 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 130
 Authors : Anusuya Baby.H, Christo Ananth
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS030404
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 03 (March 2014)
 Published (First Online): 15032014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
SBox using AES Technique
H. Anusuya Baby1, Christo Anantp
1(PG Scholar/ECE, Francis Xavier Engineering College/ Anna University , India)
2(Assistant professor/ECE, Francis Xavier Engineering College/ Anna University , India)
Abstract To design a substitution box (SBOX) using both encryption and decryption. From that, the proposed system can achieve a higher throughput and higher energy efficiency. The SBOX is designed by using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES is a symmetric key standard for encryption and decryption of blocks of data. In encryption, the AES accepts a plaintext input, which is limited to 128 bits, and a key that can be specified to be 128 bits to generate the Cipher text. In decryption, the cipher text is converted to original one. By using this AES technique the original text is highly secured and the information is not broken by the intruder. From that, the design of SBOX is used to protect the message and also achieve a high throughput , high energy efficiency and occupy less area.
Keywords Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Substitution Byte, Cryptography.
I.INTRODUCTION
Cryptography is a technique which is used to protect the information. In 1997 the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a branch of the US government, started a process to identify a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES). It was generally recognized that DES was not secure because of advances in computer processing power. The goal of NIST was to define a replacement for DES that could be used for nonmilitary information security applications by US government agencies. Of course, it was recognized that commercial and other nongovernment users would benefit from the work of NIST and that the work would be generally adopted as a commercial standard. The NIST invited cryptography and data security specialists from around the world to participate in the discussion and selection process. Five encryption algorithms were adopted for study. Through a process of consensus the encryption algorithm proposed by the Belgium cryptographers Joan Daeman and Vincent Rijmen was selected. Prior to selection Daeman and Rijmen used the name Rijndael(derived from their names) for the algorithm. After adoption the encryption algorithm was given the name Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which is in common use today.
In 2001, the National Institute of standards and Technology (NIST) found the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Technique. It can be implemented in hardware. There are a lot of disadvantages in DES Technique. It is insecure and the message is easily broken by the intruder. AES Technique has been widely used in a variety of applications such as secure communication systems and high throughput data servers.
.
The AES encryption algorithm is a block cipher that uses an encryption key and a several rounds of encryption. A cipher key is an encryption algorithm that works on a single block of data at a time. In the case of standard encryption technique the data is 128 bits, or 16 bytes, in length. The term
rounds refers to the way in which the encryption algorithm mixes the data reencrypting it ten to fourteen times depending on the length of the key.
AES encryption uses a single key as a part of the encryption process. The key can be 128 bits (16 bytes), 192 bits (24 bytes) or 256 bits (32 bytes) in length. The term 128bit encryption refers to the use of a 128bit encryption key. With AES both the encryption and the decryption are performed using the same key. This is called a symmetric encryption algorithm. Encryption algorithm uses two different keys that is public and a private key. Both are called asymmetric encryption algorithm key technique. An encryption key is simply a binary string of data used in the encryption process. Because the same encryption key is used to encrypt and decrypt data, it is important to keep the encryption key as a secret and to use the keys that are hard to guess. Some keys are generated by software used for this specific task. Another method is to derive a key from a pass phrase. Good encryption systems never use a pass phrase alone as an encryption key.
The previous techniques used in the encryption are parallel mix column and one target one process. The parallel mix column occupies more area and delay. The one term process also occupies more area and delay. So the complex parallelism is introduced.. By using this technique , a higher energy efficiency is achieved and also delay reduction is possible. This technique is applied for so many applications like military purpose, computer password and so on.
The reminder of this paper is organized as follows: section 2 explains the basic types of encryption. The encryption types involve the brief explanation about four techniques which we have given in the abstract. Section 3 presents the complex parallelism. The section also explains the cyclic loop of this mechanism. Section 4 discuss the simulation results of one target one process, parallel mix column and Complex parallelism.

TECHNIQUES INVOLVE IN ENCRYPTION
AES is a symmetric encryption algorithm, and it takes a 128bit data as a input and performs several rounds of transformations to generate output cipher text. It is a computer security standard issued by NIST for protecting the electronic data. The basic processing unit used in this AES algorithm is byte. AES is used to encrypt/decrypt data
blocks of 128bits and it can be implemented in both hardware and software. AES acts as a block cipher which operates on fixed length group of bits of data. AES is a stream cipher which means the plain text bits are encrypted one and set of transformations have been applied to the bits. It may vary during encryption process. The plain text input and cipher output are the blocks of 128 bits. The number of rounds depend on key size. Each 128bit is processed in a permutation and rotation operation. There are different techniques involved in this encryption.

Substitution Byte:
It is a non linear substitution byte. Each Byte is replaced by another byte. This substitution Byte uses SBOX for generating the cipher text. This Sbox involves two process. First one is used to take the multiplicative inverse of finite field of the matrix (i.e input data). Secondly, the Affine Transformation is applied to the output of multiplicative inverse. Area reduction is possible in this finite field and finite field is used to create a compact field AES implementation. In new technology, the SBox can be obtained from its truth table by using two level logic such as sum of products and product of sum. If the above mentioned technology is used , the primitive logic cells can be reduced and also cell size can be optimized using synthesis tool. The S Box is computed from inverse of input to the original input. The example of Affine Transformation is given by
Consider an example, 4X4 matrix is a input text and [s1 s2 s3 s4] is the inverse of the input . the remaining one [ 0 1 1 0 ] is a cipher key. The output is a [ z1 z2 z3 z4 ]. The input is multiplied with inverse of input with a cipher key and the output is obtained. The inverse input is the multiplicative inverse of the given input matrix. The example of Substitution Byte is given below.
Operation of Substitution Byte

Shift Row:
The technique used in this model is the transformation of the row. Consider a 4×4 matrix, the first row of the matrix remains unchanged. The second row , first bit is shifted to the last one. Then the last one is shifted to the third plce. Finally the third row and forth row is finally rotated. The message is shuffled. In otherwords, The row transformation can be expressed as a reconstruction of the matrix using an key expression for each element. The row expressions calculate circular transformation .The example of shift row is given below.
Example of Shift Row input

Mix Column:
Operation of Shift Row
Example of Substitution Byte input
During this process, the matrix of the input column is shuffled. From that, the message is unbroken. It is similar to Substitution Byte. It uses the polynomial function. It is also based on finite field multiplication. The Mix column is based
on the multiplication of two matrices and xor operation of both input and cipher key.
Example of Mix Column input
Operation of Mix Column

Add Round Key:
The sender sends a message to the receiver using a password (i.e key). The key is known by both sender and receiver. The key is added to the input ( which is in the form of cipher text ). The message is not hackable by any other intruders and also the information is more shuffled and secure.


ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM TECHNIQUES
The different types of technique involve in this encryption and decryption. There are three techniques

One Target and One Process:
The input is fed to the add round key. so the key is mixed with input (i.e cipher text). Then the output of the add round key is shuffled with sub byte, shift row, mix column and add round key. This process is repeated upto nine times. Then the ouput is processed with key elongation process. The output of key elongation is send to the final stage add round key. Finally the cipher text is generated from the plain text by using this OTOP technique.

Parallel Mix Columns:
The OTOP model is easily hackable by intruder. So the efficiency of OTOP model is small. This process is similar to the OTOP model. The input is fed to the add round key (i.e cipher text). The output is fed to the sub byte and shift row.
The output of the shift row is added to the parallelizing mix column for shuffling the message. Then the output is added to the add round key. The process is repeated for nine times. The key elongation process is applied to the final stage output. The efficiency of parallel mix column is much higher than OTOP model. The area reduction is possible in this parallel mix column.

Complex Parallelism:
The input is fed to the four main blocks that is replacement bye, row transformation, shuffle the column and xor operation with key. The process is simulated upto nine times. The process is optimized with complex parallelism and the message is secure with cipher keys.
Fig 1: Complex Parallelism
First the input is fed to the xor operation with key. The process involves in this stage is inserting a key to the input data. Then we have to send the data to replacement byte. Parallelizing the replacement byte is used to secure the message. The message is much more shuffled by combining the replacement byte. Then the next one is row transformation. This is used to transfer or shift the data. Then the next step is shuffle the column. It is used to shuffle the input with key. this is done by polynomial function. Then the last one is xor operation with key. The input is xored with key. The process is repeated upto nine times for shuffling the message. Finally the original text is covered by cipher key and the output of the data is cipher text(only with cipher keys). The cipher text information is unbroken by any other intruder. Finally the cipher text text input is given to the reverse process of complex parallelism. The original message is received by the Sbox. Thus The information is secured by using complex parallelism.
IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The information is encrypted by using complex parallelism. The simulation results of OTOP model and Parallel Mix Column are discussed below. Finally the encrypted output of complex parallelism is also given below.

