fbpx

Role of artificial intelligence and data mining techniques in defence forces using global positioning v


Call for Papers Engineering Journal, May 2019

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Role of artificial intelligence and data mining techniques in defence forces using global positioning v

Abstract

P.Hemalatha

IFET College of Engineering and technology No.12 M.G.Road,Muthialpet

Pondicherry 9597828707

hemadec4@gmail.com

This paper deals with the implementation of datamining methods for guiding the path of the Aircrafts. The implementation uses a Global Positioning System(GPS) which helps in identifying the area in which the airplane is currently flying. The weather report on that area is compared with the existing database and the decision is made in accordance with the output obtained from the Data Mining technique. This decision about the weather condition of the flying path is then instructed to the

airplane. This paper highlights some statistical themes and lessons that are directly relevant to data mining and attempts to identify opportunities where close cooperation between the statistical and computational communities might reasonably provide synergy for further progress in data analysis. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM(GPS) provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver enabling the receiver to compute position,velocityandtime

DATA MINING

  1. INTRODUCTION

    In Data classification one develops a description or model for each class in a database, based on the

    features present in a set of class-labeled training data.

    Data Mining means decision-making and data extraction. It also generates prediction mechanism from the available history. This implementation uses the Classification Models of Data Mining techniques.Data mining is a process of inferring knowledge from such huge data. Data Mining has three major components

    . In classification/clustering we analyze a set of data and generate a set of grouping rules which can be used to classify future data.

    An association rule is a rule which implies certain association relationairplanes among a set of objects in a database. In this process we discover a set of association rules at multiple levels of abstraction from the relevant set(s) of data in a database.

    In sequential Analysis, we seek to discover patterns that occur in sequence. This deals with data that appear in separate transactions (as opposed to data that appear in the same transaction in the case of association).

  2. CLASSIFICATION MODEL

    There have been many data classification methods studied, including decision-tree methods, such as C4.5, statistical methods, neural networks, rough sets, database-oriented methods etc. Using the training set, the Classification attempts to generate the description of the classes and these descriptions help to classify the unknown records. In addition to the training set, we can also have a test data set which is used to determine the effectiveness of a classification. The goal of the Classification is to build a concise model called Decision Tree that can be used to predict the class of the records whose class label is not known.

  3. DECISION TREES

    A Decision tree is a Classification scheme, which generates a tree and a set of rules, representing the model of different classes, from a given data set. The set of records available for developing Classification methods is generally divided into two distinct subsets- a training set and a test set. The former is used for deriving the classifier, while the latter is used to measure the accuracy of the Classifier. The

    accuracy of the classifier is determined by the percentage of the test examples that are correctly classified.

    This implementation uses the ID3 algorithm of the Classification Model to generate the Decision Tree.

    THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS

    The US Global Positioning System (GPS) consists of a constellation of 24 satellites that emit radio signals for reception by specially designed devices. The GPS transmitter transmits the information regarding the latitude and longitude of the location where it is located to the satellite, which is then sent by the satellite to the receiver. If signals from one or more of these satellites are picked up by a GPS receiver, it can determine its

    location with high, reliable accuracy. The orbits are arranged such that there are, in fact, always at least 4 satellites visible from any point on the surface of the earth.

    Effectively, the satellite signal is continually marked with its own transmission time so that when received, the signal transit period can be measured with the synchronized receiver.

    Figure 1:System Design

    The satellites are so far out in space that the little distances we travel here on earth are insignificant. So if two receivers are fairly close to each other, say

    within a few hundred kilometers, the signals that reach both of them will have traveled through virtually the same slice of atmosphere, and so will have virtually the same.

  4. DESCRIBING THE SCENARIO

    Steps involved:

    1. The GPS transmitter is placed in the airplane and its receiver is placed in the instructing station.

    2. The analyzed weather report database is the training data.

    3. The Decision Tree is constructed for the Training Data.

    4. The GPS transmitter in the airplane sends the information regarding the latitude and longitude of its current location to the nearby satellite.

    5. This satellite in turn sends this information to the satellite which is closer to the instructing station.

    6. The receiver present in the instructing station receives the GPS data from it.

    7. The weather information for that particular location is collected.

    8. The Decision Tree is traversed using this weather information and the required information is obtained.

    9. This predicted decision is then sent to the airplane and the airplane flying accordingly.

  5. THE REAL PICTURE:

    Cloudy

    81

    75

    false

    Safe

    Rainy

    71

    80

    true

    Unsafe

    Rainy

    65

    70

    true

    Unsafe

    Rainy

    75

    80

    false

    Safe

    Rainy

    68

    80

    false

    Safe

    Rainy

    70

    96

    false

    Safe

    Figure 2:Implementation

  6. CONSTRUCTION OF DECISION TREE:

    ID3 and C4.5 are algorithms introduced by Quinlan for inducing Classification Models, also called Decision Trees, from data. We are given a set of records. Each record has the same structure, consisting of a number of attribute/value pairs.

    One of these attributes represents the goal of the record, i.e. the attribute whose values are most significant to us. The problem is to determine a decision tree on the basis of answers to questions about the non-goal attributes predicts correctly the value of the goal attribute. Usually the goal attributes take only the values {true, false} or {success, failure}, or something equivalent. In any case, one of its values will mean failure.Here, we are dealing with the records reporting the weather conditions for instructing the airplane for its safe navigation. The goal attribute specifies whether or not to move forward.

