Review of Tourism Impacts and Its Categorization for Planning and Development


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Review of Tourism Impacts and Its Categorization for Planning and Development

Ar. Harsimran Chadha

Ph.D. Scholar,

Dept. of Architecture and Planning Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology

Bhopal, India

Dr.Preeti Onkar

Associate Professor,

Dept. of Architecture and Planning Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology

Bhopal, India

AbstractThe tourism industry is a global phenomenon. It is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Modern tourism is closely linked to development. The initiatives of tourism development put impact on native people, local business and environment. Knowing the some depressing impact of tourism development result, present study explores the different type of tourism development impacts and categorizes into positive and negative classes of impacts. Study aims to explore impact of tourism on the development of local people. It presents types of impacts and also discusses the required initiatives to intensify these impacts in a positive manner on local community. The study is based on literature review and content analysis. The study concludes the tourism development initiatives has both positive as well as negative impacts. Researchers, planner, developers and other stakeholders need to promote positive impacts and work to rise above the negative impacts.

KeywordsDevelopment; Impact; Tourism; Impact typology

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Over the last century [1], Tourism industry is one of the largest and fast growing sectors in the world [2] in terms of employment and income generation [3]. Tourism has emerged as the largest global industry of the 20th century and is projected to grow even faster in the 21st century in terms of international trading [1]. It is promoted as a means of development and economic growth [4]. World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) has identified tourism as a engine for economic progress, keeping in view its profound contribution to the world economy which has almost doubled from the 1990s [3]. Governments worldwide are endorsing tourism development plans and spending billions in the process [4]. Over the decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and deepening diversification. It is big business and will continue to grow. Tourism is alive with dynamic growth, new activities, new destinations, new technology, new markets and rapid changes [5]. More development and promotion of tourism is expected in near future with considerable role of information, communication and technology. This would bring the revolutionary change in tourism phenomena.

    The tourism sector is one of the largest service industries in India [6]. It is the second largest foreign exchange earner in India. The tourism industry employs a large number of people, both skilled and unskilled. It promotes national integration and international brotherhood [7]. Modern tourism is closely linked to development and encompasses a growing number of new destinations. These dynamics have turned tourism into a

    key driver for socio-economic progress [8]. Many countries have developed tourism as a major source of national income. Some of the smaller countries like Singapore, Mauritius, Seychelles, Indonesia and Philippines depend largely on income from tourism. It is predicted that travel and tourism will be one of the worlds highest growth sectors in this century [9]. Tourism industry is constantly in search of new products to satisfy a demand that is increasingly selective, fickle, fashion prone and sophisticated [10]. Tourism has always been seen as a veritable tool for development as its significance has been recognized in the developed, developing and less developed countries, although managing cultural resources has been a problem in their countries [11]. Developing countries benefit a great deal from tourism industry. Tourism is viewed as an environmentally friendly way to revitalize distressed rural communities and economies [12]. Thus the role of tourism in developing countries like India having almost two-third rural population is significant for its development.

    The development and promotion of tourism is viewed as a source of new employment, revenues, additional taxes, foreign exchange, and an enhancement to community infrastructure that will in turn attract other industries. Tourism creates jobs, provides new business opportunities and strengthens local economies. Beside employment generation, tourism sector has played a pivotal role in poverty alleviation and sustainable human development [3]. It is also regarded as an important means to benefit local communities [13]. Former studies has shown that multiple benefits arising from the social, cultural and environmental aspects of tourism including renovated recreational facilities, a wider offering of leisure activities, a cleaner community appearance, better preservation of historical buildings and other cultural assets add a value for better quality of life in general [14]. Thus the potential of tourism need to explore for the development of community. Tourist destinations and activities should be planned, prepared and experienced in the way that they do not do any harm to local community and their culture, environment and ecosystem while still being profitable.

