Security and Privacy

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV5IS01173

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Security and Privacy

Saurabh Mahendra Jadhav

Atharva College of Engineering (CMPN) Mumbai,India

Abstract:- The entire computer security field is based on three cornerstones those are Confidentiality, Authenticity, Availabil- ity and if one of these principles are violated then security and safety of an individual & collective is compromised. The problem with technology is that when we introduce new type of technol- ogy it creates vulnerabilities for the existing once and as hacking crimes and carefully planned computer attacks are being exe- cuted, Anonymity is the key to an individuals privacy as well as to a group. Keeping personal information and online activities unprotected is not a good idea. In this study it is demonstrated how to protect anonymity and the importance of protecting an- onymity to prevent any exploitation to the safety and privacy of individual as well as collective.

Keywords:- Dark Net; Deep Web;Tor Services; Ethereum; MadeSafe; Safe Communication.


    Security privacy and safety are very crucial and im- portant part of an individuals online activity and little bit of carelessness can cause a lot of damage, privacy on internet is counter intuitive because every move of everyone is being recorded and internet never forgets anything in such case An- onymity is the only way forward. Importance of security pri- vacy and safety in communication, work and online activity is unmatched, to achieve anonymity in these areas Dark Net and Deep Web can be used. The biggest problem with the internet is that there is no anonymity in the web and even the use of most advance password creation techniques and high measures of security, it is possible to break in with enough work with free operating systems like Kali linux which con- tains more than 900 hacking tools or in academic and legal term known as penetration testing tools and other big ad- vantage of Kali is a linux distribution and it is open source this allows the million of activist and technology geeks to work on it and use it as they want this results in staggering amount in innovation as well as it gives unpredictability and vulnerabil- ity

    In 2004 The sony company was hacked by north Ko- rea which was later confirmed by president Barack Obama that hacking attack proved that even with very high security measures it is possible to do mass destruction. Since the revolution started by Edward Snowden it is clear that an- onymity is the most important thing Edward Snowden pointed out how the government agencies like CIA, NSA have the most advanced surveillance capabilities, it is not just these agencies are using them but it is practiced all around the world by almost all governments of all countries around the world to prevent terrorist attacks but same techniques are being used by the blackhat hackers for the wrong purpose.


    The dark net and deep web are basically distributed compu- ting applications, At fundamental level dark net and deep web are distributed computing but with powerful encryption, which makes everything very hard to censor and monitor. The visible results from search engines like google,duck duck go or Bing is known as the visible internet. Dark net is anything which is not visible in these search engines in other words anything which is not indexed on these search engines is known as dark net. Dark net is net- work and deep web are similar terminologies as dark net but related to websites.Dark net and Deep web tools are designed for staying highly anonymous and everything is cleverly en- crypted, At fundamental level dark net and deep web are dis- tributed computing but with powerful encryption, which is

    very hard to censor and monitor.

      1. The Dark Net

        Dark net is a net work of computers which is not ac- cessible or reachable from google or other search engines eg. college lab networks, office networks. which the google or any other search engine needs not to know or simply they dont care, Any network which is not indexed or which is not accessible from browsers like chrome or firefox is considered as dark net

      2. Deep Web

        The collection and inter connection websites which are not accessible from normal browsers like chrome or fire- fox means which are not indexed on any search engine known as deep web.

        Deep web sites are not like normal websites and no one can access these sites without a browser called tor browser, deep web sites does not have URL like normal websites they are meaningless numbers, strings and characters which ends up in .onion and called as onion address

      3. Tor

        Tor was originally the US naval intelligences side project it was built for undercover officers to communicate with officials from difficult places afterwards it became open source and now it allows anybody to browse he internet with- out giving away their location, Preventing the monitoring is managed by encryption the IP address and it is sent to another node around the world in different country and there it is de- crypted and this process is done several times so when ulti- mately the request reaches to the internet from dark net it is practically not traceable where it came from but the user of the service can manage to use the privileges as like normal browsing Tor is not the only solution for anonymity, It needs to be coupled with other privacy enhancing tools for absolute

        anonymity but even without privacy enhancing tools it is very hard to perform surveillance or eavesdrop on anyone . Tor is an effective censorship circumvention tool, allowing its users to reach otherwise blocked destinations or content. Journalists use Tor to communicate more safely with whistleblowers and dissidents. A branch of the U.S. Navy uses Tor for open source intelligence gathering, and one of its teams used Tor while deployed in the Middle East recently. Law enforcement uses Tor for visiting or surveilling web sites without leaving government IP addresses in their web logs, and for security during sting operations. The variety of people who use Tor is actually part of what makes it so secure. Tor hides you among the other users on the network, so the more populous and diverse the user base for Tor is, the more your anonymity will be protected.

        1. Orbot

          Android is a platform managed by developed by google and google says that there are more than 1.4 billion android active devices yet many people use older version of the operating system which compromises the systems secu- rity. A new update fixes the problem so if consumer is running on older version then the vulnerabilities in their device is not removed, nowadays people keep a lot of sensitive information on mobile devices. A vulnerable device with a lot of sensitive data is always best target for any attacker to carry out eaves- dropping to steal valuable information Orbot is a free proxy app that empowers other apps to use the internet more se- curely. Orbot uses Tor to encrypt your Internet traffic and then hides it by bouncing through a series of computers around the world Orbot creates a truly private mobile internet connec- tion.

