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Reinforcing Data Security in E-Health Cloud


Call for Papers Engineering Journal, May 2019

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Reinforcing Data Security in E-Health Cloud

M. Janaki

Research Scholar, Bharathiar University, Assistant Professor, Dr.Umayal Ramanathan College for

Women, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India.

Dr. M. Ganaga Durga

Research Supervisor, Bharathiar University, Assistant Professor, Government Arts College for Women,

Sivaganga, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract – Cloud offers cost-effective services to the business enterprises. E-Health Cloud allows the storage of patient records in the remote data centre. Although it gives more benefits to the user, the security issues prevents the cloud usage for storing and sharing cloud resources. More and more researches is needed in this area to develop trust worthy security solutions which will solve the problem of security issues. The main security problem is ensuring data confidentiality of data at rest or data during transfer in the cloud. The privacy of communications between the physician, pharmacist and patient at tenders is very important which can be provided with disassembling the data before transmission. This paper proposes that cryptography will be a better solution for securing patient data stored or shared in the E-Health cloud.

Keywords – Cloud Computing, Security issues, Data Security, Cryptography, E-Health Cloud.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Computing becomes a model that consists of services delivered on demand, similar to traditional utilities such as water, electricity, gas and telephony such services are accessed by the users based on their need by ignoring where the services are hosted are how they are delivered. Cloud computing is such a paradigm that delivers utility computing and enable the users to accesses the application from anywhere in the world. The cloud offers several benefits like fast pay for use, scalability, data storage solutions, lower cost

    , and rapid elasticity[1]. Though the cloud offers several advantages still there are some risks that makes it unreliable. Cloud computing moves the user data to the large data centers, where the management of data and services are not to truth worthy. The security challenges posses by the cloud or data confidentiality, data integrity, data loss and theft identity management and issues related to authentication[2] . Though cloud computing provides better resource utilization using virtualization techniques and which reduces much of the work load from the user, it is fraught with security risks. To address the problem, in this paper we explore a solution based on cryptography. Cryptography is the art of secret writing which enables as to hide the sensitive data in the cloud. Hence the confidential data should be encrypted before storing it in the cloud and it can be decrypted during the retrieval[4].

  2. MODELS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

    The term Cloud was coined from the computer network diagrams which is used to hide the a complexity of the infrastructure involved cloud computing is an internet

    based delivery model which provides a services, computing and storage for the users in all their areas including financial health care and government. There are five main characteristics makes the cloud computing model as a better technology[3]. The first characteristics of the cloud computing is On-demand self-services without long delays. The second characteristics is Broad network access via standard platforms such desktop, laptop, mobile etc. The Third characteristics resource pooling across multiple customers . The fourth one is rapid elasticity which meets the maximum demand . And last one is the measured service that is pay per use.

    1. Deployment Models

      Cloud can be deployed into three categories such as public cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud. The public cloud is a general cloud in which a service provider makes a resources such as applications and storages available to a general public over the internet. The main advantages of using a public cloud services are maximum scalability and minimum cost[6]. The disadvantage of using public cloud is the security risks which makes it unreliable. So storing sensitive information in the pubic cloud should be avoided. The private a cloud is the personal cloud created a and operated by single organization. The advantage is its reliability since the uses belongs to the single organization. The disadvantage is minimum scalability which can serve only for limited customers and expensive. A hybrid cloud will combine several private clouds and public clouds to share data. It enjoys the combined advantages both private and public clouds but very hard to make it reliable[8]. Maintaining data confidentiality and controlling the access requires additional techniques.

    2. Delivery Models

    Cloud computing utilizes the three delivery models by which different type of services or delivered to the end user. The three delivery models are Software as a Service(SaaS) , Platform as a Service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)[7]. SaaS is a software deployment model where application are remotely posted by the service provider and made available to the users on demand over the internet. This models offers improved operational efficiency and reduced cost The challenges faced by SaaS is customers concerned about data security because vulnerability in the applications will lead to loss of sensitive data and money. IaaS is a infrastructure deployment model which provides hardware resources such as Virtual servers and allows to pay

    only for the resources used. The small business organizations need not invest heavy amount to upgrade hardware resources since IaaS offers this in affordable cost. IaaS provides basic level security but it requires higher level of security[9]. PaaS is a platform deployment model which offers integrated set of developer environment which includes Os and Middle ware. This model abstracts a everything away from the view of developers and provides a complete software development life cycle management from planning design, building application, testing to maintenance. The dark side of PaaS is its advantages itself can be helpful for a hackers to go behind IaaS application.

  3. SECUCRITY ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING Usually users depend on cloud providers for the

    security measures. The cloud service providers should protect one users data from other users. The following a key elements should be carefully consider before application development and deployment process during the cloud usage. The security issues are Data security , Network Security , Data locality, Data integrity, Data segregation, Data access , Authentication and Authorization , Data confidentiality , Backup and Identity Management[10] .

