Secure and Reliable Land Registry System Using QR Code and Blockchain Technology

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV13IS040016

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Secure and Reliable Land Registry System Using QR Code and Blockchain Technology

Pankaj Singh

School of Engineering and Technology

Sharda University Greater Noida, India

Priyanshi Verma

School of Engineering and Technology Sharda University Greater Noida, India

Tanmay Chuphal School of Engineering and Technology Sharda University Greater Noida, India

Dr. Ashish Chakraverti

School of Engineering and Technology Sharda University Greater Noida, India

Dr. Murari Kumar Singh

School of Engineering and Technology Sharda University Greater Noida, India


The land registry system serves as one concerning the most significant departments in any government structure since it preserves real estate ownership data. Effective lands administration is crucial for revenue generation and government. The traditional property registration mechanism fails to have the necessary guidelines and is prone to fraud and security threats.

A key component of social structure, economic development, and individual welfare across all cultures and civilizations has always been the transfer and ownership of land. characterized by failure and corruption. Recent technological advances have offered promising possibilities for addressing these problems. Our approach aims to provide a comprehensive guide on how to build a Land Registry system with the help of QR codes that integrates Blockchain Technology. By combining the flexibility and accessibility of QR codes with the immutability of blockchain, this solution improves efficiency, transparency, and security.


Land Registry, QR Codes, Blockchain, Smart Contracts, Security, Transparency, Integration, Efficiency, Property Transaction, Fraud Mitigation.


Human society has relied on reliable land registration systems and the concept of property ownership since the beginning of civilization. Blockchain Technology with a mixture of Quick Response (QR) code offer a fresh perspective on creating a trustworthy land registry system. An integral part of the system's architecture are smart contracts and blockchain, which facilitate the automation of property transactions and offer immutable data storage. In order to make information collection and verification easier, each property is given a unique QR code that is linked to its blockchain record. Encryption, access restrictions, and tamper-proof QR codes are some of the mechanisms used to

safeguard data. Interoperability and requirement compliance are guaranteed by integration with existing systems. Thorough testing, user training, and continual monitoring are conducted before the system is implemented to assure its successful operation. A more open system with less room for deception is the goal of this novel scheme to improve property transfers. It is essential to construct a trustworthy land registration system in order to record property transactions and ownership. The inefficiency, secrecy, and fraud-prone nature of conventional procedures are well-known. Using a novel approach, this study develops a reliable land registration system by integrating blockchain technology with QR codes.

Quick response (QR) codes, which act as distinct identifiers for every property, form the basis of the system's architecture. Stakeholders can instantly access property information by scanning these QR codes with their mobile devices, thanks to the integration with the relevant blockchain data. Anyone may instantly confirm the legitimacy of property records, and the increased transparency is a result of this accessibility. Ensuring the security of any land register system is of the utmost importance when handling sensitive property data. The proposed solution employs multiple strong security mechanisms to counter this. Some notable inventions that could significantly change the management and protection of property rights are QR codes and blockchain [1]. To ensure that no unauthorised parties may read or change the data stored on the blockchain, access control techniques encrypt the data. This aids in thwarting unauthorised entry. Additionally, in order to ensure that QR codes cannot be altered or counterfeited, tamper-proof processes are employed during their manufacturing.

The proposed land registration system cannot be adopted or implemented without first integrating it with current systems and legal frameworks. When it comes to property registration, for example, the system follows all rules and laws to make sure everything is compatible and above board. Thorough testing is performed on the system before it is put into action in order to find and fix any problems or vulnerabilities. Stakeholders become acclimated to the new system and progress towards full proficiency through user training sessions. The efficiency, dependability, and security of the land registry system depend on regular monitoring and maintenance. It is possible to set up a trustworthy and safe land registration system by following the suggested method. Using blockchain and QR codes, the system simplifies real estate transactions, makes them more transparent, and reduces the likelihood of fraud. As a result, the market's efficiency and safety are enhanced.


