- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 422
- Authors : Alina C R, Anilkumar V M
- Paper ID : IJERTV3IS040028
- Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 04 (April 2014)
- Published (First Online): 04-04-2014
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Self Powered Buck-Boost Converter for Low-Voltage Energy Applications
Alina C R
M.Tech Research Scholar Power Electronics & Control
Government Engineering College Idukki,India
Anilkumar V M
Asst. Professor Dept. Of EEE Government Engineering College Idukki,India
AbstractWith electronic circuits now capable of operating at microwatt levels, it is feasible for them to be powered using non- traditional sources. This has led to energy harvesting, which provides the power to charge, supplement, or replace batteries in systems where battery use is inconvenient, impractical, expensive or dangerous. It can also be used for data transmission as well Energy harvesting can power smart wireless sensor nodes, to monitor and optimize complex industrial processes, remote field installations. Which uses its input as the wasted energy from combustion engines, industrial processes. Key to energy harvesting is a power converter that can operate with ultra-low-voltage inputs. The basic converter topology used here is the Buck-Boost Converter
Index TermsEnergy Harvesting, Buck-Boost Converters
Conventional AC-DC converters for energy harvesting consist of two-stages, full bridge diode rectifier and DC-DC converter. However the diode-bridge would incur considerable voltage drop, making the low-voltage rectification infeasible . Much primitive structures uses transformers in the booster stage to overcome diode voltage drops but that also creates noises. Latest topologies uses bidirectional switches and split capacitors, but due to the low- operating frequency range the value of the capacitors have to be large enough to suppress the voltage ripple under the desired level. Conduction losses and losses due to parasitic capacitances contribute 31%- 37% of total losses . Why we are going for Buck-Boost topology rather than Boost topology alone is because this converter has the ability to set up the input voltage with a reverse polarity, hence it is an appropriate candidate to condition the negative voltage cycle. Buck and Boost also shares the common capacitor and inductor hence reduction in no. of components can be achieved. Buck- Boost structures using linear regulators are in use but these were changed when switching converters came in to play. Switching converters are particularly useful in submilliwatt applications because the generated energy will be in the milliwatt operating range . Also linear voltage regulators cant synthesize optimum load impedances. The input is given from a electromagnetic microgenerator. Microgenerators are of three types, 1) Piezoelectric 2)Electrostatic 3) Electromagnetic in which electromagnetic source has the potential to drive an electronic load rather than
any other source. Rather than solar, wind, hydro, thermal this paper mainly focuses on vibrational energy as input, reason because with all the other sources independent modules have been developed. In the physical realization of the circuit conventional diodes cannot be used since it causes considerable voltage drop therefore Schottky diodes have to be used which drops only some millivolts. In this paper a Buck- Boost topology have been proposed which performs the unique action of boost converter in the positive cycle and buck- boost converter in the reverse cycle thus obtaining the required result.
Fig.1.Conventional topology using bidirectional switch and split capacitor.
Fig.2.Classical Buck-Boost Converter
The operation of the basic configuration  is as follows, when the input is positive,M1 is turned on and the circuit operates in boost mode with diode S1 in reverse biased condition, when the input supply become negative, M2 conducts reverse biasing S2, the circuit now operates in Buck- Boost mode.
Fig.3.The proposed Topology
In this topology an additional inductor and a capacitor is provided L2 &C2 .This filter will stabilize the output voltage without using a output voltage control OPAMP or any linear regulators.
Modes Of Operation
Fig.4. Mode 1 operation
Fig.5.Mode 2 Operation
Fig.6. Mode 3 Operation
Fig.7. Mode -4 Operation
Fig.8. Mode-5 Operation
Fig.9. Mode-6 Operation
Mode I (Fig.4) – During the positive half cycle,M1 is turned ON, S2 is forward biased. The circuit operates as Boost circuit. The output is supplied from the capacitor C1 to the load thus non-interrupting the flow of output power
Mode II (Fig.5) -The operation is same but the only difference is that the inductor L1 which was charging previously during the mode-1 operation discharges through
the diode S2 thus increasing the power output. Also at this point the capacitor C1 charges to its peak value.
Mode III (Fig. 6) – As the energy stored in the inductor has
D = D Vi
2 1 (Vout V
been completely dissipated, diode S2 gets reverse biased, M2 is also turned OFF but the capacitor C1 is providing the output continuously from the stored charge. Therfore the powerflow remains unidirectional
In Boost operation the instantaneous power dissipated in the entire circuit is
V2 V2 sin 2 t
Mode IV (Fig.7) -Here the input reverses two MOSFETS are
Pd = in = m
turned ON and the two diodes OFF as it is reverse biased but R R
the current circulates in the reverse direction at the input but at
The instantaneous current flowing through the load resistor is
the output the capacitor is keeping the current flow unidirectional. Thus it is observing Buck-Boost operation.At this mode the function of L2 and C2 is expressive, L2 will
I = P =
(Vout Vi )
V2 sin 2 t
R [Vout Vm sin t]
operate together with C1 as a tank circuit thus parallel resonance operation can be observed.