One Target One Process:
The input is a 128bit. The plain text is given to the OTOP encryption key. The cipher text is generated by using cipher
keys. The OTOP model involves the process of SubBytes, Shift Row, Mix Column and Add Round key. All the above process is used to perform the message shuffling purpose. The permutation and rotation process are done by using the key elongation process. The message is secure and the information is shuffled for security purposes. The number of LUTs are reduced by 0.8%. Then the number of occupied slices are decreased by 0.9%. The gate count is increased in this OTOP model.
Fig 2: Compilation of OTOP model
The figure 2 shows the compilation of OTOP model. The area utilization is 81% in this OTOP model. The delay is calculated in the comparison table for area efficiency.

Parallel Mix Column:
The input is a 128bit. The plain text is given to the Parallel Mix Column encryption key. The cipher text is generated by using cipher keys. The Parallel Mix Column model involves the process of SubBytes, Shift Row, Mix Column and Add Round key. All the above process is used to perform the cyclic rotation for rotating the input keys . The key elongation process is done by using key rotation. The message is safe and the information is shuffled for security purposes. The number of LUTs are reduced by 0.9%. Then the number of occupied slices are decreased by 0.9%. The gate count is increased in this Parallel Mix Column model.
Fig 3: Compilation of Parallel Mix Column
The figure 3 shows the compilation of Mix Column. The area utilization is 96% in this Parallel Mix Column. The path route delay is calculated
F.Complex Parallelism:
Fig 4: Compilation of SBox
The design of SBox is used to the protect the message. The figure 4 shows the compilation of substitution byte. The above figure shows the shuffling of message and also elongating the key.
Fig 5: Encrypted data of Complex Parallelism
The figure 5 shows the proces of complex parallelism encryption. It will show the complex parallelism process. The process involves the operation of one task one processor, Parallel Mix columns and complex parallelism.
Fig 7: Decrypted data of Complex Parallelism
It implements in 167 processor using complex parallelism technique. The process is the combination of various techniques like Substitution Byte, Shift Row Mix Column and Add Round Key. The message is secure and the delay is reduced by other methods. The figure 6 and 7 show the compilation of complex parallelism. The delay of complex parallelism is small compared to other techniques.
Fig 8: Compilation of Complex Parallelism
The above simulation results discuss the detailed description of three models. The comparison table of area and delay are discussed in the below section. The table 1 discusses the comparison of area with LUTs and route path. The table 2 discusses the comparison of delay with path and route delay.
TABLE 1: Comparison of Area
Encryption Name
LUT
Route Path
OTOP model
21658
11
Parallel Mix Column
21658
11
Complex Parallelism
21634
5
The OTOP model occupies more LUT in the hardware implementation. The number of gates in the OTOP model is very high .The parallel mix column occupies less LUT compare to OTOP model and high compare to complex parallelism. The number of gates occupied in the hardware is same as the OTOP model. The complex parallelism technique occupies less LUTs for hardware implementation. The number of paths in the complex parallelism are less
compared to the both previous model. The path delay and route delay is efficient in the complex parallelism compared to the OTOP model and Parallel Mix Column.
TABLE 2: Comparison of Delay
Encryption Name
Delay
Gate Delay
Path Delay
OTOP model
307.909ns
105.862ns
202.047ns
Parallel Mix Column
232.742ns
116.830ns
115.912ns
Complex Parallelism
232.245ns
116.683ns
115.562ns

CONCLUSION
In this brief, cryptography AES technique is presented to protect the information. To increase the efficiency, the complex parallelism technique is used to involve the processing of Substitution Byte, Shift Row, Mix Column and Add Round Key. Using S Box complex parallelism, the original text is converted into cipher text. From that, we have achieved a 96% energy efficiency in Complex Parallelism Encryption technique and recovering the delay 232 ns. The complex parallelism that merge with parallel mix column and the one task one processor techniques are used. In future, Complex Parallelism single loop technique is used for recovering the original message.

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