  2. OBJECTIVE, SCOPE AND STUDY MATERIALS The existing literature on tourism is found to be

    inadequate to the dimension of issues, problems and prospects of development through tourism. It is beyond doubt that the theory of tourism lags behind tourism practice. In order to decrease such a gap, theoretical work in tourism has been intensified over the last two decades. The key problems of

    research include: analysis, interpretation, and management of heterogeneous effects of tourism development [15]. The subject of tourism in this generation has attracted the concerns of many scholars. This has been attributed to the developmental role that tourism has played [11]. Tourism as a field of study has lagged behind other fields of social inquiry in the development and application of both theory and methodology. From the previous research, there is a need to fill this gap of the impact of tourism activity in developing country contexts [16]. Tourism impact research provides planners a data base with which to develop a planning process aimed at utilizing local concerns and issues. Thus present study is devoted and aims To explore impact of tourism on the development of local people. The primary reason to identify tourism impacts is to also identify the potential negative impacts of tourism development, and determine ways for tourism development to benefit all community residents. Study scope identifies tourism impacts within different categories through literature review. It presents different types of impacts and discusses the required initiatives to strengthen these impacts in a positive manner on community. The study review literature and perform content analysis. It concludes the tourism development initiatives has both positive as well as negative impacts. Researcher, developers, planners and other stakeholders need to promote positive impacts and work to rise above the negative impacts.

  3. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Tourism can be described as a form of nomadism that characterised Homo sapiens, which is both normal and under the right conditions, pleasurable [11]. The known definitions of tourism is divided into two categorizes; the conceptual definition of tourism, dealing with the core meaning of tourism, and the technical definition of tourism, focused on evaluating and measuring the value of tourism which is particularly variable in different counries [17]. Both of these two definition combined explain the scope of tourism and its development. The tourism field is in a unique position to pro- mote the sustainable development movement as it operates within the economic, social, and environmental systems of communities [18]. It imposes impacts on these in different manners. There is a need to identify and understand the tourism impacts to promote optimistic development results.

    1. Impact of Tourism

      Tourism is a highly differentiated phenomenon; its effects are therefore commensurately varied [19]. It is claimed that the stage of development of tourism management as a discipline may be related to the claims of the tourist industry as a pressure group and the lack of adequate academic attention to the economic dis-benefits and the environmental and socio-cultural costs-benefits of tourism [20]. Jafari (1986) observed that tourism research of the 1960s focused on the positive aspects of tourism, the 70s emphasized the negative, while the 80s had a balance level and systematic approach. Tourism has a lot of positive and negative impacts on the local level such as providing alternative sources of income to local communities [21], new employment, revenues, additional taxes, foreign exchange, and an enhancement of community infrastructure that will in turn attract other industries, on the one hand, and social, cultural

      or environmental destruction, an alleged meagerness of actual benefits, an inequality of benefit distribution, high social costs and potential for social disruption. Tourism plays a great role towards socio-economic changes. According to Indian sentiment the pilgrim centres used to visit by number of tourists to earn virtue [22]. Rapid unplanned development, coupled with large numbers of tourists, has caused adverse impacts on cultural and natural resources. Tourism is also said to have the highest multipliers. A tourism multiplier is the total effects (direct, indirect and/or induced) divided by the direct effects of tourism. This concept is based on the recirculation of income: recipients use some of their income for consumption spending, which then results in further income and employment [23]. Tourism is an important catalyst in the socio-economic development in the modern times, contributing in multiple ways and strengthen the inter- connected processes. While often portrayed as panacea for many evils such as underdevelopment, unemployment, poverty eradication, social discrimination and so on; its contribution in creating a global and regional socio-political environment for peaceful co-existence of the cultures and societies has been equally established at various levels [24]. Tourism is an important activity that has been present across the world for ages. Notwithstanding its numerous merits and benefits, tourism has its weaknesses and shortcomings too [25]. Tourism contributes to income generation, new employment, and often helps diversify the local economy. On the other hand, mass tourism in particular has been known to bring negative impacts to host communities [26].

      Different literature discusses different type of tourism impacts. Broadly these impacts might be categorized into classes of positive-negative, direct-indirect and singular- multiple impacts. Satashia (2014) and Pandey (2014) both talk about the multiplier effect of tourism [23][24]. The multiplier effect of tourism is the total effect of direct, indirect or induced impact of tourism. Thus these categories could be together discussed with the category of direct and indirect. The singular positive impact might have multiple positive impacts while not have negative impacts similarly singular negative impacts might have multiple negative impacts while not have positive impacts. Vehbi in 2012, classified tourism in three titles; economic, socio-cultural and physical (natural and built) and also display their positive and negative features [1]. Thus categorization of tourism impacts could be discussed separately but mutually inter-related with different categories also.

    2. Tourism Impacts Typology

      Since anthropologists and sociologists first turned their attention to tourism in the 1970s, there have been a variety of attempts to classify particular types of tourism. Cohen (1978) identifies important tourism impacts on many spheres e.g, economic, social and cultural [19]. Williams (1979) defined three types of impact: economic, social, and environmental/physical [27]. In 2012 Vehbi, classified tourism in three titles; economic, socio-cultural and physical (natural and built). Moreover, these titles may respectively display positive and negative features [1]. The literature review made by Kim and others (2013) revealed that tourism impact can be analyzed from different perspectives:

      economic, social, cultural, and environmental [28]. Liu & Li (2018) divided tourism impacts into three dimensions of economic, socio-cultural, and environmental [16]. The impact of tourism is being studied from last five decades and its typologies are also being classified into different classes of economic impacts, social impacts, cultural impacts, environmental impacts and physical impacts of development. Based on literature review tourism impacts were collected in these five classes as discussed below.

      1. Economic

        Tourism is an economic activity that generates trade and business, and is considered one of the most productive sectors of the global economy [29]. The economic impact covers employment opportunities, increases income [30] [27] [31] [1] [18] [23] [25] [16]; opportunities for local business activities [27] [28], services [31] [1]; increase in household and cottage industries [25]; strength of the local economy, revenue for local government, retail business and funding for public services and infrastructure [18] [31] [1] [23], increases investment [28] [25] [16]; dispersion of development to non- industrial regions; increase in exports [25]; standard of living

        [27] [18] [28] [25]; increases citys overall tax revenues, foreign exchange earnings; increase in national income; redistribution of national income [25] [16]; operation of the multiplier effect [23] [25]; increment in prices and fees of tourism products and services [32] [28] [16]; inflation, congestion, environmental degradation [30]; Cost of living, property value, rent, rates, taxes, increases real estate property prices [27] [18] [31] [28] [25] [16]; improves living utility infrastructure (supply of water, electric, telephone etc.), raises the price of services [27] [16]; price of land increases too [28]; leakages in income; rise in density of population; high foreign exchange outflows [25]; benefits to non-locals; artificial shortages; wasteful use of resources including water; conversion of agricultural land; drop in agriculture and traditional fishing as livelihood options; pressure of mass and unplanned tourism on infrastructure and natural resources etc [25].

        In a broad context, progress of tourism development contributes to both profits and costs to the local economy as higher demand from tourists. Economic impact categories typically represent the level at which the impact is believed to occur (e.g., direct, indirect, and induced). The direct impacts signify resident interactions directly with tourists. The indirect impacts stand for the benefit to suppliers to the direct parts. The induced impact is the impact of tourism arising from spending of revenue occurring to the host community from tourism profits and wages [33] as well as whether the impacts are perceived to be positive or negative. Direct positive impacts, then, are those which occur as a direct consequence of travel and tourism activity within an area (e.g., employment). Indirect positive impacts occur as the recipients of those direct impacts spend part of their receipts upon goods and services required to supply travel-related industries. Induced impacts include the consumption spending of those receiving wages and salaries from tourism-related employment. Directand indirect negative economic impacts sometimes can be attributed to tourism development [30]. For years, many within the tourism

        industry have drawn the publics attention only to the positive economic impacts for which tourism claims responsibility. Recently, increased attention has been focused on acknowledging and addressing the negative economic impacts which often accompany travel and tourism [30]. The growth of the tourism industry has had significant impact on the economic development of related industries such as accommodation, transportation, leisure, services and hospitality. Community support is necessary to ensure the economic sustainability of the industry [13]. The economic impacts of tourism on an area can be understood at two different levels- the national level and the local level.

      2. Social

        Social impacts involve the more immediate changes in the social structure of the community and adjustments to the destinations economy and industry. It is frequently mentioned that tourism creates adverse impacts on the daily life of local people in destination communities. The tourism work patterns, its unsociable working hours and its adjustments to seasonal priorities inevitably influence the established order of daily life that has in the past been based on a different timetable. The changes in occupational and leisure time of locals may create negative impacts on intra- familial relationships, such as tensions and discontent between married couples, which in turn may lead to frictions and even separations or divorces, impact on population structure, transformation of forms and types of occupations [27]. In many countries, tourism has been turned into an important tool for regional economic growth and development although in reality, the desirable effects are not equitably distributed [13]. Understanding the social impacts of tourism on communities is extremely important for government at all levels so that action can be taken to reduce the likelihood of a community backlash against tourists and tourism development [31].

        The social impact covers attitude towards work, courtesy & hospitality towards strangers, mutual confidence / sincerity among people, honesty in any commercial exchange, morality, improved public health, amenity improvements, education, host culture destruction and debasement, social instability, consumerism, changes in the law and social order, commercialized host-visitor relationships, changes in value systems, individual behavior, family relationships, collective lifestyles, [27]; opportunity cost, facility maintenance, interesting things to do, disruption, pride, delinquent behaviour, showcase effect, access denied, justice [31]; alter the composition of the population [27]; displace agriculture and result in migration from villages and mountain communities to tourism areas [27]; crowdedness in public areas [28]; change in fashions, entertainment, morals and sexual permissiveness [34]; crime, gambling, sexual permissiveness, brawls, drug addiction, vandalism, prostitution, sexual harassment, illegal games [27] [31] [28]; rowdy behaviour [31]; begging, uprooting traditional society, and causing deterioration of the traditional culture [28]; rise in unhealthy competition, discontentment and uneasiness, forced changes and adjustments, changes in the local languages, demonstration effect, denial of access to locals on beaches, unhealthy lifestyles, increase in lifestyle diseases,

        HIV infections, prostitution, pedophilia and trafficking, operation of mafias, disturbance in traditional family life [25]; causes value distortion among the youth, provides education opportunities, creates opportunities for leisure activities, leads to moral degradation due to cultural differences, gives rise to cheating/ fraud, improves police service, improves fire protection, provokes school dropouts [16].

        Rapid and intensive tourist development causes a local boom; particularly in developing countries such a boom can attract rural migrants in search of employment opportunities and thus contribute towards the creation of new slum and squatter areas [19]. These tourism promotion and development creates social change. Pizam and Milmans (1984) classification identifies six categories of social impacts and provides examples of their components. These impacts are demographic (size of population, age, pyramid changes), occupational (change of occupation, distribution of occupations), cultural (changes in tradition, religion, language), transformation of norms (values, morals, sex roles), modification of consumption patterns (infrastructure, commodities), and impact on the environment (pollution, traffic congestion) [35]. There is the social perspective of tourism impact, both positive and negative.

      3. Cultural

        Travis (1982) identifies indicative costs and benefits arising from the socio-cultural impacts of tourism [20]. Pearce emphasized that the social impact of tourism will vary according to the differences between the visitors and the visited, whether in terms of numbers, race, culture, or social outlook". There may be several host cultures, as well as several tourist cultures represented at one place, at one point in time, so one cannot see cultural impacts, simply in monolithic terms of the 'host culture' and the 'visitor culture' [20]. Cultural impacts focus on the longer-term changes in a societys norms and standards, which will gradually emerge in a communitys social relationships and artifacts [27]. Originally underpinned by anthropology and qualitative paradigms, culture and organisational culture studies have moved through the gamut of quantitative methods to determine the constructs that impact on culture in much the same way as research into social impacts [31].

        The social impact covers cultural development (modernization) and exchange, social change and choice, improved image of host community, conservation, positive cultural interchange and political modifications, changes in traditional values, political destabilization, moral conduct, creative expressions, traditional ceremonies and community organization, transformation of values, influence on traditional lifestyle, modification of consumption patterns [27]; opportunity for shopping, entertainment and intercultural interactions [27]; Image of the city [27]; community quality of life, attracting restaurants, shops, festivals, cultural and sporting events [18]; revitalizing cultures when dying customs are rejuvenated for tourists [28]; Culture consists of the learned ways of behaving accumulated by many men over many generations [23]; disruption of traditional cultural structures, behavioral patterns [23]; conservation of cultural events, sites and skills, first-hand

        knowledge of foreign cultures, easy acceptance of social differences, removal of prejudices; commercialization of traditions, dilution of cultures, development of artificial culture, loss of identity, disruption of personal relations, socio-culturally inappropriate imitation of foreign lifestyles, changes in food and local cuisine, destruction of heritage sites [25]; increase in pried in cultural identity, preserves cultural value, provides opportunity for interacting with tourists, raises interest in maintaining and preserving historic buildings and archaeological sites, stimulates cultural activities [16].

      4. Environment

        Little attention has been paid in most parts of the world to the environmental effects of tourism development, by entrepreneurs or governments alike. In the long run, tourism, contributes to environmental destruction. The available literature indicates that the environmental impact of tourism might eventually be more detrimental in the developing countries than it has been in the developed ones. The development of tourism stirred the authorities of developing countries into an awareness of the economic as well as aesthetic or cultural value of their environments and led them to institute measures of environmental protection [19]. Fundamenal relationship exists between the environment and tourism. The environment, natural or built, is the most fundamental ingredient for tourism development. Inskeep (1991) indicates, there are three aspects of the tourism- environment relationship. These are: many features of the physical environment are consistently to be attractions for tourists; tourism facilities and the infrastructure constitute all

        aspects of the built environment; and tourism development

        and tourist use of an area generates an environmental impact [1]. With regard to the positive impact, some believe that tourism helps create a greater awareness of the need to preserve the environment by capturing its natural beauty for tourist purposes and increasing investments in the environmental infrastructure of the host country [28]. Studies on the negative environmental impacts of tourism have included pollution of air, water, ground, noise pollution, loss of peace and quiet; damage to or even destruction of heritage resources and degradation of heritage quality; resource- depletion-of minerals and soils; land-use loss from agriculture, forestry, pastoral use to built-up areas; Impact of and damage to landscape by infrastructure development and form the scale of superstructure development; ecological impacts, damage to ecosystems ripple effects on physical environments; loss of fauna and flora: visitor numbers and visitor pressures displacing fauna/reducing coverage and types of residual flora; increased urbanization and covert urbanization due to tourism; visual impacts on landscape and townscape of forms of physical development [20]. All human activities, including travel and tourism decisions, are now being carefully considered for their impacts on the environment [36]. Deery and others (2012) identified litter, threat on local wildlife activity and natural environment as the negative impact of tourism [31]. Studies of the environmental impact of tourism focus on tourism development, stress, and preservation. Tourism also causes environmental pollution, the destruction of natural resources,

        the degradation of vegetation, and the depletion of wildlife [28]. Pandey (2014) classify broadly five kinds of impacts of tourism on the environment: Effect of pollution; Loss of natural landscape, agricultural and pastoral land; Destruction of flora and fauna; Degradation of landscape, historic sites and monuments; and Effects of congestions [23]. The environmental impacts covers increases overcrowding, causes pollution, leads to agglomerations of public facilities tourism spoils the seashore, helps preserve natural resources, improves the appearance of the city and damages natural landscape [16].

      5. Physical

        The number of tourists visiting a locality, the length of their stay, the things they do and the facilities at their disposal determine the intensity of tourist site-use and of the accompanying development of the locality for tourism. The floating population of tourist in tourist places asks for temporary as well as permanent infrastructure. The physical implementation of infrastructure and services for tourism development creates positive as well as negative impacts covering rise in land-prices, intensive pattern of land- utilization, sky-scraper hotels, high-rises of flats for vacationers and commercialized entertainment facilities provoke a process of intensive urbanization of the heart of the tourist area. It may equally well affect the approach areas and the staging areas, tendency for commercial developments attracting the passing tourist (e.g. motels, gas stations, amusement and recreational facilities) to pop up along the approach roads to major tourist areas which are often scenic routes, preferred, owing to their attractiveness, to more direct approaches [19].

        The key physical impacts are periodic crowding and congestion, the costs and damage of traffic congestion and crowding, accidents, effects of increased and excessive accessibility [20]; opportunities to upgrade facilities such as outdoor recreation facilities, parks, roads, thus reducing crowdedness in theatres, movies, concerts, and athletic events [28]; increases parking problems, increases traffic accidents [16]; development of infra-structural facilities [22]; demand for public services are e.g. health, police, fire services increases [31]. One of the most important and obvious effects due to tourism has been on settlements. Tourism has been responsible for the creation of many settlements [23]. Residents living closer to the central tourist zone are far more concerned about tourism development impacts, although their overall attitudes towards tourism are positive [16]. The physical impact can often lead to an increase in the services provided, but can also lead to longer queues and waiting times. Beside that standard of maintenance of public facilities such as beaches, parks and roads and public transport has been suggested to maintain. Physical impact of tourism were also discussed at regional level. The physical apperance of the region, style of architecture on the region, character of the region were the impact of tourism at physical regional level.

