Six Phase Transmission Line Series Fault Locator using Artificial Neural Network

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Six Phase Transmission Line Series Fault Locator using Artificial Neural Network

A.Nareshkumar

Assistant Professor,

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department Institute of Aeronautical Engineering,

Hyderabad, India

K. Lingaswamy

Assistant Professor,

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department Institute of Aeronautical Engineering,

Hyderabad, India

Abstract This paper addresses to locate open conductor (series) fault distance location scheme in six phase transmission line using the Artificial Neural Network. Voltage and current signals fundamental components measured at relay location are used as input to train Artificial Neural Network (ANN). MATLAB® software its associated simulink® and simpowersystem® toolboxes have been used to simulate the six phase transmission line. A sample 138 kV system of 68 km length, the model of Allegheny power system has been selected for study. The effect of variation in fault inception angle and its distance location has been taken into account. The testing results show that maximum absolute error of proposed scheme is less than 1%. It validates the accuracy and suitability of proposed protection scheme.

Keywords- Artificial Neural Networks, Fault Location, Six Phase Transmission Line.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Power system consists of generators, transmission lines, distribution lines and transformers. Protection of these generators, transmission lines, distribution lines is very important for continuity of supply without interruption for business, industrial and residential usage. So transmission line protection is also very important issue to protect the electrical power system. Six phase line can be a possible alternative to increase transmission line capacity. When fault occurs in a transmission line, it is essential to find the location of fault as early as possible for quick system restoration and minimize the damage. Series faults are basically open conductor faults. During open conductor fault the power supplied to consumer will be distressed. So it is necessary to locate the series fault quickly.

  2. SIX PHASE TRANSMISSION LINE

    Due to harmonics effect and various other reasons six phase systems and six phase machines are not popular but six phase transmission lines are more popular due to its increased power transfer capacity, maintaining the same conductor configuration, better efficiency, better voltage regulations, greater stability and greater reliability [1].

    The existing double circuit three phase transmission line can be successfully converted into a single circuit six phase transmission line [2].

    In this paper, a simple ANN is used to develop the six phase open conductor faults which can occur in the six transmission line. ANN based technique have been reported for protection of single circuit and double circuit earlier.

    Faulted phase selection based on superimposed components is proposed in [6] and [7]. Faulty phase selection and distance location using neural network for single circuit transmission line has been reported in [8]. In companion paper [9] and [10], fault classification and fault distance location for single line to ground faults on double circuit transmission line using neural network has been reported respectively. From the extensive literature survey it has been found that the various protection technique based on ANN has been reported for protection of single circuit and double circuit transmission line for locating the fault but protection technique based on ANN for location of series faults i.e, open conductor fault has not been reported so far.

    The algorithm employs the fundamental components of six phase voltages and six phase currents of line at one end only. The performance of proposed scheme has been investigated by number of offline tests. The simulation results show that the proposed ANN technique is able to locate the series fault after one cycle after the inception of fault.

  3. POWER SYSTEM MODEL UNDER STUDY

    The six phase transmission line studied is composed of 138 kV, 68 km length, connected to source at each end. Its single line diagram is shown in Fig. 1. Short circuit capacity of the sources on two sides of the line is considered to be 1.25GVA and X/R is 10. The transmission line is simulated using MATLAB®7.01. To create series fault in the line two three phase circuit breakers are used in between the line.

    Fig. 1.Single line diagram of six phase transmission line under study.

  4. SERIES FAULT ANALYSIS

    Fault can be detected by measuring the change in the parameters of power system. During fault condition the magnitude of voltage and current signals changes. In series fault magnitude of current is decreases to zero and voltage slightly changes. The change in voltage and current in six phase line is used to develop the ANN based fault locator for location of series fault in the line.

    The change in the voltage waveform during pre-fault and post fault conditions are shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3

    respectively.

    Fig. 2.Six phase voltage waveform in healthy condition.

    Fig. 3.Six phase voltage waveform in faulty condition

    Similarly the change in current waveform during pre-fault and post fault conditions are shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 respectively.

    Fig. 4.Six phase current waveform in healthy condition.

    Fig. 5. Six phase current waveform in faulty condition.

    It is clear from figures that after occurrence of the fault voltage and current in all the six phases are changing. The protection scheme based on those changes during pre-fault and post fault conditions.

    The simulation result for six phase transmission line voltage and current waveform during one open conductor fault condition at 45 km from sending end with inception angle of 95 are shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 5. Series fault types are shown in Table. I.