    The cloud service provider must adopt additional security checks to ensure data security through the use of strong encryption techniques and fine-grained authorization to control access of data. All data flow over the network has to be secured to prevent leakage of sensitive information, which can be achieved using strong network traffic encryption techniques[11]. Consumers use the application provided by the cloud and process their business data. But they dont know where the data is getting stored due to data privacy loss a various country locality of stored data becomes an issue hence service provider must be able to provide exact location of data of the customer.

    Data integrity is easily achieved in a standard alone system using data base constraints and transaction. In order to maintain data integrity in a distributed system a Central Global transaction manager can be used. Each application in the distributed system sould participate in the global transaction through a resource manager. Multiple users can be stored their data using applications provided by SaaS, which makes data of various users to reside at the same location. Actually this allows intrusion of data of one user by another user through hacking[13]. Hence a boundary must be fixed for each users data and segregating data of different users is archived. Most of the small and medium business company are storing their employee information in some Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Servers Each organization have its own security policy to denote who among the employees have access to a particular set of data the SaaS model must be flexible to accept a policies given by the organization the SaaS customers must be remembered to disable accounts as employees leave the company and enable the accounts as come on board[12].

    Cloud computing involves the sharing or storage of personal information buy the users on remote servers

    operated by service providers the confidentiality of personal and sensitive information is a serious issue that must be taken care. All sensitive data enterprise data is regularly backed up for quick recovery in case of dishausted strong encrypt schemes can be used to protect the backup data from accidental leakage of sensitive information Identity management deals with controlling the users access to the resources through the established identities.

    1. Data Security In Cloud

      Encryption is a method of hiding data so that it cannot be read by anyone who does not know the key. The key is used to lock and unlock data. To encrypt a data one would perform some mathematical functions on the data and the result of these functions would produce some output that makes the data look like garbage to anyone who doesn't know how to reverse the operations [14]. Encryption can be used to encrypt files that the owner feels are too sensitive for anyone else to read. Private Key means that the same method is used to encrypt and decrypt. If someone knows what method was used to encrypt the message then that person can decrypt the message. Private Key encryption has the benefits of being very fast. A disadvantage to private key cryptography is that the key must be communicated beforehand. Public key cryptography is also known as asymmetric cryptography which was created to eliminate the shortcomings of private key cryptography [15]. The biggest advantage of public key cryptography is that no prior communication needs to take place between the recipient and the sender. Public key cryptography works like this, everyone has two keys, a public key, which the entire world has access to, and a private key, which only the owner knows.

  4. E-HEALTH CLOUD

    In the past, health care providers (such as the family doctor) have stored medical records of their patients on paper locally. This allowed a controlled environment with easy management of data privacy and security: keeping the paper records in a locked cabin at the doctors practice. Even the increasing use of personal computers and modern information technology in medical institutions allowed for a moderate effort to manage privacy and confidentiality of individual medical records. This was due to the decentralized and locally managed infrastructure of each institution. But nowadays outsourcing of IT infrastructure (e.g., cloud computing) and other services (e.g., billing processing and accounting for medical practices) leads to a complex system where privacy-sensitive data are stored and processed at many different places. Hence, it becomes attractive to store and process healthcare data in the cloud (at outsourced data providers that can be accessed via the Internet). While such e- health systems promise a more cost-efficient service and improved service quality, the complexity to manage data security and privacy increases, too.

    The users involved in this cloud are: Health professional: person who delivers health care services, e.g., physician, dentist, pharmacists, etc. Health care provider : organization that provides services of health professionals,

      1. ., doctors practice or hospital. Personal Health Record (PHR): database of medical data objects and health-related data managed by a patient. Electronic Health Record (EHR): database of medical data objects and health-related data managed by health professionals.

  5. NEW DIRECTIONS

    Ultimate goal is to find the approach to share patient records across the e-health cloud by preserving data confidentiality. For this we can use a cryptographic technique to provide a data security on data storage. The new approach is named as E-HealthCloudSec which concentrates on protecting patient data through encryption before storing at in the cloud and perform decryption to retain the original data during retrieval. The steps involved in this approach are,

        1. To develop a system that will provide security to E-Health cloud storage

        2. To establish an encryption techniques for disguising the patient data on the cloud

        3. To develop the decryption technique for retrieving the original patient record from the cloud

        4. To generate and manage the keys used for encryption and decryption efficiently

        5. To check authentication of users before allowing for encryption or decryption

  6. CONCLUSION

For E-Health cloud, the fundamental challenge is securing the patient data. A better solution for securing patient data is using strong encryption techniques. Several encryption algorithm either symmetric or asymmetric is available today. From which algorithm can be chosen individually, two or more algorithms can be combined, a new encryption algorithm can be created, existing algorithm can be revised. Not only the encryption algorithms is important, key generation and management is also to be done efficiently for successful results. Once a better cryptography approach along with good key management concepts is created then E-Health cloud can be utilized effectively without any security fraught.

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