First, we must understand the issues with current land registry systems, and only then can we look into the proposed solution. Land registry systems are relied on paper records, manual processes, and centralized databases, which ultimately leads to error, inefficiency, and risk. Because these institutions are not transparent and are not responsible, problems over property rights, fraud, and disputes over disputes have often arisen [2]. There are numerous parts of the world where social and economic progress are slowed down by antiquated land registration procedures. Due to the uncertainty surrounding property rights, investors are hesitant to fund infrastructure projects, threatening the livelihoods of millions of people. To tackle these issues directly, we must reevaluate how we administer and safeguard intellectual rights in view of the game-changing potential of emerging technologies. To facilitate the retrieval and validation of property records, land registry systems can include quick response (QR) codes as identifiers [3].


nal Limit Registry System

ations of QR Traditional Registry System

-Based Blockchain Registry System

alteration or suppression.



Moderate trust because dependence depends on the integrity of those administering the records, which may lead to suspicion about data


High due to blockchain

Adoptio n


Traditional registration systems sometimes depend upon older systems and existing processes, which makes it difficult to embrace emerging technologies or deploy creative



Types of Records

Physical (paper,file s)

Becomes difficult to manage large volumes of

data efficiently

Electronicwit h Blockchain

Data Entry and Retrieval

Manual processes

Leads to slower data entry and retrieval. Also, human errors are

common leading to

inaccuracies and delay.

Automatedw ith blockchain security

Accessib ility

Limited to physical location

Limiting access to authorized

personnel only.

Remote access with blockchain

Data Security

Vulnerable tophysical loss

Data breaches and unauthorized access are

made more likely due to a shortage of adequate

safety precautions.

Highly secure

Scalabili ty


Scaling in order to efficiently handle expanding data quantities

is challenging.


Record Immunit y

Susceptibl e to tampering

Susceptible to tampering,

fraud, or change.


Transpar ency


Records are not easily accessible which further leads to


High due to blockchain

Decentra lization


The centralization might result in a single point of failure, increasing the

likelihood of


Table 1. Comparison between traditional System andproposed system.


(Deininger & Feder, 2009) "The Impact of Land Registration on Property Rights" Property rights, government, and development are the foci of this groundbreaking research into the effects of land registration. Assessing the efficacy of land registration in fostering tenure security, investment, and economic growth, Deininger and Feder examine empirical evidence from several nations. In order to promote sustainable development, the study stresses the significance of open and effective land register systems [4].

According to a 2010 study by Holden and Tefera, "Land Tenure Insecurity and Investment in Rural Ethiopia" Holden and Tefera look into the connection between unsteady land ownership and investments in rural Ethiopian farms [4]. Their survey results show that uncertainties about future land ownership have a detrimental impact on investment choices, output, and conservation initiatives. In order to encourage investment and boost agricultural development, the report stresses the significance of protecting property rights.

"Blockchain Technology for Land Governance Opportunities, Challenges, and Outlook" As stated by Kemper and Lynch (2018) Blockchain technology has the ability to revolutionize land governance systems, which Kemper and Lynch investigate [5]. Using case studies and interviews with experts, they examine the pros and cons of using blockchain technology for land registries. This research sheds light on the institutional, legal, and technical factors that should be considered before implementing blockchain technology inland administration. "QR Code Technology in Land Administration A Review" Abdullahi et al., 2017 argues When it comes to land administration, Abdullahi et al [6]. give a thorough analysis of QR code technology. They talk about how cadastral mapping, property registration, and QR codes can be used in such fields. The research looks at possible ways to improve the efficiency of QR code-based systems in land management and assesses their advantages and disadvantages. The article "Smart Contracts for Land Administration A Review of Use Cases" was published in 2018 by Zevenbergen et al [7]. The article by Zevenbergen et al. discusses smart contracts and their applications in real estate transactions and land administration. Land registration, property transfers, and dispute resolution are just a few of the procedures that they examine as potential applications of smart contracts. This research looks at how smart contracts could improve land governance in terms of efficiency, openness, and safety. "Blockchain-Based Land Registry A Case Study in Ghana" A study conducted by Salisu et al. in 2020 demonstrated A case study of a pilot project in Ghana's land register that used blockchain technology is presented by Salisu et al. They look at the steps taken, problems solved, and takeaways from using blockchain technology in a real-world setting for land administration [8]. The study sheds light on the real-world consequences of using blockchain technology for land administration.