    TABLE 1 SERIES FAULT TYPES

    Series Fault Type

    Total Number of combinations

    Faulted Phases

    1-open conductor

    6

    A,B,C,D,E,F

    2-open conductor

    15

    AB,AC,AD,AE,AF,BC,BD,BE,BF,CD,CE

    ,CF,DE,DF,EF

    3-open conductor

    20

    ABC,ABD,ABE,ABF,ACD,ACE,ACF,AD E,ADF,AEF,BCD,BCE,BCF,BDE,BDF, BEF,CDE,CDF,CEF,DEF

    4-open conductor

    15

    ABCD,ABCE,ABCF,ABDE,ABDF,ABEF

    ,ACDE,ACDF,ACEF,ADEF,BCDE,BCD F,BCEF,BDEF,CDEF

    5-open conductor

    6

    ABCDE,ABCDF,ABCEF, ABDEF,ACDEF,BCDEF

    6-open conductor

    1

    ABCDEF

  5. PREPROCESSING SIGNALS

    After simulating the six phase transmission line model in MATLAB® software, low pass butter worth filter with cut of frequency of 480 Hz is used to restrict the bandwidth of signal for both six phase currents and voltages and further sampled at sample frequency of 1.2 KHz. Then the one full cycle discrete fourier transform was utilized to calculate the fundamental components of voltage and currents. The fundamental components of voltage and currents have been generated followed by normalization process by ±1. After pre- processing the value of six phase voltage and currents are fed as the input for ANN model [3].

  6. ARCHITECTURE OF ANN BASED FAULT LOCATOR To enable the method to be implemented in fault location

    task only the fundamental component of voltage and current

    obtained from reprocessing signals are used as input to neural network. As the proposed ANN based protection scheme locates the fault in kilometer, in the output total number of neuron is one. Thus the input X and output Y for the fault locator are

    = [, , , , , , , , , , , ]

    = [ ]

  7. TRAINING OF ANN BASED FAULT LOCATOR Using simulink® and simpowersystem® toolboxes of

    MATLAB® software open conductor faults type at different

    locations and fault inception angles 0º, 90º and 180º have been simulated. 3 fault inception angles and 9 fault locations were taken as shown in Table. II. In order to create input matrix to 5 post fault samples has taken from each combination. Some samples of no fault conditions have also been included in input matrix say around 25 samples. Therefore, total number of samples in input matrix for each series fault as shown in Table. II. All these are arranged in matrix as shown in Table. II. Input layer of ANN has 12 neurons. Therefore, the input matrix has 12 rows; corresponding target matrix has been prepared. As the output layer has one neuron. The target matrix consists of one row. Here input and output matrix columns are number of samples.

    TABLE II Training Patterns Generation

    Fault Type

    Inception Angle

    Distance (Km)

    Number Of Combinations

    Total Number Of Sequences

    1-open

    0,90&180

    1,10,20,30,40

    6*3*9=

    162*5=810+

    conductor

    ,50,

    162

    25 =835

    60,65

    2-open

    0,90&180

    1,5,10,20,30,

    15*3*9=

    405*5=2025

    conductor

    40,50,

    405

    +25=2050

    60,65

    3-open

    0,90&180

    1,5,10,20,30,

    20*3*9=

    540*5=2700

    conductor

    40,50,

    540

    +25=2725

    60,65

    4-open

    0,90&180

    1,5,10,20,30,

    15*3*9=

    405*5=2025

    conductor

    40,50,

    405

    +25=2050

    60,65

    5-open

    0,90&180

    1,5,10,20,30,

    6*3*9=

    162*5=810+

    Conductor

    40,50,

    162

    25=835

    60,65

    6-open

    0,90&180

    1,5,10,20,30,

    1*3*9=

    27*5=135+2

    Conductor

    40,50,

    27

    5=160

    60,65

    The number of hidden layer neurons and transfer function for both hidden layer and output layer has varied. Tangent sigmoid transfer function for two hidden layers and output layer has been used for each open conductor fault are shown in Table. III.

    TABLE III DURING TRAINING ANN TRANSFER FUNCTION IN EACH LAYER FOR EACH FAULT

    Fault Type

    Input Layer Transfer Function

    First Hidden Layer Transfer Function

    Second Hidden Layer Transfer Function

    Output Layer Transfer Function

    1-open conductor

    None

    Tansig

    Tansig

    Tansig

    2-open conductor

    None

    Tansig

    Tansig

    Tansig

    3-open conductor

    None

    Tansig

    Tansig

    Tansig

    4-open conductor

    None

    Tansig

    Tansig

    Tansig

    5-open conductor

    None

    Tansig

    Tansig

    Tansig

    6-open Conductor

    None

    Tansig

    Tansig

    Tansig

    Neural network was trained by Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. Finally, the best performance is obtained by two hidden layers with 5 neurons in the first hidden layer and 5 neurons in second hidden layer for 1-open conductor fault. Similarly, for each open conductor fault number of neurons for each layer is shown in Table. IV.