    The non-goal attributes are: and the training data is:

    Notice that in this example two of the attributes have continuous ranges, temperature and humidity. ID3 does not directly deal with such cases, though below we examine how it can be extended to do so. A decision tree is important not because we hope it will classify correctly new cases. Thus when building classification models one should have both training data to build the model and test data to verify how well it actually works.

  7. BASIC IDEAS BEHIND ID3

    • In the decision tree each node corresponds to a non-goal attribute and each arc to a possible value of that attribute. A leaf of the tree specifies the expected value of the goal attribute for the records described by the path from the root to that leaf. [This defines what is a decision tree].

    • In the decision tree at each node should be associated the non-goal attribute which is most informative among the attributes not yet considered in the path from the root. [This

    Climate

    Temp (F)

    Humidity(

    %)

    Stormy?

    Class

    Sunny

    75

    70

    true

    Safe

    Sunny

    80

    90

    true

    Unsafe

    Sunny

    85

    85

    false

    Unsafe

    Sunny

    72

    95

    false

    Unsafe

    Sunny

    69

    70

    false

    Safe

    Cloudy

    72

    90

    true

    Safe

    Cloudy

    83

    78

    false

    Safe

    Cloudy

    64

    65

    true

    Safe

    establishes what a good decision tree is].

    Entropy is used to measure how informative is a node. [This defines what we mean by good].

  8. DEFINITIONS

    If there are n equally probable possible messages, then the probability p of each is 1/n and the information conveyed by a message is log (p) = log (n). [All logarithms are in base 2]. That is, if there are

    16 messages then log (16)=4 and we need 4 bits to identify each message.

    Gain is

    In our example, for the Climate attribute the

    In general, if we are given a probability distribution P = (p1, p2pn) the information conveyed by this distribution, also called the Entropy of P, is: I(P) = – ( p1 * log(p1) + p2 * log(p2)

    +.+ pn * log(pn) )

    For example, if P is (0.5,0.5) then I(P) is 1, if P is (0.67,0.33) then I(P) is 0.92, if P is (1,0) then I(P) is

    0. The more uniform is the probability distribution, the greater is its information.

    If a set T of records is partitioned into disjoint exhaustive classes C1,C2,,Ck on the basis of the value of the goal attribute, then the information needed to identify the class of an element of T is info(T) = I(P), where P is the probability distribution of the partition (C1,C2,,Ck):

    P = ( |C1| / |T|, |C2| / |T|,, |Ck| / |T|)

    In the training set T, Info (T)=I (9/14,5/14)=0.94.

    If we first partition T on the basis of the value of a non-goal attribute X into sets T1, T2 ,,Tn then the information needed to identify the class of an element of T becomes the weighted average of the information needed to identify the class of an element of Ti, i.e., the weighted average of Info(Ti) : n

    Info(X,T)= 7 {(|Ti| / |T|) * Info(Ti)} Here,

    Info (Climate ,T) = 5/14 * I(2/5,3/5) + 4/14 * I(4/4,0) + 5/14 * I(3/5,2/5) = 0.694

    Consider the quantity Gain(X,T) defined as Gain(X,T)=Info(T) Info(X,T)

    This represents the difference between the information needed to identify an element of T and the information needed to identify an element of T after the value of attribute X has been obtained, that is, the gain in information due to attribute X.

    Gain(Climate, T) = Info(T) Info(Climate, T) = 0.94

    0.694 = 0.246. Similarly,

    Gain (Humidity, T) = 0.151 Gain(Stormy, T) = 0.048 Gain(Temperature, T) = 0.029

    We can use this notion of gain to rank attributes and to build decision trees where at each node is located the attribute with greatest gain among the attributes not yet considered in the path from the root.

    The intent of this ordering is to create small decision trees so that the records can be identified after only a few questions.

  9. THE ID3 ALGORITHM

    The ID3 algorithm is used to build a decision tree, given a set of non-goal attributes C1,C2,,Cn, the goal attribute C, and training set T of records. functionID3(R: a set of non-goal attributes,

    C: the goal attribute,

    S: a training set) returns a decision tree; Begin If S is empty, return a single node with value Failure;

    If( S consists of records all with the same value for the goal attribute),

    return a

    single node with that value;

    If R is empty, return a single node with as value the most frequent of the values of the goal attribute that are found in records of S; [note that there will be errors, that is, records that will be improperly classified];

    Let D be the attribute with largest Gain(D,S) among attributes in R;

    Let {dj | j=1,2,,m} be the values of attribute

    D;

    Let {Sj | j=1,2,,m} be the subsets of S consisting respectively of records with value dj for attribute D;

    Return a tree with root labeled D and arcs labeled d1,d2,,dm going respectively to the trees

    ID3( R – {D}, C, S1), ID3( R – {D}, C,

    S2),, ID3( R – {D}, C, Sm);End ID3;

  10. CONCLUSION

The weather report of the airplanes location is made to traverse the Decision Tree and the corresponding decision is passed to the airplane for its safe navigation. Thus this implementation, which uses many advanced concepts such as Data Mining and Global Positioning Systems, can also be extended for ships,Vehicle Tracking, Submarines, etc.

REFERENCES:

  1. UCLA Data Mining Laboratory http://nugget.cs.ucla.edu:8001/main.html

    IBM QUEST Data Mining Project

  2. http://www.almaden.ibm.com/cs/quest/ind ex.html

  3. Data Mining at Dun & Bradstreet http://www.santafe.edu/~kurt/text/wp9501/w p9501.shtml

  4. GPS Overview, by Peter.H.Dana. http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/no tes/gps/

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *