays a denser and also excellent kind of clear microstructure.
SEM study of broken specimens presented failing places of fibre glass with that said of Epoxy along with as well as without fillers and also microstructure noticed as fibre Epoxy along with fillers of SP, BGP and also WGP created a healthier clear microstructure with that said of Glass fibre Epoxy without fillers that creates a much less heavy, shapeless as well as much less clear microstructure.
In the event of moving wear test 10% of BGP and also 5% of WGP revealed much better wear protection properties with that said of Glass Epoxy without fillers.
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D. K. Jawad, Completed Diploma in Automobile Engineering in 1995 at Govt. polytechnic, Anantapur, B.Tech. Mechanical Engineering in 2000 from Kakatiya Institute of Technologyand Science, affliated To Kakatiya University,Warangal and M.Tech. in Advanced Manufacturing Systemin 2015 from Kasireddy Narayan Reddy College of Engineering Affliated To JNTUH, Hyderabad.
Dr. A. Ramesh, completed Diploma in Mechanical Engineering in 1985, B.E. in Mechanical Engineering in 1989 under Bangalore University, M.E. in Metal Casting Engineering, 1995, from Bangalore University, Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering in the year 2004 from Mysore University and Sir having the 30 years of Teaching Experience in Engineering Colleges.