    TABLE IV AFTER TRAINING ANN NEURONS IN EACH LAYER FOR EACH FAULT

    Fault Type

    Input Layer Neurons

    First Hidden Layer Neurons

    Second Hidden Layer Neurons

    Output Layer Neurons

    1-open conductor

    12

    5

    5

    1

    2-open conductor

    12

    8

    8

    1

    3-open conductor

    12

    8

    9

    1

    4-open conductor

    12

    8

    9

    1

    5-open Conductor

    12

    5

    5

    1

    6-open Conductor

    12

    3

    4

    1

    The overall structure of ANN based 1-open conductor fault distance locator is shown in Fig. 6.

    The desired performance error goal was set to 1*e-5. This learning strategy converges quickly. And the mean square error decreases in 930 epochs to 9.81*e-6for 1-open conductor fault is shown in Fig. 7.

    Fig. 6.ANN structure for 1-open conductor fault distance locator

    Fig. 7.Training of ANN for 1-open conductor fault

    Neural network was trained by Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. The overall structure of ANN based 2- open conductor fault distance locator is shown in Fig. 8.

    The mean square error decreases in 1280 epochs to 9.98*e- 6 for 2-open conductor fault is shown in Fig. 9.

    Fig. 8.ANN structure for 2-open conductor fault distance locator.

    Fig. 9.Training of ANN for 2-open conductor fault.

    Neural network was trained by Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. The overall structure of ANN based 3- open conductor fault distance locator is shown in Fig. 10.

    The mean square error decreases in 845 epochs to9.89*e-6 for 3-open conductor fault is shown in Fig. 11.

    Fig. 10.ANN structure for 3-open conductor fault distance locator.

    Fig. 11.Training of ANN for 3-open conductor fault.

    Neural network was trained by Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. The overall structure of ANN based 4- open conductor fault distance locator is shown in Fig. 12.

    The mean square error decreases in 492 epochs to 9.98*e-6 for 4-open conductor fault is shown in Fig. 13.

    Fig. 12.ANN structure for 4-open conductor fault distance locator.

    Fig. 13.Training of ANN for 4-open conductor fault.

    Neural network was trained by Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. The overall structure of ANN based 5- open conductor fault distance locator is shown in Fig. 14.

    The mean square error decreases in 342 epochs to 6.81*e-6 for 5-open conductor fault is shown in Fig. 15.

    Fig. 14.ANN structure for 5-open conductor fault distance locator.

    Fig. 15.Training of ANN for 5-open conductor fault.

    Neural network was trained by Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. The overall structure of ANN based 6- open conductor fault distance locator is shown in Fig. 16.

    The mean square error decreases in 302 epochs t 9.81*e-6 for 6-open conductor fault is shown in Fig. 17.

    Fig. 16.ANN structure for 6-open conductor fault distance locator.

    Fig. 17.Training of ANN for 6-open conductor fault.

    TABLE V TRAINING RESULTS OF FAULT LOCATION FOR EACH FAULT

    Fault Type

    Number Of Epochs

    Mean Square Error

    1-openconductor

    930

    9.81*e7

    2-openconductor

    1240

    9.98*e7

    3-openconductor

    845

    9.89*e7

    4-openconductor

    492

    9.98*e7

    5-openconductor

    342

    6.81*e7

    6-open conductor

    302

    9.81*e7

  8. TEST RESULTS

    After training it is required to test the network testing data are generated various fault parameters such as fault inception angle between 0º to 360º and fault location from 0 to 68 km for each open conductor fault type is shown in Table VI.

    TABLE VI Test Result For Fault Location

    Fault Type

    Fault Inception angle (Deg°)

    Actual fault location

    Estimated fault location

    Absolute Error(%

    )