"Assessment of Land Registration Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa" Per Toulmin and Quan (2000) Toulmin and Quan evaluate Sub-Saharan African land registration systems,

paying special attention to how well they safeguard land rights and advance sustainable development. Problems with land registration procedures, including inaccessibility, corruption, and gender inequality, are highlighted via case studies and comparative analysis [9]. In order to strengthen land governance in the region and tackle these difficulties, the report recommends reforms.


The background section's goal is to set the stage for the current study or project by providing relevant historical information. Background information, relevant theories and concepts, and specifics about the subject or problem are typical components. In this part, you will get a sample backdrop for a study that examines the use of QR and blockchain technologies to create a secure land register system. Modern societies rely heavily on land registration systems to document, manage, and transfer ownership of property. In contrast, the conventional methods of recording land titles are infamously cumbersome, difficult to understand, and open to fraud and corruption. Problems like these can lead to a decrease in economic growth, social stability, and property ownership disputes. Answers to the issues plaguing land registry systems have been offered by recent technological breakthroughs, which is positive.

Blockchain and QR codes are two technologies that have gained a lot of interest recently because of their potential to make property data more trustworthy and secure. Despite being first developed for tracking automobile parts in manufacturing, quick response (QR) codes have found widespread use across other industries due to their ease of use and versatility [16]. In addition to numerical data, text, and online links, these two-dimensional barcodes can store vast amounts of information. Property information can be quickly and readily verified with the use of quick response (QR) codes, which can be utilized as identifiers in land register systems. Blockchain technology, the foundation of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, creates decentralized and immutable ledgers of monetary transactions.

Table 2. List of different authors and their proposed method

Agrawal,Aniket, Kamalakanta Sethi [1].

Ballot paper data

Blockchain, QR Codes

Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybersecurity

100% accuracy in voting results

Prasad, G. B., Shreya,P., & Shailaja [12]

Product data

Blockchain, QR Codes

Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 2023

90% accuracy in product data

Pal, K. and Kumar,C.R.S. [13]

Document Data

Blockchain, QR Codes

Data Management, Analytics and Innovation: Proceedings of ICDMAI 2020,

95% accuracy in document data

Soner, Swapnil, Ratnesh Litoriya [14]

Land Registry data

Smart Contracts, Blockchain Technology

Wireless Personal Communications, 2021

99.7% accuracy in land record registration and retrieval

Muhammad Sajjad,et al [7].

Land Registry data

Smart Contracts, Blockchain Technology

Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2022

95% accuracy in land record registration

Shuaib, Mohammed Daud, Salwani [15]

Land Registry data

Smart Contracts and Blockchain Technology


(Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control)

90% accuracy in land record registration and retrieval

Maaitah, Sarah, Mohammad Qatawne h, [2]

Ballot paper data

Blockchain, QR Codes

International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). IEEE


accuracy in voting results


Dataset Used

Methods Applied

Conference/Y ear

Performan ce

Muhamma d Ali, etal [10].

Document data


Blockchai n, QR


two- ctor




accuracy in document data

authenticat ion

Muhamma d Ali, etal [11].

Medical Record data

Blockchai n, QR



Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2022


accuracy in medical record

access and sharing

By cryptographically connecting each recorded transaction to the one before it, blockchain technology ensures transparency and eliminates tampering. Blockchain technology has the potential to enhance and secure land register systems by cutting out intermediaries and rendering property data immutable. While both blockchain and QR codes show potential for enhancing land registry systems, a combination of the two could address many issues plaguing present approaches [17]. A more dependable, efficient, and trustworthy land registry system can be built with the aid of stakeholders by combining the immutability and security capabilities of the blockchain with the portability and flexibility of QR codes.