        2. Tor Messenger

          An extremely common way and easiest way to communicate is texting and if that communication is not secure then there is chance of sniffing attack to monitor and collect valuable information by attackers Tor Messenger is a cross-platform chat program that aims to be secure by default and sends all of its traffic over Tor. It supports a wide variety of transport networks, including Jabber (XMPP), IRC, Google Talk, Fa- cebook Chat,Twitter, Yaho. Tor Messenger builds on the networks you are familiar with. This has traditionally been in a client-server model, meaning that your metadata can be logged by the server. However, your route to the server will be hidden because you are communicating over Tor.

      4. Why We Need Tor

    We live in a world which is changing at an exponential rate and sometimes issues arise around the world which causes violation of human rights and conservation of them can be very tricky, to be able to speak makes and allow your voice for people to listen is great asset and with normal internet it is not always possible Tor browser gives us high degree of ano- nymity and create a distributed network that no one really controls. It is censorship free anonymous world visited by anonymous people .The online education allows everybody to learn everything they want wherever they want it does helps to improve the society but it also allows anybody to be able to

    hack and mine valuable sensitive information which was pre- viously not available, having knowledge about everything is always good for innovation but it also compromises the pri- vacy of million of people around the globe, hacking courses online teach from beginner to advance hacking techniques in such case privacy maintenance is necessary and tor protects the privacy online.

  3. ETHEREUM Ethereum is an open blockchain platform that lets any-

    one build and use decentralised applications that run on block- chain technology. Ethereum is an open-source project built by communities around the world related to their interests. Ethereum was designed to be adaptable and flexible. It is very convenient to create and build new applications. Ethereum in- corporates many features and technologies that will be famil- iar to users of Bitcoin, while also introducing many modifica- tions and innovations of its own. Ethereums basic unit is the account. The Ethereum blockchain tracks the state of every account, and all state transitions on the Ethereum blockchain are transfers of value and information between accounts. There are two types of accounts: Externally Owned Accounts (EOAs), which are controlled by private keys Contract Ac- counts, which are controlled by their contract code and can only be activated by an EOA. Contract accounts, on the other hand, are governed by their internal code. If they are controlled by a human user, because it is they are pro- grammed to be controlled by an EOA with a certain address, which is in turn controlled by whoever holds the private keys that control that EOA. The popular term smart contracts re- fers to code in a Contract Account programs that execute when a transaction is sent to that account. Users can create new contracts by deploying code to the source nature of ethereum is shaping the internet ethereum is not only valuable for heavy softwares but also for IoTs which brings more flexibility to ethereum. A real life example of in- novation in the field of IoT is . is a application of blockchain platform which allows the users to buy sell or rent things, can be embedded in any smart device eas- ily. is a physical smart lock which allows the users to use the service by paying for it over block chain platform and decentralised nature of blockchain and makes it very hard to hack.


    A huge amount of sensitive data is uploaded on cloud every day and readily availableness it is an easy target for hackers also cloud companies have to work under the law and if they require then cloud companies have to disclose their data to governments but cloud is so much easy to use and very useful platform yet it is not distributed that makes it vulnera- ble.A block chain type project called Maid safe allows users

    to store the data on cloud in a decentralised manner. Files up- loaded to the network are broken into pieces, encrypted and distributed across the network. This process is called Self-En- cryption. This process ensures that only the owner of the data and not anyone else is able to modify or remove it.

    The network is programmed to keep duplicate copies of each piece of data at all times. As users turn their computers off, the network makes more copies and stores. Them on other machines, ensuring that users always have access to their files.

    This constant movement of data (called churn) is a key part of the security that the SAFE Network offers because there is no central point for hackers to target as the data locations keep changing.


    Proton mail is an end to end encryption for secure communication and it is free of cost but professional features are only for paid users. Messages are stored on ProtonMail servers in encrypted format. They are also transmitted in en- crypted format between our servers and user devices. Mes- sages between ProtonMail users are also transmitted in en- crypted form within our secure server network. Because data is encrypted at all steps, the risk of message interception is largely eliminated. Proton mail work on principle of zero ac- cess to user data it means only sender and receiver are able to access the data. proton mail keeps all the values of computer security unviolated which are Confidentiality, Availability and Authenticity that makes proton mail very reliable as com- pared to gmail where beginners hacking courses have hack- ing techniques in syllabus even.


    • prevention of location tracking by IP (internet protocol)

    • Encrypted browsing

    • Safe online Storage

    • Research in Sensitive topics Anonymously

    • Curation of human rights around the globe by Ability to report anonymously

    • Safe Project management

    • prevention of being a victim of mass surveillance


An individuals security and online does matters, and there are millions of activists around the world who are working on tool and techniques to keep people private and safe online but Safety and privacy is a real case of mind over matter if you dont mind then it doesnt matter. Since the revolution from Edward Snowden there has been huge increase in the people using privacy enhancing tools and now around daily about a more than 10 million people are using tor browser daily and the use of tor browser is perfectly legitimate.


  1. Jamie Bartlett: the dark net.

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