    A-open conductor

    325

    38

    38.0237

    0.033

    B-open conductor

    6

    56

    55.929

    -0.104

    C-open conductor

    222

    17

    16.9354

    -0.095

    D-open conductor

    98

    31

    31.0518

    0.075

    E-open conductor

    49

    51

    50.9479

    -0.077

    F-open conductor

    95

    12

    11.9504

    -0.073

    AB-open conductor

    53

    9

    9.350

    0.537

    AC-open conductor

    20

    27

    27.1149

    0.1689

    AD-open conductor

    320

    51

    50.9371

    -0.925

    AE-open conductor

    260

    33

    33.0869

    0.1277

    AF-open conductor

    90

    1

    1.0245

    0.036

    BC-open conductor

    75

    58

    57.9236

    -0.1123

    BD-open conductor

    60

    18

    18.057

    0.08382

    BE-open conductor

    280

    4

    3.6332

    -0.5494

    BF-open conductor

    115

    66

    65.7763

    -0.328

    CE-open conductor

    80

    15

    15.0559

    0.0822

    CD-open conductor

    140

    37

    37.0761

    0.111

    CF-open conductor

    80

    49

    48.9796

    -0.03

    DE-open conductor

    130

    28

    28.1005

    0.1477

    DF-open conductor

    25

    9

    9.3650

    0.5367

    EF-open conductor

    40

    11

    11.1299

    0.191

    ABC-open conductor

    115

    27

    27.0163

    0.023

    ABE-open conductor

    50

    39

    39.1161

    0.170

    ABD-open conductor

    10

    27

    27.6396

    0.939

    ABF-open conductor

    95

    32

    31.7003

    -0.441

    ACD-open conductor

    35

    57

    56.8718

    -0.189

    ACE-open conductor

    90

    1

    0.7528

    -0.364

    ACF-open conductor

    300

    22

    22.0553

    0.080

    ADE-open conductor

    225

    64

    64.1075

    0.107

    ADF-open conductor

    5

    3

    2.3343

    -0.979

    BCD-open conductor

    260

    16

    16.0969

    -0.141

    BCE-open conductor

    110

    47

    47.0567

    0.082

    BCF-open conductor

    95

    8

    8.1326

    0.194

    BDE-open conductor

    45

    21

    20.9750

    -0.036

    BDF-open conductor

    75

    61

    61.079

    0.116

    CDE-open conductor

    42

    13

    12.9062

    -0.138

    CDF-open conductor

    120

    35

    34.9860

    -0.020

    DEF-open conductor

    125

    2

    1.41954

    -0.854

    AEF-open conductor

    84

    18

    17.9696

    -0.045

    CEF-open conductor

    325

    38

    38.0237

    0.033

    BEF-open conductor

    50

    1

    0.8046

    -0.288

    ABCD-open conductor

    18

    33

    32.9609

    -0.058

    ABCE-open conductor

    155

    55

    54.9884

    -0.017

    ABCF-open conductor

    112

    6

    5.8776

    -0.18

    ABDE-open conductor

    6

    15

    15.0107

    0.014

    ABDF-open conductor

    120

    59

    59.021

    0.030

    ABEF-open conductor

    12

    3

    2.3568

    -0.945

    ACDE-open conductor

    3

    38

    38.0670

    0.098

    ACDF-open conductor

    52

    66

    65.7709

    -0.338

    ACEF-open conductor

    83

    9

    9.1799

    0.263

    ADEF-open conductor

    75

    24

    24.0155

    0.022

    ABDF-open conductor

    122

    54

    54.0665

    0.097

    BCDE-open conductor

    6

    13

    13.0383

    0.055

    BCDF-open conductor

    9

    28

    28.0138

    0.020

    BCEF-open conductor

    /td>

    110

    43

    43.0150

    0.122

    BDEF-open conductor

    32

    53

    52.884

    -0.17

    ABCDE-open conductor

    33

    2

    1.2924

    -0.987

    ABCDF-open conductor

    22

    14

    13.9546

    -0.067

    ABCDF-open conductor

    335

    64

    64.0778

    0.113

    ABCEF-open conductor

    235

    9

    9.2082

    0.305

    ABDEF-open conductor

    6

    26

    26.0025

    0.003

    ACDEF-open conductor

    210

    48

    47.9939

    -0.010

    BCDEF-open conductor

    65

    6

    6.1218

    0.177

    ABCDEF

    89

    28

    28.0196

    -0.027

    ABCDEF-open conductor

    6

    56

    55.929

    -0.104

    Fault Type

    Fault Inception angle (Deg°)

    Actual fault location

    Estimated fault location

    Absolute Error(%

    )

    A-open conductor

    325

    38

    38.0237

    0.033

    B-open conductor

    6

    56

    55.929

    -0.104

    C-open conductor

    222

    17

    16.9354

    -0.095

    D-open conductor

    98

    31

    31.0518

    0.075

    E-open conductor

    49

    51

    50.9479

    -0.077

    F-open conductor

    95

    12

    11.9504

    -0.073

    AB-open conductor

    53

    9

    9.350

    0.537

    AC-open conductor

    20

    27

    27.1149

    0.1689

    AD-open conductor

    320

    51

    50.9371

    -0.925

    AE-open conductor

    260

    33

    33.0869

    0.1277

    AF-open conductor

    90

    1

    1.0245

    0.036

    BC-open conductor

    75

    58

    57.9236

    -0.1123

    BD-open conductor

    60

    18

    18.057

    0.08382

    BE-open conductor

    280

    4

    3.6332

    -0.5494

    BF-open conductor

    115

    66

    65.7763

    -0.328

    CE-open conductor

    80

    15

    15.0559

    0.0822

    CD-open conductor

    140

    37

    37.0761

    0.111

    CF-open conductor

    80

    49

    48.9796

    -0.03

    DE-open conductor

    130

    28

    28.1005

    0.1477

    DF-open conductor

    25

    9

    9.3650

    0.5367

    EF-open conductor

    40

    11

    11.1299

    0.191

    ABC-open conductor

    115

    27

    27.0163

    0.023

    ABE-open conductor

    50

    39

    39.1161

    0.170

    ABD-open conductor

    10

    27

    27.6396

    0.939

    ABF-open conductor

    95

    32

    31.7003

    -0.441

    ACD-open conductor

    35

    57

    56.8718

    -0.189

    ACE-open conductor

    90

    1

    0.7528

    -0.364

    ACF-open conductor

    300

    22

    22.0553

    0.080

    ADE-open conductor

    225

    64

    64.1075

    0.107

    ADF-open conductor

    5

    3

    2.3343

    -0.979

    BCD-open conductor

    260

    16

    16.0969

    -0.141

    BCE-open conductor

    110

    47

    47.0567

    0.082

    BCF-open conductor

    95

    8

    8.1326

    0.194

    BDE-open conductor

    45

    21

    20.9750

    -0.036

    BDF-open conductor

    75

    61

    61.079

    0.116

    CDE-open conductor

    42

    13

    12.9062

    -0.138

    CDF-open conductor

    120

    35

    34.9860

    -0.020

    DEF-open conductor

    125

    2

    1.41954

    -0.854

    AEF-open conductor

    84

    18

    17.9696

    -0.045

    CEF-open conductor

    325

    38

    38.0237

    0.033

    BEF-open conductor

    50

    1

    0.8046

    -0.288

    ABCD-open conductor

    18

    33

    32.9609

    -0.058

    ABCE-open conductor

    155

    55

    54.9884

    -0.017

    ABCF-open conductor

    112

    6

    5.8776

    -0.18

    ABDE-open conductor

    6

    15

    15.0107

    0.014

    ABDF-open conductor

    120

    59

    59.021

    0.030

    ABEF-open conductor

    12

    3

    2.3568

    -0.945

    ACDE-open conductor

    3

    38

    38.0670

    0.098

    ACDF-open conductor

    52

    66

    65.7709

    -0.338

    ACEF-open conductor

    83

    9

    9.1799

    0.263

    ADEF-open conductor

    75

    24

    24.0155

    0.022

    ABDF-open conductor

    122

    54

    54.0665

    0.097

    BCDE-open conductor

    6

    13

    13.0383

    0.055

    BCDF-open conductor

    9

    28

    28.0138

    0.020

    BCEF-open conductor

    110

    43

    43.0150

    0.122

    BDEF-open conductor

    32

    53

    52.884

    -0.17

    ABCDE-open conductor

    33

    2

    1.2924

    -0.987

    ABCDF-open conductor

    22

    14

    13.9546

    -0.067

    ABCDF-open conductor

    335

    64

    64.0778

    0.113

    ABCEF-open conductor

    235

    9

    9.2082

    0.305

    ABDEF-open conductor

    6

    26

    26.0025

    0.003

    ACDEF-open conductor

    210

    48

    47.9939

    -0.010

    BCDEF-open conductor

    65

    6

    6.1218

    0.177

    ABCDEF

    89

    28

    28.0196

    -0.027

    ABCDEF-open conductor

    6

    56

    55.929

    -0.104

    =

    × 100

    Testing of each open conductor fault is carried on each test samples. It is clear from the Table. VI the proposed network is locating entire open conductor fault correctly. The absolute error for fault location is expressed based on the equation.

    It is clearly evident from the test results that the maximum absolute error of the proposed scheme is less than %1.

  9. CONCLUSION

An accurate algorithm for distance location of series fault i.e, open conductor fault on six phase transmission line fed from sources at both end is presented. The algorithm employs the fundamental components of six phase voltages and six phase currents of line at one end only. The algorithm locates the fault after one cycle after the inception of fault. The performance of proposed scheme has been investigated by number of offline tests. The results show valuable operation of proposed ANN fault locator in the estimation of fault location for each conductor fault and maximum absolute error of proposed scheme is less than %1.

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