Blockchain and QR codes have been studied for their possible applications in many different fields, including healthcare, supply chain management, and finance. Researchers interested in land registry systems have paid surprisingly little attention to the integration of various systems. By investigating the pros and cons of combining QR and blockchain technology into a safe land registration system, this study aims to fill that information gap. Through an analysis of the system's technological, legal, and institutional aspects, this research seeks to provide light on the potential advantages, disadvantages, and consequences of land governance. Ultimately, our goal is to contribute to the discovery of innovative approaches to improving the security, transparency, and efficiency of land registry systems with the aim of advancing social justice and achieving sustainable development.


Smart contracts integrated into a land registration system streamline land transactions, do away with superfluous administrative work, and make property transactions more transparent and secure. Legal and regulatory concerns, technological issues with scalability and interoperability, and other such issues are among the many challenges that arise when implementing smart contracts for land transactions [18]. Smart contracts are one way that land registration systems could automate and secure land transactions. These contracts, when deployed on blockchain networks, eliminate intermediaries by executing themselves to enforce predefined standards and conditions.

One possible use case for smart contracts in real estate deals is this: –

Efficient Handling of Financial Transactions Use of smart contracts allows for the automation of real estate transactions such as registrations, modifications, and deed transfers. Once certain requirements are met, including payment completion or ownership verification, the transaction is automatically executed and the blockchain is updated with the applicable property data [19].

Verification of Property Ownership Smart contracts can verify ownership of property by comparing cryptographic

evidence such as digital signatures. Before executing a transfer of ownership, the smart contract checks the ownership rights of the parties involved to ensure that only legitimate transactions are carried out.

Smart Contracts can hold assets or payments until specific criteria are met. With the help of escrow smart contracts, buyers can keep their money or other assets secure until they formally acquire title to the property. When all conditions are satisfied, the vendor receives payment from the smart contract.

Conflict Resolution By incorporating dispute resolution mechanisms into smart contracts, parties can have their conflicts automatically addressed. To avoid wasting time and money on court proceedings, a smart contract can initiate arbitration or mediation to resolve a dispute over the terms of a real estate deal.

Transactions Are Conditional Smart contracts allow you to make conditional transactions by triggering certain actions based on predefined circumstances. Smart contracts allow for the conditional transfer of property upon the occurrence of specific events, such as the approval of zoning permits or the results of a building inspection. As a result, you can be assured that all transactions will be carried out efficiently and in compliance with all laws.

Enduring Evidence Smart contracts ensure that the blockchain keeps an unchangeable and transparent record of all transaction details. By keeping an immutable record of all land transactions, this removes the chance of fraud, disagreements, or corruption. When stakeholders have faith in the land registry system, they can check the legitimacy of property records whenever they choose.

Establishing Linkages to Existing Facilities Smart contracts are easy to integrate with government databases, land registration systems, and current legal frameworks. Smart contracts ensure that transactions based on smart contracts comply with all relevant requirements and allow for data interchange and reporting through integration with third- party systems.


Our approach towards this traditional registry system is to make it digital so that the data can be easily seen and will be accessible for all. To make it easy and secure, we have combined Blockchain and QR Code.

In blockchain, we have used Smart Contract, Ethereum, Ganache and MetaMask.

Smart contract are programs that automatically gets executed or runs when a certain criterion is met or fulfilled. Smart contract can also be termed as digital agreement. We have used Solidity language to write code for smart contract.

Ethereum is a bitcoin which we have used in our project for the transaction purpose. Also, we have used Ganache here. Ganache is a development tool which is used to run Blockchain on a local computer. It will create ten accounts in a blockchain or ten networks of a blockchain all of which will be having hundred Ethereum by default. If any transaction is done by any account, it automatically gets updated and is shown here.

Further, for using MetaMask, we have applied it in the chrome extension. MetaMask is a cryptocurrency wallet that is used to interact with Ethereum blockchain. It allows users to access their Ethereum wallet.

Above of all this, we also have combined blockchain with the QR Code. As soon as the payment is done and the OTP is verified, we have provided an option to generate QR Code which on scanning provides information about the user.