The instantaneous power delivered to the load
Mode V (Fig.8) -In this mode MI MOSFET turned OFF because of the current reversal owing to natural commutation/line commutation. But as the inductor L1
Po = V0 * I (9)
V2 sin 2 t
discharges the power flow is still maintained and it also charges the capacitor.
Mode VI (Fig.9) – As the inductor discharges completely the entire stored energy, the diode S1 gets reverse biased. But the capacitor discharges and the power flow is maintained as
= V m
oR [Vout Vm sin t]
Therefore the total energy delivered to the load
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
For the steady-state analysis several assumptions are taken in to account .
The output capacitor C1 is assumed to be very high so that it filters out the voltage ripple
The input voltage for simulation is assumed to be sinusoidal
The switching frequency of M1 and M2 is assumed to be much larger than the input supply
Eo = 2 Po dt (11)
The total energy consumed by the circuit
Ed = 2 Pd dt (12)
According to the energy conservation principle energy supplied must be equal to the energy delivered. As a result equating (11) & (12)
V2 T V2 D2 T T
0 = m 1 s i
Internal resistances and diode drops are neglected for simplification of analysis
According to the boost operation, shown in modes 1-3, the average voltage across the switch can be expressed as
The inductance L and switching frequency fs is used to determine the duty ratio D,from (13) the equation can be determined as
V (t) = (1-D1-D2) ViTs + D2TsV0ut (1)
D = 2V0 Lfs
Where Vi=Vmsint (2)
The average switch current during the switching period
1 s in
I1(t) = D 2T V /2L (3)
The design was carried out based on the requirement the inputs and outputs required are Vin =400mV,f = 100Hz, fs=
Since the waveform for the inductor current is triangular in shape as seen in the simulation result (fig. 15) The average diode voltage and current can be expressed as :
V2(t) = D1TsV0ut +[ (1-D1-D2) (Vout-Vin)] (4)
Applying Buck-Boost Operation Equation,
V0 = D
D2 Ts (Vout V )
I2(t) = i
From this we will get the value of D (duty ratio). The average inductor current may be obtained from the average source current and the equation is:
Applying Voltage second balance rule ie. Energy across the inductor is equal to zero. We get
I = DIo 1D
Supposing Discontinuous Conduction Mode
V0 = D
V. SIMULATION RESULTS
The simulation was carried out for designed values of inductance and capacitance for an output voltage of 3.3V from
From this obtain the value of discontinuous conduction interval 1 then the value of inductance can be found out as
L = Vd D T (D+ ) (18)
From the obtained value of L findout the commercially available inductor then recalculate the average currents inorder to obtain the actual values of the same. Again calculate the value of load resistor or the limit of load resistance,
400mV,100Hz input sinusoidal supply. The values of parameters are tabulated as below:
TABLE 1 PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
The charging and discharging currents of the capacitor decides the voltage ripple. Consider that the entire AC part of the inductor current flows in to the capacitor. This relation gives the value of capacitance.
Choose the value of the capacitance appropriately . The validity of this assumptions can be checked by using the two given equalities.
Ts << RC
<< 1 (21)
Since the required power and voltage limit is specified the inductance value have to be designed from the given parameters .If the switching frequency increases, the size of the inductor decreases. But we cannot increase the switching frequency above a specified limit because the switching loss will increase considerably. Therefore the actual size of the inductor should compensate the loss incurred. In the efficiency calculation the forward voltage drop and ON state drop of MOSFET plays an important role. The duty ratio for the Boost and Buck- Boost operation is taken as D itself.
The SinePWM control strategy can be used for the pulse generation in the physical implementation as well as simulation because it produces perfect square pulses for triggering that will limit the output waveform distortion. To make output voltage constant we can use a comparator or P/PI/PID compensator.
Fig.10. Open loop Simulation Setup of the Proposed topology
Fig.11. Input Voltage
Fig.12. Gate Current and Voltage of M1
Fig.13.Gate Current and Voltage of M2
Fig.14. Input Current
Fig.15. Inductor current waveform during Boost operation
Fig.16. Inductor current during Buck-Boost Operation
Fig.17. Output Voltage using LC filter at the output stage
A unique combination of Buck and Buck- Boost Converter is presented in this paper which can produce a constant output voltage .The design was carried out for an output voltage of 3.3V, from an input supply of 400mV ,this potential can drive an LED or it can be used for battery charging purpose provided current gain is optimum. Further expansion can be brought about by providing an active feedback circuit and using instrumentation amplifier at the booster stage. The instrumentation amplifier have to be provided with an input supply as Vcc for driving it this will incur the use of a backup. But providing an active feedback circuitary with minimal losses makes the circuit completely self reliable and we can operate the given circuit without any backup supply that is why the paper is titled as Self Powered Buck-Boost Converter. Since Infrared Data Transmission is also using the same converters at the receiver stage by widening the output range, the industrial relevance of this converter can also be widened.
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