    3. Literature Review Findings

    From above literature review it is clear that different research have different classification of tourism development impacts. Broadly these impacts have been classified into five

    typologies. These might be further categorized into these different categories of positive-negative, direct-indirect and singular-multiple. All these categories has overlapping impacts, thus literature review findings are being summarized into two categories of positive and negative to achieve the research aim. There is a need to overcome negative impacts of tourism and make it positive for public welfare. Some governments are now starting to realize that the welfare of the public should be considered along with the needs of tourists and investors. When attempting to maximize the benefit for a specific community, a planner should gather information about individuals who stand to gain economically from the development, those who are currently using the resource to be developed, those who are attached to their community and those with strong environmental attitudes [13]. Research into the impacts of tourism has gone through a number of stages of development [31]. Deery and others (2012) examined the progress of tourism impact research, presented the key findings from the research undertaken to date and proposed an additional stage of research with the aim to provide a deeper understanding of why some impacts are more important to residents than others [31].

    Tourism can bring both positive and negative impacts to local residents. Tourism impact can be divided into categories of positive and negative impacts coving all impacts without any overlapping. For the positive impacts, it is believed that tourism can give economic benefits to local people, business and environment. On the negative side, resident perceptions believed that tourism can destroy the natural environment, cause traffic problems, overuse of public facilities & amenities, increased prices of goods and services and increase the value of real estate. Since impact could be both positive as well as negative it is of great significance to the tourism planners as they should control the negative impacts and promote the positive ones. The positive and negative impacts of tourism development existed from various perspectives that include economic, social, cultural, environmental, and physical are listed below based on literature review.

    Category

    Positive Impacts

    Negative Impacts

    Economic Impact

    Increased expenditures, Employment creation and job opportunities, Enhancing income level, Increased in labour supply, Increased in standard of living, Increased in investment & development, More options of goods and services, Trade and income stimulation, Improves local ecnomy, Increases opportunities for shopping, Foreign exchange earnings, Rise in gross national product, Increase in taxation revenue, Regional export income

    Inadequate estimation of cost of tourism, Increased amount of import (labor or goods), Seasonality of production and so low rate of return on investment, Localized inflation, Real Estate speculation, Failure to attract tourists, Capital outflows, Increased inflation and higher values, Creation of additional costs for basic services, Problems related to foreign capital investments, Leakage of expenditure out of local community, Increases price of goods and services, Increases price of land housing

    Increases cost of living

    Social Impact

    An improvement in social services, Improvement of local public services, Improve quality of life, Introduce the benefits of

    Commercialization of activities which may be of a personal or private nature, Modification of nature of event or activity to accommodate tourist, Potential

    Category

    Positive Impacts

    Negative Impacts

    Economic Impact

    Increased expenditures, Employment creation and job opportunities, Enhancing income level, Increased in labour supply, Increased in standard of living, Increased in investment & development, More options of goods and services, Trade and income stimulation, Improves local economy, Increases opportunities for shopping, Foreign exchange earnings, Rise in gross national product, Increase in taxation revenue, Regional export income

    Inadequate estimation of cost of tourism, Increased amount of import (labor or goods), Seasonality of production and so low rate of return on investment, Localized inflation, Real Estate speculation, Failure to attract tourists, Capital outflows, Increased inflation and higher values, Creation of additional costs for basic services, Problems related to foreign capital investments, Leakage of expenditure out of local community, Increases price of goods and services, Increases price of land housing

    Increases cost of living

    Social Impact

    An improvement in social services, Improvement of local public services, Improve quality of life, Introduce the benefits of

    Commercialization of activities which may be of a personal or private nature, Modification of nature of event or activity to accommodate tourist, Potential