Below is a flowchart that describes our work:

Fig1. Flowchart of Land Registry System

Further, below we are providing the algorithms that we have used in our project:

Algorithm for generation of OTP:

  1. Get the value of the email input field using its ID (email)

  2. Generate an OTP for authentication.

  3. Display an alert message indicating that the OTP has been sent to the

users email.

Algorithm for Payment process:

Initialize web3 and contract variables Set Contract Address and ABI

Connect() {

Try to enable MetaMask

If successful, connect to MetaMask. If unsuccessful, connect to local provider


Deposite() {

Get input value from HTML input field

Get users account using web3.eth.getAccounts()

Call contracts deposite_money method with input value Redirect to new page after transaction

Clear all input fields and update the balance displayed Handle any transaction errors


Show_balance () {

Call contracts getBalance method

Update the balance displayed on the webpage


Algorithm for validation of OTP:

  1. Set the variable otp_val to a predetermined value (in this case, 123) representing the expected OTP.

  2. Get all input elements in the document and store them in the variable input.

  3. Get all elements with the class "form-control" and store them in the variable val.

  4. Check if the value of the first element with the class "form-control" (assuming there is at least one such element) is equal to otp_val:

If true:


Display an alert message saying, Email Address


If false:

i. Display an alert message saying, Invalid OTP.


Return false, indicating that the validation failed.

End Function


The system architecture for a secure land registry system utilizing QR code and blockchain technology involves the integration of various components to ensure transparency, security, and efficiency in property transactions. Here's a high-level overview of the system architecture: –

transaction initiation can be accomplished by user interaction with the interface.The experiment starts with the making of the Registration page:

Fig2. Verification on land registry system

Fig3. Registration Page for Land Registry

  1. Interface for the User

    All parties involvedproprietors, stakeholders, and society at largestand to gain from the secure land registry system's use of QR codes and blockchain technology, which work together as an integrated whole to improve the safety, efficiency, and openness of property transactions. Owners, purchasers, vendors, and public servants can all access the land registry through the system's user interface. Web and mobile apps that prioritize accessibility and user experience are part of it. Activities like property registration, verification, and

    Then, we move for the Payment Gateway and for this we connect with the MetaMask

    Fig4. Payment Gateway connecting with MetaMask

    For making payment successful, we have made One

    Time Password (OTP)

    Fig5. OTP for successful payment At last, we have generated the QR Code which

    carries all the information of the land

    Fig6. Generation of QR Code

  2. Making and Managing QR Codes

    An individual QR code is allocated to each piece of property; this code acts as a digital identification and is connected to the relevant record in the blockchain.

    The system generates accurate and unique QR codes as part of the property registration or updating processes.

    Users can scan codes to access property information and check ownership rights using the QR code management functionalities.

  3. Using Blockchain Technology

    At its heart is a blockchain network that keeps track of properties and transactions. Blockchain technology records transactions in a distributed and unchangeable ledger, making property data secure, transparent, and unchangeable. Automating property-related procedures like registrations, changes, and transfers is the goal of smart contracts, which are pieces of code that execute themselves on the blockchain.

  4. Services Used in the Background

    Services at the backend are responsible for processing, storing, and retrieving data.

    To execute smart contracts, retrieve and update property information, and carry out other blockchain-related actions, these services communicate with the blockchain network.

    To further guarantee interoperability and compliance with regulations, backend services can enable integration with other systems like government databases and legal frameworks.

  5. Prevention Steps

    To safeguard private property information and forestall manipulation or unauthorized access, the system employs stringent security protocols.

    To ensure the safety of data while it is kept or sent on the blockchain, encryption techniques are utilized.

    To make sure that only authorized people can see or change certain data, access control systems limit user access according to preset roles and permissions.

    To avoid forgery and unauthorized changes, QR codes are created using tamper-proof methods.

  6. Connectivity to Third-Party Platforms

    To make sure it's compatible and follows all the rules, the system connects to preexisting government databases, legal frameworks, and property registration procedures.

    Information sharing and synchronization are made possible through data exchange methods, which allow the land registry system and external systems to communicate seamlessly.

  7. Kept tabs on and reported on

    The reporting and monitoring features keep tabs on transaction activity, security metrics, and system performance.

    Anomalies can be detected, property transactions and registry operations can be reported, and the administrator can keep tabs on the state of the blockchain network.

    These findings are useful for meeting audit, compliance, and decision-making criteria.

  8. Redundancy and Scalability

To handle increasing amounts of property data and user interactions, the system architecture is built to be resilient and scalable.

Data replication and backup procedures are examples of redundancy measures that guarantee data availability and integrity in case of system faults or disruptions.


Because of these advantages, blockchain technology offers a viable substitute for the unreliable and risky conventional methods of land registration. By utilizing the inherent security features of blockchain technology, stakeholders can enhance the reliability of the land register system, reduce fraud, and mitigate dangers. Due to its various security advantages, blockchain technology is perfect for applications such as land registration systems.

The following are only a few of the numerous security advantages of blockchain technology: –

Immutability Following its addition to the blockchain, information is almost immortalized. Data deletion or alteration in the past is quite unlikely because to the cryptographically linked and timestamped nature of all transactions [20]. Because it makes property data unchangeable, this immutability is particularly useful for land registry systems, which aim to avoid fraudulent activities and unlawful changes to ownership records.

Decentralization The distributed ledger technology known as blockchain eliminates the need for a central authority to validate financial transactions. The blockchain is decentralized and each node maintains its own full copy of it. For transactions to be valid, all the nodes involved must reach an agreement. Due to its decentralized design, blockchain is less vulnerable to malicious attacks and single points of failure, making it more ecure and durable overall. Effective Expression Transparency is enhanced since all nodes in the network can view and verify each other's transaction records. Since the entire network is linked to the same public ledger, all participants may view the history of ownership. Stakeholders can easily track ownership and transactions because of this. The land registry system is made more accountable and less vulnerable to fraudulent or illicit acts because of this transparency.

Secure Data Transmission Blockchain uses strong cryptography techniques to guarantee the safety of data and transactions. Cryptographic hashing algorithms ensure that data stored in blocks remains intact, while public-key cryptography restricts access to authorized individuals only. Digital signatures add another layer of security to transaction authentication, guaranteeing that only authorized parties can send money and that all transactions are legitimate [21].

Methods for Reaching Consensus Blockchain uses two consensus mechanisms, Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS), to verify and authenticate transactions. In these types of systems, the addition of a transaction to the blockchain is contingent upon the consensus of all network nodes regarding the transaction's legitimacy. Since most nodes must agree before any transaction data can be altered or fabricated, blockchain technology further enhances security.

Protecting Data Many blockchain implementations use data encryption techniques to protect sensitive information. Cryptographic algorithms may encrypt data stored on the blockchain so that only authorized users with the correct decryption keys can access it. Because of this encryption,

the property records stored on the blockchain are more secure and less likely to be accessed by unauthorized parties [22]

Consistency and Amount Blockchain technology allows all parties to track the whereabouts of assets and any changes in ownership by recording transactions in an immutable ledger. Full audits and forensic investigations can be conducted on blockchain transactions because of their immutable record and timestamp. This audibility and traceability promote accountability while also enhancing transparency in property ownership and transaction history


Below are the results that have been generated while working on Blockchain. The tables and the graph shown below shows the Gas Used with different Contract Address and with the same Contract Address.

Table 3. Transaction based on different Contract Address with same gas used

Bloc k No

Transaction Hash

Contract Address


Gas Used


0xdb4742d547 e1e872018 823cc6777d961


17ab16adf50c6 ebda29e9 14c

0xf813df9681 5e12048

cece7e44891f 8718c99f c14

0xc87bc4177 22f54b9


b326cba 65ccb7




0xdbc51bb44f1 150a8b2e 7494ddb54ab2 11f9cbd38 4de73b9da83e

054f4d4e9 e69

0x550fe50b0 5ca64947

c076472abdb bb6ca899 46eb

0xc87bc4177 22f54b9


b326cba 65ccb7




0xfd0b6cb2832 7198edcd 530d7a55d12a 9006b1b94





4a3e1baf bdea9219f22 3487a78d


0xc87bc4177 22f54b9


b326cba 65ccb7




0xc257b521c7f edb0e190c a7603c45844dc ff43af69ac fb44186b4582a



522bf1eb dbdfbeb8d3b 4065575


0xc87bc4177 22f54b9


b326cba 65ccb7




0x3c29763f0dd 68928d31

07cca3dc62a07 3319d938

dc402d0e7013 d93e96cf4 7df

0xf93ccaa9e7 4ca67f32 946d90a60a7

4cf0e651 3d2

0xc87bc4177 22f54b9


b326cba 65ccb7



Table 4. Transaction based on same Contract Address with different gas used

Block No

Transaction Hash

Contract Address


Gas Used






0xc87bc41772 2f54b9








326cba 65ccb7




















326cba 65ccb7




0xf0ec312619b2bd 1ee309 67ea97adecbaad7c add16 bbefb217508c8db5 5797f4






0xc87bc417722f 54b9

3f2cb675088b3 26cba 65ccb7





0x21e9b9f2624f33 932a2a 85b0e848d73fd686 d469cc 446c765f6f0e149c4







0xc87bc417722f 54b9

3f2cb675088b3 26cba 65ccb7




0x3c29763f0dd689 28d31

07cca3dc62a07331 9d938

dc402d0e7013d93e 96cf47






0xc87bc417722f 54b9

3f2cb675088b3 26cba 65ccb7




Fig7. Gas Used and Number of Transactions

Below is the table that shows comparison between Traditional Paper-based Land Registry System, the Existing System and our Proposed System. Table shows how our method have made the throughout system so easy and cost- effective by combing Blockchain and QR Code

Table 5. Comparative table between Traditional, Existing and Proposed System

Multiple bodies managing the current system

Multiple bodies managing the current system

Single body can manage this system.

Transaction done through cash

No such system exists

Less amount of gas fee is used during transaction through blockchain

Verification needs multiple witnesses

Verification needs at least 2 witnesses

Verification is done through OTP and Aadhaar No, no need of witness

Traditional Paper-based Land Records System

Existing System

Our Proposed System

Wastage of investment in resources for maintaining physical records

Lack of technical competency.

Hybrid Blockchain (Provide Privacy and Transparency).

Poor handling of records which leads to errors or missing records

Lack of physical infrastructure – downtime.

Distributed Ledger which provides 24/7 service, no downtime.

Not secured

Chances of data loss or hacking

QR Code generation of your land records

Lack of technology to keep track of records

Complex system with inaccurate information.

QR and Blockchain technology is used to keep track of records

Paper work was there

Multiple web portals with less synchronization.

Single-mode of access. (synchronized)


An attractive and potentially useful approach to building a trustworthy land register system is the suggested combination of QR code with blockchain technology. Analyzing the current literature makes it clear that conventional land register systems encounter major problems with inefficiency, secrecy, and fraud. But these problems can be solved by using QR codes and blockchain technology, which are transparent, immutable, and secure. An efficient, transparent, and secure land registration system that improves the quality of real estate transactions is detailed in the recommended system architecture. Stakeholders may access, verify, and amend property records in an auditable and tamper-proof manner by assigning unique QR codes to properties and utilizing blockchain technology for data storage and transaction

processing. By automating several steps in real estate transactions, smart contracts streamline procedures while decreasing room for fraud and human mistake. In addition, the suggested system's usability, security, scalability, and usefulness can be better understood by comparing it to current blockchain-based solutions.

To guarantee that the proposed system is up to par with industry standards and provides real advantages to stakeholders like government agencies and property owners, it is important to identify best practices and lessons gained from past implementations. An innovative approach to updating land registry systems that would improve the efficiency, security, and openness of property transactions is the suggested combination of QR code and blockchain technology. Stakeholders may fully use these technologies through thorough planning, implementation, and continuous review to build a land registration system that supports social equity and sustainable development by making it more inclusive, accessible.


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