    TABLE I. IMPACT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON COMMUNITY

    Category

    Positive Impacts

    Negative Impacts

    interactions between people

    increased in crime &

    of different regional

    prostitution, Change in

    backgrounds, Attract

    community structure

    younger people to areas of

    Social dislocation, Create a

    tourism development,

    degree of apathy between

    Increasing the education

    tourists and Locals, Increases

    standards and health

    tension, hostility, conflicts and

    standards of the people,

    suspicion, Increased

    Encourage healthier

    dependence on foreign tourists,

    lifestyle, Potential increased

    Terrorism and security issue,

    in safety, Increased social

    Religious intolerance,

    contacts, new ideas, new

    Aggressive advertising

    values, and new ways of

    campaigns, Undesirable

    life, Education and learning

    opportunity cost including

    aided, Increased social

    transfer of fund from health and

    range and experience,

    education,

    Improvement in public

    Introduction or expansion of

    awareness of environmental

    gambling, prostitution,

    issues

    drunkenness drugs, theft, petty

    crime

    Strengthening traditional

    Effects the tradition , cultural

    values and traditions,

    practices of the local people,

    Preservation of the identity

    Host culture debasement,

    of local culture, Increased

    Unacceptable rate and scale of

    knowledge of host culture

    cultural conflict and change,

    by visitors, Awareness of

    Damage to cultural systems and

    its music, cuisine and arts,

    to cultural resources, Minority

    and possibly language,

    languages at risk, Cultural

    Improved reputation and

    commercialization and

    visibility of host

    commodification of society,

    community, Promotion of

    Pressures to change social

    Cultural

    traditional entertainment,

    values, dress, mores, habits and

    Impact

    demand for traditional art,

    behavioural norms, Folk art

    crafts and music, Boost for

    becomes airport junk-art,

    heritage protection, Cultural

    Deeper values and ideals at risk,

    interchange, peace and

    Loss of original state and

    understanding, New

    stability, Loss of cultural pride,

    experiences, new ideas, new

    Status relationship between host

    cultures, Helps for

    and guest cultures changes,

    maintenance of the

    Hostility, debase, diseases

    historical buildings,

    introduced, Increasingly mass

    monuments, museums, art

    entry of visitors makes contact

    and galleries etc.

    diminish and relationship

    meaningless

    The creation of parks areas,

    The loss of vegetation, The

    The depletion and

    general spread of garbage and

    Environment

    contamination of water

    litter, Trampling of plant and

    Impact

    resources, Improvement in

    reduction in local bio-diversity,

    quality of Environment

    Pollution – Sea water, air, noise,

    waste and visual pollution

    Development of new

    Environmental damage and

    facilities, Improvement of

    Change in natural process,

    local infrastructure,

    Architectural pollution,

    Conservation of historical,

    Destruction of heritage,

    cultural heritage, natural

    Degradation of historic sites,

    green areas, Conservation

    and Monuments, Overcrowding,

    of the Restoration of the old

    Congestion, Traffic jams,

    fabric, Improvement of the

    Changed feeding and breeding

    areas appearance (visual,

    habit of wild life, Deterioration

    architectural and aesthetic),

    and reduction of green fields,

    Physical Impact

    Restrict and control traffic, Development of an infrastructure such as

    Loss of natural landscape, open space, Demolition of the traditional townscapes because

    transport, road

    of tourist facilities,

    maintenance, organizing

    Overpowering building size and

    parking areas and

    style, Use of inappropriate

    maintenance of resources,

    building materials on external

    Development of public

    surfaces, Obstruction of scenic

    utilities that even available

    view by development,

    for non tourism users,

    Insufficient Planning Controls

    Improves transport

    infrastructure, Opportunity

    of regional development

    Category

    Positive Impacts

    Negative Impacts

    interactions between people

    increased in crime &

    of different regional

    prostitution, Change in

    backgrounds, Attract

    community structure

    younger people to areas of

    Social dislocation, Create a

    tourism development,

    degree of apathy between

    Increasing the education

    tourists and Locals, Increases

    standards and health

    tension, hostility, conflicts and

    standards of the people,

    suspicion, Increased

    Encourage healthier

    dependence on foreign tourists,

    lifestyle, Potential increased

    Terrorism and security issue,

    in safety, Increased social

    Religious intolerance,

    contacts, new ideas, new

    Aggressive advertising

    values, and new ways of

    campaigns, Undesirable

    life, Education and learning

    opportunity cost including

    aided, Increased social

    transfer of fund from health and

    range and experience,

    education,

    Improvement in public

    Introduction or expansion of

    awareness of environmental

    gambling, prostitution,

    issues

    drunkenness drugs, theft, petty

    crime

    Strengthening traditional

    Effects the tradition , cultural

    values and traditions,

    practices of the local people,

    Preservation of the identity

    Host culture debasement,

    of local culture, Increased

    Unacceptable rate and scale of

    knowledge of host culture

    cultural conflict and change,

    by visitors, Awareness of

    Damage to cultural systems and

    its music, cuisine and arts,

    to cultural resources, Minority

    and possibly language,

    languages at risk, Cultural

    Improved reputation and

    commercialization and

    visibility of host

    commodification of society,

    community, Promotion of

    Pressures to change social

    Cultural

    traditional entertainment,

    values, dress, mores, habits and

    Impact

    demand for traditional art,

    behavioural norms, Folk art

    crafts and music, Boost for

    becomes airport junk-art,

    heritage protection, Cultural

    Deeper values and ideals at risk,

    interchange, peace and

    Loss of original state and

    understanding, New

    stability, Loss of cultural pride,

    experiences, new ideas, new

    Status relationship between host

    cultures, Helps for

    and guest cultures changes,

    maintenance of the

    Hostility, debase, diseases

    historical buildings,

    introduced, Increasingly mass

    monuments, museums, art

    entry of visitors makes contact

    and galleries etc.

    diminish and relationship

    meaningless

    The creation of parks areas,

    The loss of vegetation, The

    The depletion and

    general spread of garbage and

    Environment

    contamination of water

    litter, Trampling of plant and

    Impact

    resources, Improvement in

    reduction in local bio-diversity,

    quality of Environment

    Pollution – Sea water, air, noise,

    waste and visual pollution

    Development of new

    Environmental damage and

    facilities, Improvement of

    Change in natural process,

    local infrastructure,

    Architectural pollution,

    Conservation of historical,

    Destruction of heritage,

    cultural heritage, natural

    Degradation of historic sites,

    green areas, Conservation

    and Monuments, Overcrowding,

    of the Restoration of the old

    Congestion, Traffic jams,

    fabric, Improvement of the

    Changed feeding and breeding

    areas appearance (visual,

    habit of wild life, Deterioration

    architectural and aesthetic),

    and reduction of green fields,

    Physical Impact

    Restrict and control traffic, Development of an infrastructure such as

    Loss of natural landscape, open space, Demolition of the traditional townscapes because

    transport, road

    of tourist facilities,

    maintenance, organizing

    Overpowering building size and

    parking areas and

    style, Use of inappropriate

    maintenance of resources,

    building materials on external

    Development of public

    surfaces, Obstruction of scenic

    utilities that even available

    view by development,

    for non tourism users,

    Insufficient Planning Controls

    Improves transport

    infrastructure, Opportunity

    of regional developent

  4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Tourism is the most important social phenomenon of the

present century. It has been recognized as one of the most

reliable indicators of socio-economic growth in any part of the world. Thus, the practice of responsible tourism in any form cannot be ignored or overlooked. Many communities encourage the development of tourism as a means to improve the quality of life for residents. The main focus of development activities usually lies in the economic benefits; the tourism industry can bring to the community in the form of tax revenues, jobs, and additional sources of income. However, researchers who have examined resident reactions have found that the most serious effects involve not only economic value to the community but also changes to the quality of life from a social perspective. There is a long list of tourism development impacts in literature. Based on literature review, it could be classified into five types of economic, social, cultural, environmental and physical impacts. The classification of tourism impacts were also discussed into categories of direct-indirect, positive-negative and singular- multiple etc. These three bases of categories are overlapping. To improve the impact of tourism development, all impacts were categorized into positive and negative classes after identification of typology. Positive impacts need to promote while after identification of the cause of negative impacts these should be overcome.

For a tourism based economy to sustain itself in local communities, the residents should have willing partners in the process. Their attitudes toward tourism and perceptions of its impact on community life must be continually assessed. Tourism enhances local community identity and esteem. It provides the opportunity to improve understanding and communication between people of diverse backgrounds. Tourism increased knowledge of host culture by visitors. Awarness of its music, cuisine and arts, and possibly language. It improved reputation and visibility of host community to outsiders. It increases social contracts, new ideas, new values, new ways of life.

As the success of tourism in many regions is so dependent on the support of the local community, it is vital that tourisms impact on the host community is understood, monitored and managed. To manage the impact of tourism on the local community, it is essential that its impact not exceed limits deemed as acceptable within the community. Understanding the reasons why certain behaviours and outcomes of tourists impact upon members of the local community is needed so that appropriate management strategies can be put in place. As the mass tourism is declining and specific types of tourism are growing, there is a need to create a specific group of indicators for each type of tourism in order to monitor and maintain its sustainability.

Most type of tourism and its various components of the natural and cultural environment are inseparably related and tourism development must be planned accordingly. No economic development should take place unless linked with environmental protection, and the resulting joint development should be entirely compatible with local values and culture. Development should serve local needs. A systematic analysis of tourism impacts can help government, planners, local decision makers, and tourism promoters identify real

concerns and issues in order for appropriate policies and action to take place. Studies of local populations perception of tourism impacts are useful in setting up programs to minimize friction between tourists and residents, helping government to understand the social impacts.

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